Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education Question Teachers Should Ask…... in addressing the assessment needs of Students with Disabilities:

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education Question Teachers Should Ask…... in addressing the assessment needs of Students with Disabilities:"— Presentation transcript:

1 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education Question Teachers Should Ask…... in addressing the assessment needs of Students with Disabilities: Who are the children we characterize as "Students with Disabilities"? Does the nature of these special youngsters alter the kinds of curricular aims they are supposed to be pursuing? What should a teacher's curricular expectations really be for Students with Disabilities? How much latitude, if any, do teachers have in altering the assessments to be used with these children? What specific accommodations can teachers use when testing Students with Disabilities? 1

2 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Definition of ‘Students with Disability’ (SWD) 2 As defined by IDEA, the term “Child with a Disability" means “a child with –mental retardation –hearing impairments (including deafness), speech or language impairments –visual impairments (including blindness) –serious emotional disturbance –orthopedic impairments –autism –traumatic brain injury –other health impairments –specific learning disabilities who, by reason thereof, needs special education and related services” –The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (P.L ) of 1975 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (P. L )

3 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Definition of SWD Expanded 3 "For children ages 3 through 9, the term 'child with a disability' may, at the discretion of the state and the local education agency, include children who are experiencing developmental delays in one or more of the following areas: –physical development –cognitive development –communication development –social or emotional development –adaptive development” –IDEA Amendments of 1997 (P.L )

4 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Criteria for Receiving Special Education Services 4 In order to receive SPED services, children must –have the condition verified –and the need for services documented by an Individual Educational Plan (IEP) or “504 Plan"

5 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT “Specific Learning Disability” Defined as 5 “A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to –listen –think –speak –read –write –spell –do mathematical calculations” – Knoblauch, B. & B. Sorenson. (1998). IDEA’s definition of disabilities. ERIC Digest E560 ERIC Identifier: ED Reston, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, April 1998

6 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT6 The Term “Specific Learning Disabilities” Does Include “This term includes such conditions as –perceptual disabilities –brain injury –minimal brain dysfunction –Dyslexia –developmental aphasia.” – Knoblauch, B. & B. Sorenson. (1998). IDEA’s definition of disabilities. ERIC Digest E560 ERIC Identifier: ED Reston, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, April 1998

7 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT7 The Term “Specific Learning Disabilities” Does NOT Include “Children who have learning problems that are primarily the result of –visual –hearing –motor disabilities –mental retardation –environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage” –Knoblauch, B. & B. Sorenson. (1998). IDEA’s definition of disabilities. ERIC Digest E560 ERIC Identifier: ED Reston, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, April 1998

8 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT10 A Question of Access SWD Children Have to the Curriculum “Does the nature of these special youngsters alter the kinds of curricular aims they are supposed to be pursuing?”

9 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT11 The Answer... IDEA (P. L ) sends a strong message about the school's responsibility to include students with disabilities in the general education classroom and curriculum –IDEA [Section 614(d)(1)(A)(iii)].

10 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT12 Accommodated Access “with accommodations when necessary;” –IDEA [Section 614(d)(1)(A)(iii)].

11 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Curricular and Extra-curricular Inclusion 13 "...to be involved and progress in the general curriculum...and to participate in extracurricular and other nonacademic activities; and... to be educated and participate with other children with disabilities and nondisabled children...” –IDEA [Section 614(d)(1)(A)(iii)].

12 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education In a word… 14 “Inclusion.”

13 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT A Question of ‘Realistic Curricular Expectations’ 15 “What should a teacher’s curricular expectations realistically be for Students with Disabilities?”

14 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT The Range of Curricular Expectations from too High 16 "If too high, are we being cruel to students who struggle more than usual with life?"

15 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT17... to too low "If to low, are we failing to help Students with Disabilities achieve their full potential?"

16 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT “Realistic Curricular Expectations” Mean 18 All students can learn –in a learning progression within their ‘zone of development’ –with the general education targets clearly and ultimately in mind

17 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Definition of ‘Students with Disability’ (SWD) 19 That the general education curriculum appropriate to each student is... –The learning progression that is ultimately targeted to the general education outcome –Within the student’s current zone of development Not too easy Not too hard Independent with instructional scaffolding continuously and appropriately provided

18 Activity One This activity will help you answer the essential question: “How is an extended standards curriculum in math or reading aligned with academic standards in the general education curriculum? ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education 1 20

19 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Curriculum, Instruction, and Now Assessment 22 “How much latitude, if any, do teachers have in altering the assessments to be used with these children?"

20 Activity two This activity will help you answer the essential question: How does a teacher determine the curriculum and test type most appropriate for students?” ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education 2 23

21 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Determine Appropriate Curriculum and Test Type 24 General Education Curriculum –General Education Assessment –Modified Assessment Extended Standards Curriculum –Alternate Assessment

22 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Differentiated Instruction 25 Interactions between teacher and student allow for: –Individual student ownership –with access most adaptive to the student’s preferred learning style and modality –in a setting most conducive to the student’s best work

23 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Accommodations 26 Provide equitable access during instruction and assessments but do not reduce learning expectations

24 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT How to Adapt to the Student’s Learning Needs 28 without compromising content rigor without making the student overly dependent on the teacher's intervention

25 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT How to Determine Accommodations 29 Consider how students successfully access the curriculum on a regular basis in the presentation response timing and scheduling Setting of instruction

26 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT The Key Distinction 30 The nature of a curriculum target = “the construct” being tested.

