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Presentations May 23 – 25, 2005 Portland, Maine For related information visit:

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1 Presentations May 23 – 25, 2005 Portland, Maine For related information visit:

2 Global Mercury Supply and Demand David Lennett Portland, Maine May 24, 2005

3 Principal Sources of Mercury Supply Primary mercury mines Byproduct recovery from other mining Decommissioned chlor-alkali plants Recovered mercury from wastes and products Government stockpiles (only U.S. stockpile remains)

4 Primary (mined) mercury production, 1999-2003 (metric tons) 19992000200120022003 Algeria240216 320 307 234 Chinaest.200 435610 Spain433237 523 727 745 Kyrgyzstan629590 574 542 397 Russian Federation est.50 Otherest.50- 100 Totals1600+1300+ 1700+ 2000+

5 Primary & by-product mercury production, 2003 (metric tons) Primary mercury from mines & ores By-product mercury Algeria 2340 China 6100 Spain 7450 Kyrgyzstan 3970 Russian Federation est. 50est. 100+ Peru 0est. 80 Finland 0est. 70 Chile 0est. 20 Australia 0est. 30 United States 0est. 100-200 Other (Mexico, Canada, etc.) est. 50-100est. 100 Totals 2000+500+

6 Global mercury supply (Maxson 2004) Maxson: Mercury flows in Europe and the world, 2004

7 Inventory in Chemical Industry (Chlor-Alkali Facilities) 12,000 tonnes at EU facilities 2,800 tonnes at US facilities 24,000-30,000 tonnes estimated worldwide

8 Inventory of Recoverable Mercury in Wastes and Products Over 3,000 tonnes in US, including 570 tonnes in switches/relays, 209 tonnes in thermostats, and 1,090 tonnes in dental amalgam Global inventory estimated at 20,000- 30,000 tonnes

9 The U.S. Govt. Stockpile 4,436 MT stored at four locations Consolidated storage at one location selected in April 2004 Record of Decision, despite revenue loss of up to $25 million and 40 year cost estimate of $29 million Is this the beginning of global mercury stewardship in the face of looming excess supplies?

10 Characteristics of Mercury Market Global in nature Small in economic terms (less than $25 million) Private primary mines closed Secondary supplies expected to rise Decreasing demand will create global surplus

11 Maxson: Mercury flows in Europe and the world, 2004


13 Disproportionate Global Mercury Demand EU and US are net exporters of mercury 630 of estimated 797 tonnes consumed by chlor-alkali plants outside of Western Europe and United States comprising about half of mercury cell global production capacity Over 90% of Hg consumed in batteries produced outside of Western Europe and US in 2000 Small scale mining occurs in developing world


15 Mercuric Oxide Battery Trade Data In 2000, over 470 million units enters China from Free Trade Zones, Hong Kong, and other Asian nations (includes re-exports of China batteries) Most presumably used in products for export, since only 3.3 million exported as batteries Total quantity entering China in 2002 over 40.5 million units. China exports in 2002 similar to 2000 2004 Hong Kong Customs data indicates 20,000,000 units passed through Hong Kong from Mainland China, an increase over previous years


17 Use is Very Widespread in Africa 25% of women in Mali 27% of women in Senegal 35% of women in South Africa 77% of women in Lagos, Nigeria

18 Health Impact of Mercury Salts Skin Kidneys Nervous system? Developing nervous system??

19 Hyperpigmentation

20 EU Mercury Strategy Issued in January 2005 – Blueprint for Action Mercury Export Ban by 2011 and advocate for global phase-out of primary mercury production Pursue storage of chlor-alkali mercury from decommissioning plants Restrict sales of mercury measuring devices to accompany existing restrictions on electronic products Study dental amalgam and few remaining product uses

