MEGAN C. WEIDENHAFT ACTION RESEARCH PROJECT / CAPSTONE PROJECT MASTER OF EDUCATION - NCU MAY 2013 Reading and Student Engagement
Introduction My name is Megan Weidenhaft I am completing the Master of Education in Instructional Technology and Curriculum Design at Northwest Christian University I am seeking employment in the educational field. I am dedicated to the academic success of all students.
Introduction I am committed to using the Oregon State Standards as a foundation, and incorporating the NETS, and differentiation, with a hands-on approach with patience and dedication so that every student will succeed. I am interested in helping all students become successful readers who enjoy reading I have Over 4,001 hours classroom experience (as of 6/14/12) *Does not include paid positions
Reasons I chose this topic Reading has always been a passion for me Although with the mandatory readings for classes, I didn’t always have as much passion or time for pleasure reading.
Reasons I chose this topic I remember my 3 rd grade teacher would read aloud to our class every day after lunch recess. She often read “Winnie the Pooh. She taught us to have a passion and enjoyment for reading. I want to pass that down to students. I want to see all students be successful readers.
Trends from Lit. Review Reading is a huge focus in education Reading is a mental activity that that uses a variety of processes. There is a strong link between reading comprehension and achievement.
Trends from Lit. Review One of the big things is student engagement. Students need to be engaged in reading Allowing the students to connect, and relate to the characters and to literature helps them become engaged and emerged. One of the most common reasons is that they are not interested, and not motivated.
Trends from Lit. Review “It is estimated that up to 1 in 20 children in the U.S. and approximately 5.9% of school age children worldwide have a diagnosis of attention problems making it one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders of childhood.”(Kercood, 19) They may doodle to keep their hands busy. They may also use finger knitting, playing with a squishy ball.
Trends from Lit. Review Students who have a hard time focusing for any reason may benefit by using a squishy ball to keep their fingers active. By allowing them to be active with their fingers in a positive way, will engage their brain and help them focus and be successful. Squishy balls are an easy manipulative to allow students to help them focus during reading, and stay remained engaged in the lesson.
Trends from Lit. Review When students are having a hard time focusing during reading, get them up for a few minutes and have them do some physical exercise. Physical activity has also been beneficial for school children who have problems in attention and learning, such as those with attention problems or diagnosed disorders.” (Kercood, 20)
Trends from Lit. Review It has been proven that physical exercise gets the blood flowing through our bodies, increases energy, and brain function. Allowing students to have even just a few minutes of physical activity will help the students get more engaged in reading, and ready to learn.
Trends from Lit. Review John Medina talks about exercise increases blood flow across the tissues in your body, and therefore stimulating the blood vessels creating a powerful, flow-regulating molecule called nitric oxide. “That’s why exercise improves the performance of most human functions” (Medina, 22). So, if exercise is proven to improve the performance of human functions including the brain, we should be utilizing it to the benefit of everyone, and using physical activity before reading instruction.
Primary Research Question How does using physical activity before reading increase student engagement and achievement?
Secondary Research Questions a: How do small groups compare or differ from large group reading instruction? b: In what ways can I use my findings to further increase engagement during reading instruction and improve students’ reading ability?
My Hypothesis Based on my research project, and study my hypothesis is that student engagement increases when the use of a brain break of physical activity occurs prior to reading instruction. Engagement with
Model / Methods I looked at current literature I completed an action research project in a third grade classroom to gather information Implemented a brain break before reading instruction began
Results from Study There were two students that were really struggling not only with reading, participating and being engaged during reading, but also staying on task and following directions.
Results from Study Students were often fidgeting during Templates They would play with items on or in their desk Even though some were playing with items, they were staying focused. It is my conclusion that they are our kinesthetic learners.
Results from Study Kinesthetic learners learn best by doing. They also learn best when they are active. Students often changed their behavior and were engaged after some form of intervention.
Results from Study The teacher I did my study with, uses brain breaks in her classroom whenever possible. If she notices her class is off task and needs to move, she finds ways to get them up and moving for a few minutes.
Results from Study The study shows that the use of even a short 3-5 minute brain break and the use of movement does increase engagement and participation in both whole group and small group reading instruction It also shows that there are times when student(s) are off task and not engaged during reading.
Results from Study Students were often more engaged after the brain break. They also looked forward to having the brain break each day, and the new activity each week.
Results from Study Each week I had a different song and brain break for the class.
Results from Study There are no real differences between small and large group as far as participation and engagement.
STAND UP 10 ARM CIRCLES FORWARD 10 ARM CIRCLES BACKWARD 10 ARM CIRCLES FORWARD 10 ARM CIRCLES BACKWARD SIT DOWN TIME FOR A 30 second BRAIN BREAK!
At the End of the Study Students were asked to complete a questionnaire form. There was little to no change in their responses from the beginning of the study to the end of the study.
At the End of the Study The majority of the students responded that they enjoy small group reading, and that they are engaged during reading. All the students checked 5 (completely agree) for all the questions pertaining to the intervention phase. They all feel that the use of physical activity and the brain breaks helped them, and increased their engagement and participation during reading Engagement!!!!
