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By Brady Kocher, PhD North Carolina State University 2013.

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1 By Brady Kocher, PhD North Carolina State University 2013

2 Illusion of Control

3 Facts for LEP Students Statistics: there were approximately 5,300,000 English Language Learner (ELL) students enrolled in public schools, grades Kindergarten (K) through 12 in 2008 (National Clearinghouse of English Language Acquisition, 2009; U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2009). This represents an increase of 53% from the 2006-2007 school years. Given the overwhelming influx of students whose first language is not English, federal and state governments must determine how best to serve these children and their families

4 Oral Language and Literacy Development Think about the meaning of the quote, and how it relates to your LEP students, your classroom, your teaching, your world experiences… Write your thoughts on a sticky-note… Pair with a partner and share your thoughts… Share out with group…

5                        There are it may be so many kinds of voices in the world, and none of them is without importance and meaning. Therefore, if I know not the meaning of the voice, I am unto him that speaketh a barbarian. And he that speaketh is a barbarian unto me. Ancient Text AD 55 55 AD                       

6 Africa Europe


8 Why are they different? Culture

9 Case Study Rosi With a partner, try to get meaning from the student’s writing. Try to find everything “right”; what are the student’s strengths? What mistakes were really miracles?


11 Case Study: Rosie/Pre-SIOP Strategies Grade 4 Reading/Writing below grade level… Home environment… Rarely in the classroom…pull-outs… Teacher wanted her referred and retained…

12 LEP Best Practice Making the Connections! Relationships Academics Success Honor Roll On grade-level Pass EOGs No Retention No Referrals to EC

13 Contrasting Cultural Differences United States Individualism Nuclear Family Competitive Future-oriented Individual development/success desired Formal support systems Sex roles not clearly defined Inner locus of control Latin America Collectivism Extended Family Cooperative Present oriented Happiness valued Natural support systems Sex roles more defined Outer locus of control

14 Stages of Acculturation Stage 1: Honeymoon - excitement, enthusiasm and optimism for everything in the host culture Stage 2: Culture Shock - negativity ranging from irritability to hostility, from anxiety to outright panic -similar to stages of grief Stage 3: Limbo - gradual recovery of equilibrium and objectivity -acknowledgement of +,- aspects of both cultures -identity crisis Stage 4: Assimilation or Adoption -acceptance of new culture -recovery of self-confidence and identity ESCORT. Help! They Don’t Speak English Starter Kit for Primary Teachers. P. 2

15 Why are they different? Culture Stage 1 Stage 4 Honeymoon Acculturation Stage 3 Limbo Stage 2 Culture Shock

16 Why are they different? Second Language Acquisition Stages of Second Language Acquisition Characteristics Pre-production Stage 1-3 months or more! “silent period” absorbing Early Production 3 months-1 year or more! “active listener/observer” begin speaking Speech Emergence 1-3 years or more! limited vocabulary begins conversation Intermediate Fluency 5-7 years or more! communicator age-appropriate speech

17 STAGES OF LANGUAGE ACQUISTION Pre-Production Early Production Speech Emergence Intermediate Fluency

18 Pre-Production 1 – 3 months or more “Silent Period” Not speaking but active listening and observing language and its uses Learning through context clues and visuals Comprehension is very limited. P 2

19 Early Production 3 months – 1 year or more More “active” listener and observer Begins speaking single word responses, high- frequency words Learning through context clues and visuals Comprehension is limited P. 2

20 Speech Emergence 1-3 years or more Develops a limited vocabulary Develops conversational skills Communicates meaning Longer phrases and sentences are formed BICS P 2

21 Intermediate Fluency 5-7 years or more Able to communicate with both meaning and form, age- appropriate Complex sentence structure Still needs help with sounds, sentence structure, intonation, idioms, pronunciation, fluency CALP P 2

22 Why are they different? Second Language Acquisition BICS: Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills Characteristics: -language of face-to-face conversations -language of familiar topics Years to acquire: -1-2 years or more Caution regarding students who have acquired BICS: -misperceptions that the students “speak English well” -student’s reading and writing skills may not be at the same level as oral skills

23 Why are they different? Second Language Acquisition CALP: Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency Characteristics: -instruction and exposure to “school talk” -language of the teachers and texts Years to acquire: -5-7 years or more Caution: -student’s reading and writing skills may not be at the same level as oral skills -student’s writing skills may not be at same level as reading skills -students may still need language support, even after exiting LEP status

24 Let’s face it – English is a funny language! P 1

25 A Funny Language! There is no egg in eggplant nor ham in hamburger; neither apple nor pine in pineapple... English muffins were not invented in England or French fries in France. Sweetmeats are candies, while sweetbreads, which aren't sweet, are meat. We take English for granted. But if we explore its paradoxes, we find that quicksand can work slowly, boxing rings are square, and a guinea pig is neither from Guinea nor is it a pig.

