Presentation on theme: "HYSTEROSCOPY FOR INFERTILE PATIENT An Evidence Based Approach Dr.Mohamed El Sherbiny MD Obstetrics&Gynecology Senior Consultant Damietta General Hospital."— Presentation transcript:
HYSTEROSCOPY FOR INFERTILE PATIENT An Evidence Based Approach Dr.Mohamed El Sherbiny MD Obstetrics&Gynecology Senior Consultant Damietta General Hospital Damietta Egypt
oCochrane library. oRoyal College of Obstetricians &Gynecologists (RCOG) Guidelines. oJournal of evidence based obstetrics and gynecology. oNational Guideline Clearinghouse. oNew Zealand Guidelines Group oPubMed Sources of EB for The Topic
RIGIDE OR FLEXIBLE ?? A rigid hysteroscope was superior to a flexible hysteroscope for outpatient hysteroscopy Rudi Campo, Evidence-based Obstetrics & Gynecology Volume:3 Issue:3 Date:September 2001 p
Preparation of The Cervix Vaginal misoprostol prior to diagnostic hysteroscopy reduced cervical resistance in non-pregnant women Fong& Singh Evidence-based Obstetrics & Gynecology : 3 Issue:2 Date:June 2001 p88-90
Distension Media: Saline Vs Co 2 Normal saline should be used as it offers: advantages (shorter and less discomfort) over co 2 instillation. New Zealand Guidelines Group : Level A
SHOULD HYSTERSCOPY BE DONE ROUTINLY IN THE EVALUATION OF INFERTILITY ? NO
Tests which have an established correlation with pregnancy are: 1- Semen analysis 2-Tubal patency by HSG or laparoscopy 3-Mid luteal progesterone for the diagnosis of ovulation They are the basic essential tests for diagnosis of infertility. ESHRE Capri workshop & Routine Infertility Investigation National Guideline Clearinghouse 2000 RCOG Guidelines : Grade B Recommendation 1999
Routine Infertility investigation??! Hysteroscopy should not be considered as a routine investigation in the infertile couple. RCOG Guidelines : Grade C Recommendation 1999
Indications of Diagnostic Hysteroscopy for Reproductive Failure Abnormal hysterosalpingogram. Abnormal uterine bleeding Suspected intrauterine pathology Uterine anomalies Pregnancy wastage Unexplained infertility Valle 1996
When Hysteroscopy Should Be Done For Unexplained Infertility ? At Laparoscopy ? Before IVF ? After Failed IVF ?
SHOULD HYSTEROSCOPY BE USED ROUTINELY AT THE TIME OF LAPAROSCOPY FOR. THE INVESTIGATION OF. INFERTILIY ?
El Sherbiny M, Medical J of Cairo Univ., Vol.65 No. 3, Sept El Sherbiny M, The 7th Annual Meeting Of The Intern. Society for Gynecologic Endoscopy,Sun City, South Africa;15:18 March,1998 Hysteroscopy done at laparoscopy time, has low complication rate, high degree of safety, minimal time requirement and adds little equipment & cost. Positive hysteroscopic findings were found in many cases (15%) despite having normal HSG and no suggestive history of uterine lesion
Unexplained infertility Small endometrial polyp Small cervical polyp Adhesion at cornual cones Cornual polyp Endometrial dystrophies (atrophy or hyperplasia) that may affect receptivity or implantation especially in ART.