At the End of the study After completing the questions on the questionnaire form Students are placing in order the brain break activity they liked the most (1) to the one they liked the least (4) I was surprised by the results. The following charts indicate the data.
Tony Chestnut For the song Tony Chestnut five students ranked it number 1, six students ranked it 2, two students ranked it 3, and one student ranked it 4.
Warm-Ups For the warm ups with music (20 jumping jacks, 20 arm circles, 10 sit-ups/10 push- ups with music) four students ranked it 1, five students ranked it 2, two students ranked it 3, and three students ranked it a 4.
Parade of Colors Moving around the classroom to the song Parade of Colors three students ranked it 1, one student ranked it 2, seven students ranked it 3, and three students it 4.
Shake Your Sillies Out & Head, Shoulders, Knees and Toes with Tony Chestnut Shake Your Sillies Out song & Head Shoulders Knees and Toes with Tony Chestnut song three students ranked it 1, one student ranked it 2, three students ranked it 3, and seven students ranked it 4.
Research Conclusions The data shows it is evident that physical activity and brain breaks helped and increased the students’ ability to be more engaged during reading.
Research Conclusions I would be interested to see how the students are doing now, after my study and my intervention has ended. I would also be curious to see the next round of OAKS scores, as well as the EasyCBM scores to see if there is a change in their achievement in reading since being involved in this study.
Future Use and Recommendations for the future I would encourage the use of brain breaks, even if it is for just a few minutes to get up and move around the room which gets their blood flowing and their brain more engaged and ready to learn. Brain breaks are great for everyone!
Future Use and Recommendations for the future It is proven and Dr. Medina talks about it as well, that the use of physical exercise and activity helps the brain. I would encourage all teachers to use brain breaks in their classrooms – to get their students up and moving, and it will increase their engagement and participation, not only in reading, but in all subject matters.
THE FOLLOWING SLIDES WILL CONTAIN THE REFERENCES THAT WERE USED IN THE LITERATURE REVIEW AND CAPSTONE PROJECT. STUDENT NAMES WERE NOT USED IN THE STUDY AND NOT INCLUDED IN THE REFERENCE SECTION. Acknowledgements
Begeny, J. C., Krouse, H. E., Ross, S. G., & Mitchell, R. (2009). Increasing Elementary-aged Students’ Reading Fluency with Small-group Interventions: A Comparison of Repeated Reading, Listening Passage Preview, and Listening Only Strategies. Journal Of Behavioral Education, 18(3), 211-228. doi:10.1007/s10864-009- 9090-9 Beers, K. (2003). When Kids Can't Read What Teachers Can Do. New Hampshire: Heinemann. Brassell, D. (2009). 75+ Reading Strategies - Boost Achievement and Build a Life-Long Love of Reading. New York : Scholastic. Brinda, W. (2011). A "Ladder to Literacy" Engages Reluctant Readers. Middle School Journal, 43(2), 8-17. Clark, A. C., & Ernst, J. (2009). Gaming Research for Technology Education. Journal Of STEM Education: Innovations And Research, Vol. 10(No.1-2), 25-30. Davis, G. &. (2012, 9 1). Learn To Read. Retrieved December 2, 2012, from http://www.learn-to-read-prince-george.com/why-is-reading- important
Acknowledgements Demski, J. (2009).The WOW Factor. T.H.E. Journal, Vol. 36(No.10), 30- 35. Jones, T., & Brown, C. (2011). READING ENGAGEMENT: A COMPARISON BETWEEN EBOOKS AND TRADITIONAL PRINT BOOKS IN AN ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM. International Journal Of Instruction, 4(2), 5-22. Karasakaloğlu, N. (2012). The Relationship between Reading Comprehension and Learning and Study Strategies of Prospective Elementary School Teachers. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 12(3), 1939-1950. Kercood, S., & Banda, D. R. (2012). The Effects of Added Physical Activity on Performance during a Listening Comprehension Task for Students with and without Attention Problems. International Journal Of Applied Educational Studies, 13(1), 19-32. Medina, J. (2008). Brain Rules. Seattle: Pear Press. Mifflin, H. (2008, June ). Templates. Houghton Mifflin.
Acknowledgements Opitz, M. F. (2011). Transcending the Curricular Barrier between Fitness and Reading with FitLit. Reading Teacher, 64(7), 535-540. Reis, S. M., Eckert, R. D., McCoach, D., Jacobs, J. K., & Coyne, M. (2008). Using Enrichment Reading Practices to Increase Reading Fluency, Comprehension, and Attitudes. Journal Of Educational Research, 101(5), 299-315. UO DIBELS Data System. (2012). Retrieved December 3, 2012, from University of Oregon : https://dibels.uoregon.edu/training/swm/assess.php What Works Clearinghouse, (2012). Peer-Assisted Learning/Literacy Strategies. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. What Works Clearinghouse
The End Thank you for watching! I hope you have enjoyed my project and presentation! I hope you have learned something that will help make you a better educator!