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Oracle Database Consolidation Noel Yuhanna. Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Agenda Current environment Why Consolidate? How to Consolidate? Challenges.

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Presentation on theme: "Oracle Database Consolidation Noel Yuhanna. Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Agenda Current environment Why Consolidate? How to Consolidate? Challenges."— Presentation transcript:

1 Oracle Database Consolidation Noel Yuhanna

2 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Agenda Current environment Why Consolidate? How to Consolidate? Challenges and Guidelines Resource Manager – OS and Database Steps in using DB Resource Manager Benchmark results Recommendations How to proceed?

3 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Current Environment Finance Financial Analyzer General Ledger Cash Management Treasury Purchasing Payables Receivables Fixed Assets eTravel Self-Service Expenses Self-Service Purchasing Financials Human Resources Payroll Training Administration Time Management Advanced Benefits Self-Service Human Resources Human Resources Supply Chain Management Order EntryPurchasing Product ConfigurationSupplier Scheduling Supply Chain Planning Inventory Web SuppliersAdvanced Planning & Scheduling Supply Chain Manufacturing Engineering Bills of Material Master Scheduling/MRP Capacity Work in Process Quality Cost Management Process Manufacturing Project Manufacturing Flow Manufacturing Advanced Planning & Scheduling Manufacturing Projects Project Costing Project Billing Project Time & Expense Activity Management Gateway Project Connect Project Analysis Collection Pack Projects

4 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Instances.. (all over) Test Production UAT Training Development

5 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna How many Instances? 10 … 100 … 1000 … “ One database per application …”

6 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Typical server utilization.. 20% 10% 60% 5% 50% Average utilization = 30% Unused system resources ! Target = 80-90%

7 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Why Consolidate? Reduce TCO – License, staff, consulting Improved availability -SLAs Higher Security Data Sharing & visibility Globalization Better application performance Centralized backup and archive Higher ROI – higher utilization Bottom line = reduce TCO by 20% or more

8 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Challenges … High short-term costs Skilled resources Potential loss of data Ability to architect Testing consolidation efforts Understanding your workload Loss of security control Predicting the growth Performance issues Central point of failure

9 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Various types of consolidation Location Consolidation Data center/Centralized office Better Manageability Server/Storage Consolidation Reduce # of Servers Use of SAN storage Better performance/scalability Application/Database Consolidation Reduce # of Instances Better Availability/performance/scalability

10 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Database consolidation Single Database Multi-Instance HR Financials Payroll

11 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna How to consolidate? Single Database Separate Schema Assign roles and responsibility Reconfigure Database Size Reconfigure Application New Schema

12 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna How to consolidate? Multi-Instance Database migrates as separate Instance Co-exists with other instances on same server Reconfigure Application New Instance Existing Instance Financials Payroll

13 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Single database approach Pros Provides data sharing Less support and higher productivity Higher resource utilization & better SLA ’ s Cons Outage can impact multiple applications Difficult to consolidate – application dependencies DBA support – space management Recommendations Useful if applications are closely inter-related

14 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Multi Instance approach Pros Each instance is independent Some applications require separate instance Helps reduce number of servers Oracle performs well under multi-instance env Cons Each instance competes for system resources No. of databases still remain same Cannot optimize individual server or OS Can only provide one level of availability, recoverability etc Recommendations Group databases with similar SLA Multi domain Servers – useful for consolidation

15 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Multi Instance on OS Cluster Pros Easy to deploy Each instance is independent Utilizes idle node in cluster Provides high availability – failover capability Cons No. of databases still remain same Complex environment to manage Requires lots of testing Recommendations Ensure each node is not over 70% utilized

16 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna What is Oracle 9i RAC ? SGASGA SGASGA Cluster Interconnect Server Shared Storage Oracle Instance Server Oracle Instance

17 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna RAC Features Availability Failover Scalability No application changes 4-6 Nodes Cluster Manageability No special training or tools No partitioning necessary

18 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Consolidation using RAC DB Shared on existing RAC environment Utilizes nodes in cluster more efficiently Provides high availability for multiple apps Support larger databases DB HR FIN

19 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Guidelines for consolidation Understand the workload Application dependencies – integration issues SLA requirements for the application Hardware/database limit – scalability Performance expectations Data Security Use Resource Manager technology

20 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Resource Manager Enables DBA/SA to allocate system resources Scheduling mechanism to track CPU time Policy based administration Operating System level HP (PRM) Solaris (Resource Mgr) Database level Oracle Database resource manager

