Presentation on theme: "UNEP Initiative on Capacity Building for Integrated Assessment and Planning for Sustainable Development Mid-term Review Meeting Geneva, February 16-17,"— Presentation transcript:
UNEP Initiative on Capacity Building for Integrated Assessment and Planning for Sustainable Development Mid-term Review Meeting Geneva, February 16-17, 2005 Enhancing Capacity for Integrated Assessment and Planning for Sustainable Development in Colombia: Agricultural Trade Liberalization and its relationship with Biodiversity and Poverty Alleviation
Brief Description of the Project Objective To analyze the effects of the liberalization of agricultural trade on biodiversity, the sustainability of small scale farmers, and possible structural changes in agriculture and cattle production.
Brief Description of the Project Expected outcome Analysis of the decision planning process related with agricultural trade liberalization. Analysis of the process of incorporating biodiversity and poverty criteria on the decision making process. Identification of trends in, opportunities created by, and threats from the liberalization process. Identification of alternatives for implementation of priorities Achievement of agreements with the decision makers. Identification of policy mechanisms.
National Steering Committee Government institutions leading the project The project is led by The Ministry of Environment, Housing and Territorial Development, and the National Planning Department. Ministry Of Agriculture and Rural Development Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism Ministry of Interior and Justice With the collaboration of Colombian Agricultural Institute Interamerican Institute for Agricultural Cooperation Semillas Group
Selection of priority sectors Identification of key instances for decisions Identification of links between sector, environment, biodiversity and social aspects Stakeholders Analysis Official Implementation Monitoring and control Indicators Feed back system for continuous improvement Alternatives Analysis (trends, threads, opportunities) Participatory identification and construction of the proposals Priorities and Consensus Description of the Project Process Methodology for Integrated Assessment Interinstitutional Coordination
Identification of links between sector, environment, biodiversity and social aspects Priorization NEGOCIACIONES COMERCIALES AMUMAS Structural changes in agricultural production Effects over small scale farmers Food Security and Agro- Biodiversity. TRADE NEGOTIATIONS MEA
Selection of priority sectors Key Economic, Social and Environmental Issues Integrated Assessment TradeBiodiversity Poverty Agricultural Ecosystems Genetic Resources Income / Employment Food Security Agricultural Biodiversity Land use Productive systems Agriculture is the most closely related sector to Biodiversity
This planning process was selected because: The FTA is a concrete liberalization policy instrument. Colombia is currently involved in FTA negotiations with the US which will influence various aspects of long term national development policies. It presents a unique opportunity to influence a process of this magnitude on the domestic level Description and Rationale of the Planning Process The Free Trade Agreement – US And the Agricultural Internal Agenda
DIRECTIVE COUNCIL TECHNICAL SECRETARY NPD PUBLIC FORUMS REGIONALSECTORALTHEMATIC FTA NEGOTIATING TEAM Description and Rationale of the Planning Process Decision Planning Process for the Internal Agenda
Main gaps and weaknesses Substance The overall purpose is clear, but the planning process of the FTA and the Internal Agenda is not sufficiently open, as it hardly involves local communities. The FTA and Internal Agenda has separated chapters related to Economic, Environmental and Social issues but does not consider this issues in an integrated manner.
Main gaps and weaknesses of the process It is not clear –the participation of marginalized, weak, minority groups, in particular local communities. –the flow of information on the planning process related with such groups. –the role of these groups inside the trade policy objective –which are going to be their expectative and opportunities after the FTA. Despite the important dissemination instruments, the information related with the FTA and IA does not reach rural communities. Despite the effort, the process is not supported in a substantial budget that allows a wider participation. As well, the timeline has been very tight.