21 2005 UNEP Governing Council Resolution Reiterates call for national and international action to reduce releases Requests report on global mercury production, demand, and trade, to consider options for future action at next GC meeting in 2007 Requests governments, private sector, and international organizations to “take action” to reduce the exposure risks associated with use of mercury in products and processes, including bans or restrictions of uses “when warranted”, and to “consider” curbing primary mercury production and introduction into commerce of excess mercury supplies

22 Presentations May 23 – 25, 2005 Portland, Maine

23 Demonstration of the Mercury-added Products Database Terri Goldberg Interstate Mercury Education & Reduction Clearinghouse

24 What is Product Notification?  CT, ME, NH, RI, & VT (new) require manufacturers or distributors of all mercury-added products sold in their states to provide information on the mercury content of products & the total mercury used in all of the products sold in the US in a single year  First enacted in NH in 2000; 2001 by ME, and RI; 2002 by CT; 2005 by VT

25 What is a Mercury-added Product? Formulated or fabricated product that contains mercury, a mercury compound, or a component containing mercury, when the mercury is intentionally added to the product (or component) for any reason

26 Fabricated & Formulated Products Fabricated product – a combination of individual components, one or more of which has mercury added, that combine to make a single unit Formulated product – a chemical product, including but not limited to laboratory chemicals, cleaning products, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and coating materials that are sold as a consistent mixture of chemicals

27 What is the Purpose of Notification? Product Notification is intended to inform consumers, recyclers, policy makers, & others:  products that contain intentionally- added mercury  the amount of mercury in a specific product  the total amount of mercury in the specific products that were sold in the US in a given year

28 Requirements  If you manufacture, sell, distribute, or import a mercury-added product & sell in CT, ME, NH, RI, & VT must file a Mercury- added Product Notification Form through Interstate Mercury Education & Reduction Clearinghouse (IMERC) or with each state  Forms submitted to IMERC are reviewed by a multi-state committee that is appointed by the Commissioners of the states' environmental agencies  Submission & approval of the Forms through IMERC enables manufacturers & distributors to comply with the states’ requirements

29 Requirements (cont.)  Following approval of the submission, the information from the Form is entered into the Mercury-added Products Database & sent out to the reporting organization for review  Information is posted on the IMERC webpage after this review  Mercury-added Product Notification Forms that have not been approved are not included in the database  All hard copy Forms that are submitted to IMERC are publicly available – no CBI for IMERC

30 Frequency of Reporting  2001 – Forms due to NH DES; 2002 IMERC got involved  Updated Forms with new totals due at least every 3 years – 2001, 2004, 2007, 2010 …  Updated Forms also due when products change: ↑ mercury; ↓ mercury; 0 mercury; + mercury

31 Current Status  Over 400 companies have filed Notifications either directly or through a trade association  Over 1800 products in the Mercury- added Products Database  Currently summarizing 2001 data in fact sheets

32 Mercury Content of Products  Encourages reporting by product categories, where possible  Allows reporting in exact amounts or in ranges: -- Ranges for fabricated products: >0-5 mg; >5-10 mg; >10-50 mg; >50-100 mg; >100-1,000 mg; >1000 mg -- Ranges for formulated products: >0- 10 ppm; >10-50 ppm; >50-250 ppm; >250 ppm

33 Issues  Subtle differences among state laws– e.g., some allow reporting for average amount of mercury; others do not  Definition of product – focus on the larger product that contains the mercury component or just the component (e.g., recreational vehicles, electronics, cars)  Double counting

34 Issues (cont.)  Creating a list of companies that make mercury-added products  Compliance – List of over 140 companies strongly suspect of being out of compliance; list of over 1500 companies concerned about compliance; states sending letters  Not certain of all products – constantly learn about new products

35 Issues (cont.) Still learning – new type of requirement for an environmental agency – not facility based; not emissions based Appropriate level of detail – Model numbers? Vague product descriptions? Still resolving issues w/certain products – lamps, cars, lab & other chemicals

36 What is IMERC?  In 2001 the Northeast Waste Management Officials' Association (NEWMOA) IMERC to provide ongoing technical & programmatic assistance to states that have enacted mercury education & reduction laws  Provides a single point of contact for industry & the public for information on mercury-added products & member states' mercury education & reduction programs

