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The Evolution of the “NEW DEFINITION” of Reading of the 1980s to Close and Critical Reading of the 21 st Century Michigan Reading Association Summer Literature.

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Presentation on theme: "The Evolution of the “NEW DEFINITION” of Reading of the 1980s to Close and Critical Reading of the 21 st Century Michigan Reading Association Summer Literature."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Evolution of the “NEW DEFINITION” of Reading of the 1980s to Close and Critical Reading of the 21 st Century Michigan Reading Association Summer Literature Conference July 8 th and 9 th, 2014 Mackinac Island Dr. Elaine M. Weber Macomb Intermediate School District

2 Who among you remembers the New Definition of Reading?

3 Reading is the process of constructing meaning through the dynamic interaction among the reader’s existing knowledge, the information suggested by the written language, and the context of the reading situation. uery&qs=ds&form=QBVR#view=detail&mid=C219F301B4B886C80B0FC219F301B4B8 86C80B0http:// uery&qs=ds&form=QBVR#view=detail&mid=C219F301B4B886C80B0FC219F301B4B8 86C80B0F

4 Research from the late sixties into the eighties focused on schema theory, prior knowledge, what good readers do when they read. This led Michigan to create what they called, the “New” Definition of Reading. It looked for the first time at the active role that the “reader” plays in constructing meaning from text. Reader Text Context (purpose)

5 This new attention on the reader grew larger and larger …sometimes viewed as more important than the text. Reader Text Context Prior Knowledge Schema Theory

6 And with the definition came the … Reading Strategies

7 The Reading Strategies survived the purge of research with The “ What Works Clearinghouse” of the Reading First era. P.David Pearson used the wisdom of Kenny Rogers to caution us about the use of the strategies “to know when to hold them, know when to fold them, know when to walk away.” Stephanie Harvey put them to work in “Strategies that Work.” Reading Strategies Thrived!

8 We created a card game, “Stack the Deck for Reading Comprehension.” using the reading strategies of Stephanie Harvey. Students were videotaped using the card game with their text books. It was while watching that video, I realized the strategies, even synthesizing, were only getting students to tell what the text said. It was then that I looked for a protocol that would take students beyond the text.

9 Success! I found a protocol on Dan Kurland’s website called, “What is Critical Reading?” The protocol uses three questions: What does the text say? How does the text say it? What does the text mean?

10 These three questions with one addition, What does the text mean to me?, served as the structure for the development of the Michigan Department of Education HSCE units for meeting the MMC requirements Since that time, Michigan literacy educators have used the four questions to move students’ thinking about text to ahas, new insights, and encouraged them to think generatively about ideas in text.

11 Close and Critical Reading and the Common Core Reading Standards  What does the text say?  How does the text say it?  What does it mean? Key Ideas and Details 1.Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. 2.Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. 3.Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. Craft and Structure 4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. 5. Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g. a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. 6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7.Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. 8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. 9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take

12 Key Ideas and Details 1.Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. 2.Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. 3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. The Reading Strategies support these 3 standards with EVIDENCE from the texts.

13 Strategies that Work with EVIDENCE Strategies That Work by Stephanie Harvey and Ann Goudvis 1. asking questions 2. visualizing 3. determining importance 4. synthesizing 5. inferring 6. making connections 7. repairing comprehension Turn to a partner and together decide where you would use one of these strategies with this excerpt from Letter from the Fringe.

14 Compare what you and your partner found as places in the story where you could use “strategies that work” with the sample handout of the story that has been analyzed for strategy use.

15 The next three standards expect a different kind of reading. Craft and Structure 4.Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. 5.Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole 6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.

16 Guided Highlighted Reading for Craft. Prepare with a copy of the text and a highlighter pen to respond to the prompts.

17 Standards 4, 5, and 6 are all about the text! How it was developed, how it is structured and from what point of view it was written. reader TEXT context

18 text context (purpose) reader What does the text mean ? Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. 8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. 9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.

19 Couple, A Letter from the Fringe with diverse media--- Standard 7: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively as well as in words.

20 What does the cartoon say? How does the cartoon say it? What does the cartoon mean?

21 What is the issue? What is the claim? What are the reasons? What is the evidence? What is the counterargument? What is the rebuttal? What is the resolution? Standard 8: Delineate and evaluate the argument and the specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevancy and sufficiency of the evidence.

22 Or put two texts together … Standard 9: Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. Quindlen, Anna. “A Quilt of a Country.” Newsweek September 27, (2001) America is an improbable idea. A mongrel nation built of ever-changing disparate parts, it is held together by a notion, the notion that all men are created equal, though everyone knows that most men consider themselves better than someone. “Of all the nations in the world, the United States was built in nobody’s image,” the historian Daniel Boorstin wrote. That’s because it was built of bits and pieces that seem discordant, like the crazy quilts that have been one of its great folk-art forms, velvet and calico and checks and brocades. Out of many, one. That is the ideal.

23 Both pieces deal with the concept of diversity. In “A Quilt of a Country.” think of all the ways the author let us know America is made of diverse parts. Share your findings with a partner.

24 How has reading changed in 31 years since the “new” definition of reading?  Balancing the triangle has brought more attention to the “ text ” – close reading, author ’ s craft, text structure, text-dependent questions and evidence from the text.  Using text to read for different purposes broadens the reader ’ s perspective and extends possibilities for thinking with the text: Reading for argument, theme, theory, craft, and perspective.  Having students consider what the text says as well as how it has been written, offers more insight for critical analysis of the text.

25 And just think, how many times did you read A letter from the Fringe for different reasons? How many ways did you “think” about this text?


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