Government Partners National Planning Department Directorate of Rural Sustainable Development (primary beneficiary) Ministry of Agriculture (NSC) Ministry of Commerce (NSC)
Stakeholder Involvement Ministries (environment, interior, commerce, agriculture): Guide the project Provide Information Identify priorities Participate in national workshops National Planning Department Guide the project Provides Information Identifies priorities Helps with methodologies Participates in national workshops Other agricultural authorities (ICA, Corpoica) Guide the project Provide Information Identify priorities Participate in national workshops Regional Authorities (Agricultural Agencies – Umatas - regional) Logistical support Convoke local community meetings Provide Information Participate in workshops Private sector (Fedepalma – Fedipapa) Provide Information Study partners Academic institutions (Javeriana University – Cega): Provide Information Help with methodologies Participate in workshops Local communities: (Individual Farmers & Farm Associations) Participate in workshops NGOs: Convoke farmer & farm association meetings Participate in workshops International Institutions (IICA) Logistical support Provides Information Helps in methodologies Participates in workshops
Stakeholder Involvement Methods for stakeholder consultations and involvement Workshops & Meetings Consultations & Interviews WEB page http://www.humboldt.org.co/chmcolombia/servicios/jsp/comercio_agr icola/
Description of the Project Process Activities undertaken Background document: main relationships and priorities Official Project Launch – held in Aug 2004 First National Workshop –held in Sep 2004: Presentation of the methodology - The UNEP team participated Two regional Workshops Local communities (farmers), regional agricultural authorities and related NGOs.
Tools and methods The Integrated Assessment was focused on the small scale farms. The main focus is to find the economical, ecological and social relationships Deficiencies -Lack of information on agrobiodiversity, production systems, food security -Financial resources -No information available for small scale farmer Qualitative Tools Workshops with marginalized and weak represented groups to wide their participation on the planning process. Quick Agro – Ecological Assessments Validation of linkages by perception (Mental Maps) Semi – Structured Local Market Surveys Literature Reviews Quantitative Tools In order to analyze the linkage of the effect of the agricultural trade policy on the land use conflict. –Production Function Approach –Geographic Information System Tools (Desired)
Conceptual framework for food security and its relationship with Trade TRADE global national household & individuals individuals Global Food Availability National Net Imports of Food National Food Production National Food Availability Government Revenues Growth, Employment, Income distribution Household Incomes Household Food Access FoodSecurity CareHealth Other Basic Needs NutritionSecurity Source: IFPRI, TMD Discussion Paper No.59, 2000
Food Insecurity causes on rural families Low food availability and consumption on the family Low production for self-consumption Low purchasing power to buy food Low crop yields Scarce land endowment Low Soil Productivity Inappropriate technologies Inadequate soils for crops Inadequate use of soils Lack of knowledge Lack of inputs Low Incomes High food prices Lack of Permanent employment Low Salaries Low Sales revenues Geographic Isolation Low labor capacities High work demand Lack of Surplus for sale Seasonal Activities Source: FAO. 2001. Guía para la gestión municipal de programas de seguridad alimentaria No market for their products
Participation of small scale farmer’s production
