Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Technology and Environmental Policy: Innovation Effects of Past Policies and Suggestions for Improvement René Kemp Innovation and Technology Transfer Perform.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Technology and Environmental Policy: Innovation Effects of Past Policies and Suggestions for Improvement René Kemp Innovation and Technology Transfer Perform."— Presentation transcript:

1 Technology and Environmental Policy: Innovation Effects of Past Policies and Suggestions for Improvement René Kemp Innovation and Technology Transfer Perform by: Duarte Trindade; Pedro Leal Master Science in Engineering Policy and Technology Management 14 February 2003

2 Master Science in Engineering Policy and Technology Management Innovation and Technology Transfer Overview Overview Pressures in the Policies Formulation Pressures in the Policies Formulation Policy Instruments Policy Instruments The “modulation” approach The “modulation” approach Conclusions Conclusions Summary

3 Master Science in Engineering Policy and Technology Management Innovation and Technology Transfer Environmentally beneficial technologies are adopted by the companies if costs are reduced (or product quality is enhanced) Environmentally beneficial technologies are adopted by the companies if costs are reduced (or product quality is enhanced) Overview The new technology is more cost-effective The new technology is less cost-effective Companies will adopt it if other advantages exist Regulation

4 Master Science in Engineering Policy and Technology Management Innovation and Technology Transfer Pressures in the Policies Formulation

5 Master Science in Engineering Policy and Technology Management Innovation and Technology Transfer Policy Instruments Subsidies Subsidies Taxes / Tradeable Permits Taxes / Tradeable Permits Innovation waivers Innovation waivers Covenants Covenants Communication Communication R&D Programmes R&D Programmes

6 Master Science in Engineering Policy and Technology Management Innovation and Technology Transfer Policy Instruments Subsidies had a limited impact on decisions Subsidies had a limited impact on decisions Subsidies combine with others instruments – Case clean vehicles Subsidies combine with others instruments – Case clean vehicles The innovator firms develop environmental technologies not because a subsidy is available but because they believe a market exists for the new technology. The innovator firms develop environmental technologies not because a subsidy is available but because they believe a market exists for the new technology. The agency responsible for the R&D subsidies or loans should be careful not to stimulate second-rate technologies. The agency responsible for the R&D subsidies or loans should be careful not to stimulate second-rate technologies. Subsidies

7 Master Science in Engineering Policy and Technology Management Innovation and Technology Transfer Policy Instruments The environmental Taxes effects have been barely analysed. The environmental Taxes effects have been barely analysed. Until now the experiences with Tradeable Permits are very positive as far as efficiency is concerned. (S02 experience – cost gains of 50%) Until now the experiences with Tradeable Permits are very positive as far as efficiency is concerned. (S02 experience – cost gains of 50%) Benefits of incentive-based approaches: Benefits of incentive-based approaches: -They have a choice between compliance and paying the bill. - Financial incentive to diminish all pollution, not merely up to the level of emission standards. - They create a constant demand for innovation. - Independency of the pollution control technologies. Tradeable Permits combine the use of standards with the economic incentives which makes them very attractive for use Tradeable Permits combine the use of standards with the economic incentives which makes them very attractive for use Taxes / Tradeable Permits

8 Master Science in Engineering Policy and Technology Management Innovation and Technology Transfer Policy Instruments Incentive devices built into environmental regulation. Incentive devices built into environmental regulation. They exempt industry from penalties during trial periods and offer the prospect of cost savings derived from superior technology. They exempt industry from penalties during trial periods and offer the prospect of cost savings derived from superior technology. Very attractive for both potential innovators and the regulating agencies. Very attractive for both potential innovators and the regulating agencies. Strong intervention of the persons that coordinate this kind of instruments. Strong intervention of the persons that coordinate this kind of instruments. Innovation waivers

9 Master Science in Engineering Policy and Technology Management Innovation and Technology Transfer Policy Instruments Environmental agreements between industry and governments. Environmental agreements between industry and governments. A relatively new instrument of environmental policy. A relatively new instrument of environmental policy. The effectiveness of covenants is typically small. The effectiveness of covenants is typically small. Most of the covenants is about the substitution of an environmentally hazardous substance (e.g. Cadmiun, CFCs, Phosphates etc). Most of the covenants is about the substitution of an environmentally hazardous substance (e.g. Cadmiun, CFCs, Phosphates etc). Covenants

