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Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Introduction to Foreign Animal Disease (FAD’s)

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Presentation on theme: "Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Introduction to Foreign Animal Disease (FAD’s)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Introduction to Foreign Animal Disease (FAD’s) and Zoonosis Global Animal Diseases of Economic and Human Health Importance Are a Constant Risk to North America Introduction to Foreign Animal Disease (FAD’s) and Zoonosis Global Animal Diseases of Economic and Human Health Importance Are a Constant Risk to North America R.B. Baker, DVM, MS Senior Clinician ISU Swine Section VDPAM 445

2 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University “High Fever/Blue Ear Disease” China December 2007

3 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University 母猪 The Sows have a high Fever and vomit

4 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University 母猪流产 Sows abort 大、中猪死亡 many pigs of different ages died

5 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Wheel Barrow of the Living Dead

6 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University 死亡猪只 High Mortality Empty Pigpens

7 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Foot and Mouth Disease Virus It may be the most contagious viral disease of mammalsIt may be the most contagious viral disease of mammals –Small dose –Large amount excreted –Survives in a variety of conditions

8 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Foot and Mouth Disease Virus Incubation is 2 – 14 daysIncubation is 2 – 14 days High morbidity – low mortalityHigh morbidity – low mortality Many modes of transmissionMany modes of transmission

9 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Foot and Mouth Disease Virus Seven SerotypesSeven Serotypes  A, O, C  Asia 1  South African Territories 1 (SAT-1)  SAT-2  SAT-3 Many sub-types have evolvedMany sub-types have evolved

10 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University PCVAC – NC 2005

11 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University FMD - Structure

12 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University FMD – Methods of Spread

13 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State UniversityFMD

14 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University

15 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University FMD – UK Break Started in Pigs but spread by Sheep MovementStarted in Pigs but spread by Sheep Movement A 7 day lag time – first case identifiedA 7 day lag time – first case identified Spread over the IslesSpread over the Isles Test and remove, circle testing, quarantine, other traditional methodsTest and remove, circle testing, quarantine, other traditional methods Some areas lost 90% of their domestic animalsSome areas lost 90% of their domestic animals Ignorance and complacencyIgnorance and complacency

16 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Index Case - pig farm in SE GB

17 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Trucking moved virus to Sheep herds back to transport ↔ sheep ↔ other species Airborne routes were also likely

18 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Cumulative Animal Destruction

19 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University

20 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University

21 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University

22 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University

23 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University

24 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Vesicular lesions = pain

25 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University

26 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University

27 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Animal destruction as a means of control is Ancient but often effective

28 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University FMD – A preferred agent of Terrorists ? Both Domestic and Foreign GroupsBoth Domestic and Foreign Groups Easily Carried to the USEasily Carried to the US Not detectable by airport screeningNot detectable by airport screening Rapid spread to multiple sites could destroy animal agriculture in the USRapid spread to multiple sites could destroy animal agriculture in the US

29 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State UniversityZoonosisZoonosis Diseases that spread from vertebrate animals to humansDiseases that spread from vertebrate animals to humans –Biologic and mechanical vectors –Direct exposure to animals –Fomites 75% of human infectious disease75% of human infectious disease Exogenous RetrovirusesExogenous Retroviruses

30 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Zoonosis Some of the primary sources: –Exotic pets –Wet markets - Asia –Bush meat – Africa and Asia –Encroachment into Re-forested lands –Encroachment – deforestation etc. –Domestic pets –Domestic livestock –Wildlife contact

31 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Published by AAAS J. L. Heeney et al., Science 313, (2006) Fig. 1. Possible cross-species transmission events giving rise to SIVcpz as a recombinant of different monkey-derived SIVs

32 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Published by AAAS B. F. Keele et al., Science 313, (2006) Fig. 3. Phylogenetic analysis of SIVcpzPtt strains from wild P. t. troglodytes apes

33 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Malta Fever (Brucellosis) Sir David Bruce 1887 B. melitensis B. abortus B. suis B. canis –B. ovis, B. neotomae B. cetaceae B. pinnipediae They are not sustainable in humans Will always re-emerge from wild reservoirs

34 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Hepititis E Virus Calicivirus – single strand - RNA (ps) Developing Countries Present in Pork – liver – Recent survey Normal route of infection is fecal-oral Pregnant women have high case mortality rates (25%)

35 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University

36 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University

37 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Other North American Zoonosis Salmonelloses – Pygmy hedgehogs, iguanas, komodo dragons, turtles, Borrelia burgdorferi - Lyme Disease Bovine tuberculosis – captive deer Rabies Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pigs, cats, dogs? Petting zoos – O157:H7, Salmonella,

38 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University

39 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Zoonosis and SE Asia

40 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Q-Fever (Coxiella burnetti)

41 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Zoonosis and SE Asia South East Asia is a melting pot of viral diseases –Different levels of personal hygiene –Different levels of exposure Wild, domestic, human, and avian animals live in close contact –Often Little separation & no biosecurity

42 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Zoonosis and the World IssuesIssues –We have become a global society –Animal trade – legal and illegal –Time lag between first case and a functional response –Animal sources and human exposure? –Little livestock biosecurity in most of the world

43 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Paramyxoviridae and the Fruit Bat Connection

44 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Zoonosis and SE Asia

45 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Henipavirus Nipah & Hendra Closely related viruses found in Flying Foxes (Fruit Bats)Closely related viruses found in Flying Foxes (Fruit Bats) Recent out breaks have been in horses, pigs, and humansRecent out breaks have been in horses, pigs, and humans Australia, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Singapore, and other parts of SE AsiaAustralia, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Singapore, and other parts of SE Asia Viruses cause Encephalitis in HumansViruses cause Encephalitis in Humans 1994 – 2006 sporadic outbreaks 1994 – 2006 sporadic outbreaks

46 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Zoogeographical Range of Flying Foxes

47 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Nipah Virus

48 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Nipah virus spread

49 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Nipah – 1.1 million pigs 141 Humans

50 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Nipah Outbreak

51 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Zoonosis and SE Asia

52 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Other Zoonosis of SE Asia Lyssavirus – Rabies like virus of batsLyssavirus – Rabies like virus of bats Menangle – Bat to pig in AustraliaMenangle – Bat to pig in Australia Tioman – Isolated from flying foxesTioman – Isolated from flying foxes Ross River virus – biting vectorsRoss River virus – biting vectors Barmah Forest virus – mosquitoBarmah Forest virus – mosquito SARS Virus – direct contact – Civets or Horseshoe bats?SARS Virus – direct contact – Civets or Horseshoe bats?

53 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Other Zoonosis of SE Asia Chikungunya virus – alphavirus – mosquitoChikungunya virus – alphavirus – mosquito Japanese Encephalitis - mosquitoJapanese Encephalitis - mosquito Dengue Fever Virus – mosquitoDengue Fever Virus – mosquito HIVHIV Hand foot and Mouth Disease of humans – enterovirus (coxsackievirus)Hand foot and Mouth Disease of humans – enterovirus (coxsackievirus)

54 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Zoonosis and SE Asia

55 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Zoonosis of SE Asia

56 Food Supply Veterinary Services Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University Thanks


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