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Copyright © 1998 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 1 Chapter One Preliminaries, including –Why study PL concepts? –Programming domains –PL evaluation criteria –What influences PL design? –Tradeoffs faced by programming languages –Implementation methods –Programming environments
Copyright © 1998 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 2 Why study Programming Language Concepts? Increased capacity to express programming concepts Improved background for choosing appropriate languages Increased ability to learn new languages Understanding the significance of implementation Increased ability to design new languages Overall advancement of computing
Copyright © 1998 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 3 Programming Domains Scientific applications Business applications Artificial intelligence Systems programming Scripting languages Special purpose languages
Copyright © 1998 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 4 Language Evaluation Criteria Readability Writability Reliability Cost Etc…
Copyright © 1998 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 5 Evaluation Criteria: Readability How is it for one to read and understand programs written in the PL? Arguably the most important criterion! Factors effecting readability include: –Overall simplicity »Too many features is bad Orthogonality »Makes the language easy to learn and read »Meaning is context independent –Control statements –Data type and structures –Syntax considerations
Copyright © 1998 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 6 Evaluation Criteria: Writability How easy is it to write programs in the language? Factors effecting writability: –Simplicity and orthogonality –Support for abstraction –Expressivity –Fit for the domain and problem
Copyright © 1998 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 7 Evaluation Criteria: Reliability Factors: - Type checking - Exception handling - Aliasing - Readability and writability
Copyright © 1998 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 8 Evaluation Criteria: Cost Categories: –Programmer training –Software creation –Compilation –Execution –Compiler cost –Poor reliability –Maintenance
Copyright © 1998 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 9 Evaluation Criteria: others Portability Generality Well-definedness Etc…
Copyright © 1998 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 10 Language Design Influences Computer architecture -We use imperative languages, at least in part, because we use von Neumann machines -John von Neuman is generally considered to be the inventor of the "stored program" digital computer - the class to which most of today's computers belong. -CPU+memory which contains both program and data -Focus on moving data and program instructions between registers in CPU to memory locations
Copyright © 1998 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 11 Language Design Influences: Programming methodologies 1950s and early 1960s: Simple applications; worry about machine efficiency Late 60s: People efficiency became important; readability, better control structures. maintainability Late 70s: Data abstraction Middle 80s: Object-oriented programming 95-today: distributed programs, the Web
Copyright © 1998 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 12 Language Categories The big four: Imperative or procedural (e.g. Fortran, C) Functional (e.g. Lisp, ML) Rule-based (e.g. Prolog) Object-oriented (e.g. Smalltalk, Java) Others: Scripting (e.g. Perl, Tcl/Tk) Constraint (e.g. Eclipse)
Copyright © 1998 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 13 Language Design Trade-offs Reliability versus cost of execution Ada, unlike C, checks all array indices to ensure proper range. Writability versus readability (2 = 0 +.= T o.| T) / T <- iN is an APL one liner that produces a list of the prime numbers from 1 to N inclusive. Flexibility versus safety C, unlike Java, allows one to do arithmetic on pointers.
Copyright © 1998 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 14 Implementation methods Direct execution by hardware –e.g., machine language Compilation to another language –e.g., C Interpretation –Direct execution by software –e.g., csh, Lisp (traditionally) Hybrid –Compilation to another language (aka bytecode) which is then interpreted –e.g., Java, Perl
Copyright © 1998 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 15 Implementation issues Complexity of compiler/interpreter Speed of translation Speed of execution Portability of translated code Compactness of translated code Debugging ease compileinterpret hybrid
Copyright © 1998 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 16 Programming Environments The collection of tools used in software development, often including an integrated editor, debugger, compiler, collaboration tool, etc. Examples: –UNIX -- Operating system with tool collection –EMACS – a highly programmable text editor –Borland C++ -- A PC environment for C and C++ –Smalltalk -- A language processor/environment –Microsoft Visual C++ -- A large, complex visual environment –Your favorite Java environment: Jbuilder, J++, …
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