21 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna OS level Resource Manager Manage critical shared resources CPU, Memory, Disk Groups processes/threads into various classes Allocate CPU time to classes Grouping done by name, owner, process id Supports dynamic reconfiguration Ensures critical processes gets priority Limitations: It does not understand DB processes

22 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Oracle DB Resource Manager Offered since Oracle 8i Can guarantee users minimum resources Can switch users between groups Limit the degree parallelism Distribute available CPU time to users Can specify maximum number of sessions Prevent execution when operation takes longer Can change resource plan dynamically

23 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Oracle DB Resource Manager Resource plan Specifies how resources are distributed among users Resource consumer Group Group user sessions Can be changed dynamically Resource plan directive Assign consumer groups to resource plans

24 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Oracle DB Resource Manager Oracle Enterprise Manager DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER PL/SQL Package PLAN: Create,update,delete,cascade CONSUMER_GROUP: Create,update,delete PLAN_DIRECTIVE:Create,update,delete PENDING_AREA:Create,validate,clear,submit SWITCH:set_initial,switch groups System Privileges: Grant, revoke – Package/Switch

25 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Oracle 9i Resource Manager Enhancements Automatic consumer group switching Maximum estimated execution time Limit the number of concurrent users -Queue Undo Quota – operation aborted

26 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Resource Plan Consumer GroupCPU-L1CPU-L2 ONLINE80%0% REPORT0%60% ADMIN10%0% BATCH0%40% How to plan ?

27 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Steps involved 1. Create resource Plans 2. Create resource consumer groups 3. Create resource plan directives 4. Grant privileges to users/role 5. Assign users to resource consumer groups 6. Specify a plan to be used by the database 7. Monitor the database environment

28 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Step 1. Create Pending Area Create a pending area DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CREATE_PENDING.AREA; Validate changes DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.VALIDATE_PENDING.AREA; Clear changes DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CLEAR_PENDING.AREA; Submit changes DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.SUBMIT_PENDING.AREA;

29 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Step 2. Create Resource Plans DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CREATE_PLAN( PLAN => ‘ plan_name ’, COMMENT => ‘ Comment here ’ ); Example: DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CREATE_PLAN( PLAN => ‘ SIEBEL_PLAN ’, COMMENT => ‘ Plan for Siebel DB Server ’ ); * Can update, delete a Plan.

30 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Step 3. Create Resource consumer groups DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CREATE_CONSUMER_GROUP( CONSUMER_GROUP => ‘ group_name ’, COMMENT => ‘ Comment here ’ ); Example: DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CREATE_CONSUMER_GROUP( CONSUMER_GROUP => ‘ OLTP ’, COMMENT => ‘ Group for OLTP users ’ ); * Can update, delete consumer groups

31 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Step 4. Resource plan directives DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CREATE_PLAN_DIRECTIVE( PLAN => ‘ Plan name ’, GROUP_OR_SUBPLAN => ‘ Name of consumer group or plan ’, COMMENT => ‘ Comment here ’, CPU_P1 => ‘ Specifies CPU % at 1 st level …. UPTO 8 ’, PARALLEL_DEGREE_LIMIT_P1 => ‘ Limit on Parallelism ’ ); Example: DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CREATE_PLAN_DIRECTIVE( PLAN => ‘ SIEBEL_PLAN ’, GROUP_OR_SUBPLAN => ‘ OLTP ’, COMMENT => ‘ Plan directive for OLTP users ’, CPU_P1 => 80, PARALLEL_DEGREE_LIMIT_P1 => 4);

32 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Step 5A. Granting privileges DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER_PRIVS.GRANT_SWITCH_CONSUMER_GROUP( GRANTEE_NAME => ‘ grantee name ’, CONSUMER_GROUP => ‘ Consumer group name ’, GRANT_OPTION => ‘ True/False ’ ); Example: DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CREATE_CONSUMER_GROUP( GRANTEE_NAME => ‘ NOEL ’, CONSUMER_GROUP => ‘ OLTP ’, GRANT_OPTION => ‘ TRUE ’ );

33 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Step 5B. Initial setup for users DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.SET_INITIAL_CONSUMER_GROUP( USER => ‘ user name ’, CONSUMER_GROUP => ‘ Initial consumer group ’ ); Example: DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.SET_INITIAL_CONSUMER_GROUP( USER => ‘ NOEL ’, CONSUMER_GROUP => ‘ OLTP ’ );