Small scale farmers and indigenous communities agrobiodiversity ESPECIES Y VARIEDADES CULTIVADAS POR COMUNIDADES CAMPESINAS E INDIGENAS DE ESPECIAL INTERÉS PARA LA ALIMENTACIÓN Productos con estadísticas MADR (1991-2001) Tratado FAOGrupo Semillas Lista de cultivos alimentarios (Anexo I) Variedades locales de cultivos manejadas por organizaciones y comunidades campesinas e indigenas R. Andina 1 R. Caribe 2 Arroz: Secano Manual / TotalX 22 PapaX(--, 100, 41) CebadaX(--, 5, --) FríjolX(34, 12, 46)12 MaízX(20, 8, 22)32 TrigoX(--, 8, --) Caña de Azúcar (21, --, --) ÑameX 10 PlátanoX(22, --, --) Yuca 16 Café (8, --, --) 1 Especies y variedades cultivadas por organizaciones locales de la Zona Cafetera, la Provincia García Rovira de Santander y el ecosistema de la Laguna de la Cocha en Nariño. En paréntesis se indíca las especies y variedades encontradas en las zonas mencionadas: (Z. Cafetera, Santander, Nariño), se relacionan sólo aquellas que coinciden con los cultivos que tienen estadísticas oficiales. Adaptado de: Grupo Semillas (2004) "Cultivando la Diversidad en Colombia", Proyecto Cultivando la Diversidad, Bogotá, 2004, p. 33 2 Variedades de los cultivos tradicionales manejados por las comunidades indígenas y campesinas de la región Caribe, se relacionan sólo aquellas que coinciden con los cultivos que tienen estadísticas oficiales. Adaptado de: Grupo Semillas (2004) "Cultivando la Diversidad en Colombia", Proyecto Cultivando la Diversidad, Bogotá, 2004, p. 48
COLOMBIA: rural poverty and food security Rural population: 1938 = 70%; 1990 = 30%; 2001 = 25.5% Agricultural sector: 13.4% GDP (Producto Interno Bruto) One of the countries with worst income distribution in Latin America Increasing unemployment In 2000, statistics show a return to poverty levels from 1988 Fuente: DANE
COLOMBIA: rural poverty and food insecurity The contribution of imported food to the total daily per capita provision was almost duplicated between 1991 and 2001, from 10,1% to 19.6% –Imported food participation: cereals 50.5%; oils and fats 42%; vegetables (leguminosas) 60.5% Although the nutritional status of children less than 5 years has been improved, persists the problem of chronic undernourishment intensified in rural areas EVOLUCION DE LA DESNUTRICIÓN EN NIÑOS(AS) MENORES DE CINCO AÑOS NIVELES DE DESNUTRICIÓN 198619952000 CRÓNICA Talla Para la Edad TOTAL URBANA RURAL 16.615.0 12.5 19.1 13.5 10.8 19.4 GLOBAL Peso Para la Edad TOTAL URBANA RURAL 10.1 8.4 6.6 11.4 6.7 5.7 8.9 AGUDA Peso Para la Talla TOTAL URBANA RURAL 2.9 1.4 1.0 2.1 0.8 0.7 1.0 Fuente: MINISTERIO DE SALUD y PROFAMILIA. Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud, Colombia.
Conflict of Land Use 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 ForestAgriculturePastureOther Potential 32 98 2000 UsosPotencial193219982000 Forest69534854 Pasture1343.73536 Agric.162.444.4 Others2135 Fuente: IGAC 1998. Transformation of habitats and ecosystems
Preliminary Results Planning Process Rural and marginalized communities feel distant towards the decision planning process Considerable negative expectations regarding results of FTA negotiations due to asymmetric information flows Change of perceptions when information is provided Social Small scale farmers near extinction - Under-estimation of importance of Farm Economies - Decrease in the quality of food supply Economic Substantial decrease on rural income and employment Environmental and BD Lost of traditional practices Higher pressure for incremental production. – –More usage of agro – chemistry inputs –Expansion of agriculture frontier (Increase of pressure over natural eco- systems) –Productive systems less friendly with Biodiversity Loss of agriculture biodiversity
Preliminary Recommendations To successfully influence in the four main strategies of the Internal Agriculture Agenda Land & Water Land Planning Tools con BD criteria Value of Local communities function Instruments for assessment of the importance of the environmental services provided by Farm Economies – (e.g. In-Situ Conservation of Agrobiodiversity) Technological Innovation & Sanitary Admissibility Conversion to Friendlier Production Systems An agenda for Ecological Agriculture investigation Transaction Costs Stable Legal frame Farmers rights Capacity Building Incentives for in-situ conservation Conversion to Friendlier Production Systems
At least two more Regional Workshops Possibility of a Sub-sectorial workshop Evaluating the viability of implementation of a Geo-referencing Information System tool Economic Studies Build up of policy recommendations for the Internal Agenda