Mini-pan-endoscopic Approach Transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy in association with Minihysteroscopy provided more information and was better tolerated than HSG in an outpatient infertility investigation. Cicinelli et al. Fertil Steril 2001 Nov;76(5): RCT (23 cases)
Indications of Operative Hysteroscopy for Reproductive Failure Polyp. Submucous leiomyoma. Uterine septa. Intrauterine Adhesions. Misplaced or embedded IUD Tubal cannulation & Falloposcopy. Valle 1996
Priming With Misoprostol Vaginal misoprostol prior to operative hysteroscopy facilitated the procedure and reduced complication Y.F.Fong and K.Singh Evidence-based Obstet & Gynecol.,2000
Uterine Polyp Uterine Fibroid
Both saline infusion sonohysterography and hysteroscopy are well tolerated by women. Saline infusion sonohysterography has a high failure rate but has a lower pain score than hysteroscopy. Rogerson et al, BJOG 2002 Jul;109(7):800-4 RCT (117 cases) Transvaginal Sonohysterography Versus Hysteroscopy
(TVSH) should be considered prior to hysteroscopy in women in whom intrauterine pathology such as submucous fibroids and polyps are suspected as diagnostic hysteroscopy can be avoided in up to 40% of women New Zealand Guidelines Group : Level A
Electro- resection of myoma by loop electrode loop electrode Fibroid Resected tissue
Uterine Fibroid Women who are diagnosed with submucous uterine fibroids and heavy or abnormal menstrual bleeding should be offered hysteroscopic resection. New Zealand Guidelines Group : Level C
Myomas can be removed effectively when: Uterine size (depth )8-12 cm >50% inside cavity. < 5 Cm size Hysteroscopic Resection Advanced Reproductive Care Inc : 2002
Endometrial Thinning Prior To Hysteroscopic Surgery For Menorrhagia It improves both the operating conditions for the surgeon and short term post-operative outcome. GRH analogues produce slightly more consistent endometrial thinning than danazol. Sowter et al : 1998 (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue Oxford: Update Software.
HSG : Filling defect Stellate & irregular, Commonly inhomogeneous HYSTEROSCOPY Confirmation Evaluation of the extent of the disease Intrauterine Synechiae
The American Fertility Society classification of intrauterine adhesions Extent of 2/3 Cavity Involved Type of Filmy filmy & Dense Dense Adhesions Menstrual Normal Hypomenorrhea Amenorrhea Pattern Stage I (Mild) Stage II (Moderate Stage III (Severe) Combined HSG & hysteroscopy & clinical
Intrauterine Synechiae Severe Moderate
It is controversial whether patients should: Receive prophylactic antibiotics ? Receive postoperative estrogen ? Use of an IUD or Foley catheter ? Advanced Reproductive Care Inc : 2002 Intrauterine Synechiae: Postoperative Treatment
Division of the adhesions with: The endoscope The curettes or scissors. Resectoscopic cautery. Neodymium-YAG laser Advanced Reproductive Care Inc : Intrauterine Synechiae: Operative Treatment
Restoration of menses: % Pregnancy rate : 60% - 90%. Term pregnancy : % Poor for : Severe disease, Multiple procedures have been necessary. Intrauterine Synechiae : Prognosis Advanced Reproductive Care Inc : 2002
Septate Uterus : Value of Hysteroscopy Confirming the abnormality Evaluating the uterine cavity capacity Discarding other pathologic findings such as polyps, endometritis, hypertrophy Guiding surgical aproach Traver et al. Infertility in the 3 rd Millennium Prague, 2000
Resection of the Uterine Septum 121 Laparoscopic Guided Septum Collin's Electrode
Abdominal Vs Hysteroscopic Resection of The Septum Hysterscopic resection is preferable based on: Cost Morbidity Anatomical outcome Reproductive oucome Faize, Obstet.gynecol 68:399, 1986
Oil-soluble Versus Water-soluble Media for Hysterosalpingography Flushing of the tubes with oil-soluble media increases subsequent pregnancy rates in infertility patients. It may flush tubal "plugs" that are a cause of proximal tubal occlusion. Clinicians should consider flushing the tubes with OSCM before contemplating more invasive therapies. Vandekerckhove et al., July 1996 (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue Oxford: Update Software.
Tubal Catheterization Where proximal tubal obstruction is suspected, and there are no other tubal abnormalities, a tubal catheterisation procedure may be attempted RCOG Guidelines : Grade B Recommendation
Tubal Catheterization Bilateral Cornual Block Amorphous material R. Ovary R. fimbria Cornual catheterization
Falloposcope Recently, the Food and Drug Administration has just given the first approval for a falloposcope in the United States. The falloposcope will be utilized through the hysteroscope and will allows direct visualisation of the proximal segment and provides an atraumatic recanalisation.. Advanced Reproductive Care Inc : 2002
The risk to normal fallopian tubes through the use of falloposcopy is not clearly known but thought not to be significant.. Falloposcope Advanced Reproductive Care Inc : 2002