27 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Third Grade Reading Comprehension Target 31 Standard: the student ‘reads and comprehends text across the curriculum.' Benchmark: the student 'comprehends a variety of texts,' and the Indicator for Assessing that Standard: ‘the student 'uses information from the text to make inferences and draw conclusions.'

28 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Changing the Construct 32 The “construct” of inferential reading comprehension is that the student independently infers meaning from written (or Brailed) text. If the student hears the text being read, the student’s inferential comprehension is now “re-constructed” by a change from ‘written’ inferential processing to ‘oral’ inferential processing. The construct of reading is changed.

29 Activity three This activity will answer the essential question: How does the use of a particular manipulative or instructional aid alter a test construct? ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education 3 33

30 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT “Modifications” vs “Accommodations” 35 “Modifications” change the construct of the content standard, reducing the rigor “Accommodations” –Mediate the effects of a student’s disability –provide access to the content standard, maintain the rigor but –provide a different way to it

31 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Effect of Accommodations on the Curriculum 36 Curriculum remains intact The construct is left un-changed Expectations for learning are not reduced

32 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Deciding Accommodations 37 So how does a teacher decide what accommodations are sufficient –to provide access to the general education content standard –without modifying, or reducing, the rigor of the standard?

33 Activity four This activity will help you answer the essential question: What accommodations are typically provided students during instruction at the grade level I teach? ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education 4 38

34 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Accommodations 39 On a regular basis during instruction In the least restrictive way Provide access to curricular content –By the way the teacher presents the curriculum –With opportunities to respond in a variety of ways –At times and with schedules more accessible –In a setting most conducive to best work

35 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Accommodation Categories 40 Presentation Response Timing/Scheduling Setting

36 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Accommodation by Modalities 41 visual –large print –magnification devices – sign language tactile –Braille –tactile graphics auditory –human reader –audio tape or CD –audio amplification multi-sensory presentations –video tape and descriptive video –screen reader –visual cues, journals and graphic organizers –written notes or outlines

37 Activity five This activity will help you address the essential question: How do I determine what accommodations are not permitted for my students on a particular district or State test? ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education 5 42

38 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Caveat #1 43 Not all accommodations used during instruction are permitted on state assessments For example, a screen reader is not allowed on any Kansas State Assessment –(See Kansas Accommodations Manual, January 2009, p. 12) Classroom posters and teacher or student-generated journals are also not allowed on the Kansas State Assessment –(See Kansas Assessment Examiner’s Manual, p.33) Check your state and local district guidelines for lists of allowable accommodations on state and local assessments

39 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Evaluate the Accommodation 44 Results for assignments and tests when the accommodation was used and when it was not used Student’s’ perceptions of how well an accommodation worked for him or her Effective combination of accommodations Difficulties experienced when using the accommodation Information from parents, teachers, and specialists about how the accommodation has worked

40 Activity six This activity will help you answer the essential question: How do I determine what manipulatives are not permitted for my students on a particular district or State test? ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education 6 45

41 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Some Typical Manipulatives 46 Typical manipulatives include but are not limited to... Base 10 blocks Chips, two-color counters, two-sided counters Clock or clock face Color tiles or squares Cubes, multilink, connecting, color, wooden, unfix, multilink cubes Cuisenaire rods Geoboards Geometric solids Graph paper Hundreds chart Integer number line Money Number cubes Pattern blocks Rulers, meter sticks, protractors, compass Snap blocks Spinners Transparent mirror or mira – Kansas Assessment Examiner’s Manual, p. 33.

42 Activity seven This activity will help you answer the essential question: How can I determine what classroom materials are not permitted for my students on a particular district or State test? ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education 7 47

43 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Instructional Aids 48 graph paper blank paper Calculators computational or fact tables Textbooks Dictionaries other instructional/curricular material

44 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Caveat #2 49 Some instructional aids permitted on all parts of norm-referenced, state, or local assessments Some instructional aids permitted on some parts of norm-referenced, state, or local assessments Some instructional aids not permitted on any part of norm-referenced, state, or local assessments Check examiner’s manuals and assessment policy statements for guidance

45 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Responsible Use of Test Aids 50 Used on a regular basis during instruction before the test Not introduced for the first time in a test situation Used solely at the discretion of the student Use not required or manipulated by the teacher or test proctor - the student chooses

46 Activity eight This activity will help you answer the essential question: How do I best prepare students with disabilities for district and State tests? ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education 8 52

47 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Preparing SWD for Testing 53 Same as for Gen Ed Students but Even More Necessary Test Approach Skills –Good nutrition –Adequate sleep –Relaxation techniques Test-taking skills. –Reading all options –Knowing the meaning of phrases like “find the one that is different” and “which one comes next in the following sequence?” Test preparedness –Understanding the purpose of the test –Knowing what items appear on the test –Understanding directions and scoring procedures specific to the test Direct instruction and practice linked to the test to be taken. –Elliott, J. L., Thurlow, M. L. & J. E. Ysseldyke. (2003). Testing Students with Disabilities. 2nd Edition. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press). p. 23

48 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Students with Disabilities Can Experience Much Success 54 when they receive careful test preparation persue learning progressions aligned with general education academic outcomes have access to a balanced use of –accommodations –Manipulatives –classroom materials that recognizes their ownership and independent functioning as learners

49 ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education 55 Their teachers... will be successful, as well!


Download ppt "ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT Kansas State Department of Education Question Teachers Should Ask…... in addressing the assessment needs of Students with Disabilities:"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google