26 And why is it that writers write, but fingers don't fing, grocers don't groce, and hammers don't ham? If the plural of tooth is teeth, Why isn't the plural of booth, beeth? One goose, 2 geese. So, one moose, 2 meese? Is cheese the plural of choose? If teachers taught, why didn't preachers praught? If a vegetarian eats vegetables, what does a humanitarian eat?

27 In what language do people recite at a play, and play at a recital? Ship by truck, and send cargo by ship? Have noses that run and feet that smell? Park on driveways and drive on parkways? How can a slim chance and a fat chance be the same, while a wise man and a wise guy are opposites?

28 You have to marvel at the unique lunacy of language in which your house can burn up as it burns down, in which you fill in a form by filling it out, and in which, an alarm goes off by going on. English was invented by people, not computers, and it reflects the creativity of the human race, which, of course, is not a race at all. That is why, when the stars are out, they are visible, but when the lights are out, they are invisible.

29 The Iceberg Theory BICS Social language CALP Academic language

30 BICS vs. CALP Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills Survival vocabulary 1-3 years to acquire C ognitive A cademic L anguage P roficiency Vocabulary used in an academic setting. 5-7 years to acquire if literate in L1 7-10 years to acquire if not literate in L1 Source: Jim Cummins and Virginia Collier P 2

31 BICS and CALP BICSCALP name heart key “What’s your name?” Body part Name the items in the chart. The man made a name for himself. “…heart of the matter.” “Learn it by heart.” What is the key idea? Map key Answer key Key to my heart

32 Your turn: MATH SCIENCE GEOGRAPHY GOVERNMENT table BICS CALP Multiplication Table Periodic Table Plateau Postpone consideration P 3

33 Lower the Affective Filter Know your students Value their culture, language, beliefs Pronounce their names correctly Employ Buddy System Involve student in the class Don’t call attention to mistakes Creating an atmosphere promoting motivation and self-confidence, while lowering anxiety.


35 Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition Motivation First language development Language distance and attitude Access to the language Age Personality and learning style Peers and role models Quality of instruction Cultural Background

36 Student Perceptions of Teacher Characteristics Instructional Conversations Immediacy Achievement of Second Language Learners Second Language Acquisition Motivation

37 Research suggests the discourse patterns characterized by interactive conversations also increases student participation within the discussion (Goldenberg & Gallimore, 1992). Immediacy behaviors represent a set of verbal and non-verbal communication behaviors (Allen et. al, 2006) that showcase the approachability of teachers to their students. Immediacy behaviors enhance the psychological closeness students perceive with their teacher through the use of certain cues, questions, and responses (Mehrabian, 1981). Instructional Conversations and Immediacy

38 SIOP Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol Lesson Preparation Building Background Interaction Practice and Application Lesson Delivery Review and Assessment Comprehensible Input Strategies

39 How can teachers accurately monitor the comprehension of English language learners during class discussions? If you ask second language learners, "Do you understand?" embarrassment causes them to say, "Yes," whether or not they really do comprehend. Questions should be structured to the ESL students' language ability. Using visual cues, teachers can ask beginning students to point or simply respond "yes" or "no." As language develops students can respond to "either/or" questions in which the answer is embedded.

40 During Class Discussions Break questions into several steps will allow students to retrieve complex information. Spot checking, thumbs up/down, response boards Use sentence stems to help students with the language Be aware of "translating time." ESL’s are translating the question into native language, mentally constructing the answer, and then translating back into English to respond. Teachers need to understand that ESL students should not be overly corrected in front of their peers. The correct response and/or sentence structure should be modeled by the teacher.

41 Sentence stems CARD COLORSentence Starters…………………. Green (ask a question) I wonder why……..? What if……………….? How come………….? Orange (Clarify) The key information is………… First……..then…….finally…… What this means to me is…….. Yellow (Predict) I bet that……….. I think that……… If ……………. happens then…………. Red (relate)This reminds me of…………………… I can relate to this because………. When I think of this I picture…….

42 What Can I Do? SIOP Feature #9 Key vocabulary emphasized (introduced, written, repeated, and highlighted for students to see) Activity: Word Sort During a word sort, students categorize words, pharases, definitions and/or pictures into groups

43 PeopleWeaponsIssues George Washington MusketsRight to bear arms King GeorgeBayonetstaxation Thomas JeffersonCannonsSelf-governance Paul RevereRiflesDemocracy

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