34 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Step 5C. Switching sessions/users DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.SWITCH_CONSUMER_GROUP_FOR_SESS( SESSION_ID => ‘ session_id ’, SESSION_SERIAL => ‘ session serial number ’, CONSUMER_GROUP => ‘ group_name ’ ); DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.SWITCH_CONSUMER_GROUP_FOR_USER( USER => ‘ User name ’, CONSUMER_GROUP => ‘ group_name ’ ); Example: DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.SWITCH_CONSUMER_GROUP_FOR_USER( USER => ‘ NOEL ’, CONSUMER_GROUP => ‘ OLTP ’ );

35 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Step 6. Activate the Plan Persistent (init.ora) RESOURCE_MANAGER_PLAN = “ SIEBEL_PLAN ” Dynamic ALTER SYSTEM SET RESOURCE_MANAGER_PLAN = “ SIEBEL_PLAN ” ; ALTER SYSTEM SET RESOURCE_MANAGER_PLAN= “” ;

36 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Step 7. Monitor the database VIEWS/SYSTEM TABLES V$RSRC_CONSUMER_GROUP V$RSRC_PLAN V$RSRC_CONSUMER_GROUP_CPU_MTH V$RSRC_PLAN_CPU_MTH V$SESSION DBA_RSRC_CONSUMER_GROUPS DBA_RSRC_CONSUMER_GROUP_PRIVS DBA_RSRC_MANAGER_SYSTEM_PRIVS DBA_RSRC_PLANS DBA_RSRC_PLAN_DIRECTIVIES

37 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Putting all together …. EXAMPLE …… BEGIN DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CREATE_PENDING_AREA(); DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CREATE_PLAN(PLAN => 'CON_PLAN', COMMENT => 'COMMENT'); DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CREATE_CONSUMER_GROUP(CONSUMER_GROUP => 'oltp', COMMENT => 'Resource consumer group for OLTP'); DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CREATE_CONSUMER_GROUP(CONSUMER_GROUP => 'batch', COMMENT => 'BATCH'); DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CREATE_PLAN_DIRECTIVE(PLAN => 'CON_PLAN', GROUP_OR_SUBPLAN => 'oltp', COMMENT => 'OLTP SESS', CPU_P1 => 80); DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CREATE_PLAN_DIRECTIVE(PLAN => 'CON_PLAN', GROUP_OR_SUBPLAN => 'batch', COMMENT => 'BATCH',CPU_P2 => 100); DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CREATE_PLAN_DIRECTIVE(PLAN => 'CON_PLAN', GROUP_OR_SUBPLAN => 'OTHER_GROUPS',COMMENT => 'mandatory',CPU_P3 => 100); DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.VALIDATE_PENDING_AREA(); DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.SUBMIT_PENDING_AREA(); END;

38 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Database Resource Manager Useful feature for Consolidation Plan your resource allocation Can dynamically change plan Guarantees application performance No additional cost

39 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Benchmark – Churchill Ins. Description Pro*C program, shell scripts Users performed various insurance quotes Variety of Inserts, updates, Deletes Over 782 various SQL Statements. SUN Server 4 Cpus Oracle 8.1 Resource Manager CPU usage OLTP users 90 % Others 10%

40 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Benchmark – Churchill Ins. Concurrent users Avg. time without DRM for OLTP Avg. time with DRM for OLTP 100 OLTP 0 Others OLTP 100 Others Results

41 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Recommendations Single database Use Database Resource Manager Use RAC for large and high available databases Multiple Instances on Server Use Vendor specific OS level Resource Manager Others Use active-active OS cluster Multi-domain functionality – offered by H/W vendors Do NOT user OS level Resource Manager along with DB Resource Manager

42 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna How to proceed? Analysis Qualify the Applications/databases Obtain baseline measurements Identify the customizations Review the complexity of the project Performance criteria Identify “ sleeping ” servers Impact on other projects/applications Constraints – OS, Patches, Versions, firmware Design Identify the resources Architecture layout Identify components that will be integrated Put a plan together

43 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna How to proceed? Test Ensure consolidation will work Test, Test, Test. Perform integrated testing Implement Stage the consolidation Minimize outage window – use tools Monitor Review the environment

44 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Database consolidation Current trend in Industry Too many databases/servers Helps meet SLAs Provides availability, manageability, security … Globalization – central location for Info Reduces TCO – 20% or more Consolidate today - get ready for next growth!

45 Nov 21 st 2002NOCOUG – Noel Yuhanna Q & A


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