10 Master Science in Engineering Policy and Technology Management Innovation and Technology Transfer Policy Instruments Communication Aim: raise the environmental awareness of companies and consumers Aim: raise the environmental awareness of companies and consumers Mechanisms: Mechanisms: demonstration projects demonstration projects information campaigns information campaigns Eco-labels Eco-labels Examples: Examples: ICPIC - International Cleaner Production Information Clearinghouse - ICPIC - International Cleaner Production Information Clearinghouse - “Optimização Energética e Ambiental na Indústria” – INETI – 29 November 2002 “Optimização Energética e Ambiental na Indústria” – INETI – 29 November 2002

11 Master Science in Engineering Policy and Technology Management Innovation and Technology Transfer Policy Instruments R&D Programmes Aim: Directly stimulate technological innovation Aim: Directly stimulate technological innovation Mechanisms: Mechanisms: R&D Projects R&D Projects Examples: Examples: STEP - Special Training for Environmentally-sound Production - STEP - Special Training for Environmentally-sound Production - ECOMOSART - “Ecotoxicological monitoring of industrially polluted soils and assessment of the respective remediation techniques” - INETI ECOMOSART - “Ecotoxicological monitoring of industrially polluted soils and assessment of the respective remediation techniques” - INETI

12 Master Science in Engineering Policy and Technology Management Innovation and Technology Transfer The “modulation” approach “The actual outcomes of environment policies are affected more by the institutional arrangements emerging from the political process than by the technical characteristics of the instruments employed.” The starting point is the capabilities, interests, interdependencies and interactions (games) of social actors around an environmental problem instead of the environmental problem itself. The starting point is the capabilities, interests, interdependencies and interactions (games) of social actors around an environmental problem instead of the environmental problem itself. The challenge is to modulate the dynamics of social-technical change into desirable directions, to ensure that the outcome of interactions lead to desirable outcomes from a societal point of view. The challenge is to modulate the dynamics of social-technical change into desirable directions, to ensure that the outcome of interactions lead to desirable outcomes from a societal point of view. Policy Instruments: Policy Instruments: Game management SNM – Strategic Niche Management

13 Master Science in Engineering Policy and Technology Management Innovation and Technology Transfer The “modulation” approach Aim: create a situation in which there is a search for environment-friendly solutions and to select the best one. Aim: create a situation in which there is a search for environment-friendly solutions and to select the best one. Mechanisms: Change the “rules of the game” or by changing the way in which the game is played. Mechanisms: Change the “rules of the game” or by changing the way in which the game is played. Examples: Examples: Manipulate technological and economic expectations Manipulate technological and economic expectations Increasing the number of players Increasing the number of players Game Management

14 Master Science in Engineering Policy and Technology Management Innovation and Technology Transfer The “modulation” approach Strategic Niche Management Aim: Modulate the dynamics of socio-technical change through the creation and management of spaces (niches) for the use of a new technology Aim: Modulate the dynamics of socio-technical change through the creation and management of spaces (niches) for the use of a new technology Especially appropriated for pathway technologies, i.e. technologies that pave the way for new developments Especially appropriated for pathway technologies, i.e. technologies that pave the way for new developments Protects the technology until it is mature enough to face the market Protects the technology until it is mature enough to face the market Applications: Applications: optical fibre optical fibre cellular telephones cellular telephones scanners scanners

15 Master Science in Engineering Policy and Technology Management Innovation and Technology Transfer Conclusions One single policy instrument is not the solution, a broader perspective is a fundamental requirement. It is mandatory to match the old instruments (e.g. taxes, etc) with the new ones (e.g. game management) to achieve an effective environmental policy. One single policy instrument is not the solution, a broader perspective is a fundamental requirement. It is mandatory to match the old instruments (e.g. taxes, etc) with the new ones (e.g. game management) to achieve an effective environmental policy. Possible governmental policies to work towards systems renewal should include the creation of spaces for learning about new technologies, the establishment of long-term goals and indicative, adaptive planning to guide private and public investment in new directions. Possible governmental policies to work towards systems renewal should include the creation of spaces for learning about new technologies, the establishment of long-term goals and indicative, adaptive planning to guide private and public investment in new directions.


Download ppt "Technology and Environmental Policy: Innovation Effects of Past Policies and Suggestions for Improvement René Kemp Innovation and Technology Transfer Perform."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google