37 IMERC’s Activities IMERC's Activities --  Facilitates deliberations that provide advice & assistance to the states for decisions  Collects & manages Notification data  Facilitates interstate collaboration on public education & outreach  Makes information on available online & through IMERC Alert, phone, & email  Responds to requests for information on mercury-added products & the states’ laws & requirements

38 IMERC’s Activities Provides technical assistance & facilitates reviews to the member states concerning: – manufacturers' applications for exemptions to the phase-out of mercury- added products – manufacturers' applications for alternative labeling of mercury-added products – manufacturers' plans for collection & proper waste management of mercury- containing materials

39 IMERC’s Structure  IMERC's membership includes NEWMOA & non-NEWMOA member states -- CT, IL, ME, MA, NH, NJ, NY, RI, VT, & WA  All members pay an annual fee  All IMERC members have a vote on the recommendations made by the Clearinghouse to the states  All state representatives to IMERC are appointed by the responsible State Agency Commissioner/Director

40 More information Go to: Contact: Terri Goldberg (617) 367-8558 x302

41 Presentations May 23 – 25, 2005 Portland, Maine

42 Using the Mercury-added Products Data Enid J. Mitnik Maine Department of Environmental Protection May 24, 2005

43 Data Uses  Basis for development of statutes and regulation for mercury-added products. Target products for labeling and recycling and/or phase out  Consumer Education IMERC fact sheets presenting information on products (mercury devices, thermostats, etc.)  Looking at Trends Are certain types of mercury-added component uses increasing or decreasing?

44 Product Information Mercury-added product manufacturers are usually grouped in one of two types:  Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) Components and Dental Amalgam Manufacturers  Larger Product Manufacturers The filing may refer the data to the OEM or report it, potentially duplicating data.

45 Mercury-added Products Most mercury-added products data has been summarized based on OEM’s component information:  Switches and Relays  Thermostats (type of switch)  Measuring devices (thermometers, barometers, flow meters, sphygmomanometers, etc.)  Lamps  Batteries  Dental Amalgam  Laboratory and chemical reagents  Other

46 Who Notified To date, IMERC has received OEM notifications from:  switches and relays - 25 reporting companies (adequate)  thermostats - 11 reporting companies (adequate)  measuring devices - 19 reporting companies (adequate)  dental amalgam - 5 reporting companies (adequate)

47 Who Notified cont.  lamps - 39 reporting companies (incomplete)  batteries – 10 reporting companies (incomplete)  laboratory & chemical reagents - 18 reporting companies (incomplete)  other - 17 reporting companies

48 IMERC Mercury-added Products Notifications The summary data presented today will be based on OEMs only to avoid the issue of double counting. In the future, IMERC hopes to look at product specific trends after we review the data from two total reporting years (2001 and 2004).

49 2001 OEM Component Data

50 Data Limitations  Product brand names may not be the same as the manufacturer name. For example: Maytag Corporation has filed for their products (which could have the brand name of Maytag, Amana, Jenn-Air or Jade).  Model specific information may not be included in the product description for every product.

51 Data Limitations cont.  Because reporting is allowed by product categories, the product detail may not identify the specific product for use in collection and recycling.* * Maine has addressed this by identifying mercury-added products at end of life through labeling requirements.

52 The Future IMERC’s data collection efforts are a work in progress. As states have joined IMERC the way we required reporting changed based on the laws for each notification state. We will need to adjust as more states join in the future and requirements change. Fact sheets and any report summaries can be found at:

53 The Future cont. IMERC will need more resources to: Refine the database and develop standard reporting and data output; Analyze the data and create more fact sheets. More resources will be needed if product- specific detail and electronic filing is desired.

54 For more information…. prevention/mercury/imerc.cfm Enid Mitnik, Maine DEP 17 State House Station Augusta, ME 04333 207-287-8556

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