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EXPERIMENTING WITH EFFICIENCY Reducing Energy Use in University Laboratories Sun Saluters Jae-Beom Bae, Adithya Dahagama, Arman Golrokhian, Alexander Schapira,

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Presentation on theme: "EXPERIMENTING WITH EFFICIENCY Reducing Energy Use in University Laboratories Sun Saluters Jae-Beom Bae, Adithya Dahagama, Arman Golrokhian, Alexander Schapira,"— Presentation transcript:

1 EXPERIMENTING WITH EFFICIENCY Reducing Energy Use in University Laboratories Sun Saluters Jae-Beom Bae, Adithya Dahagama, Arman Golrokhian, Alexander Schapira, Lauren White Better Buildings Case Competition 2014 United States Department of Energy

2 Introduction: The Problem Research labs consume 40-50% of a university’s energy bills Energy savings in labs not priority for stakeholders Stakeholders: a) Federal Agencies b) Grant-Making Entities c) Universities d) University Labs Easiest to Influence

3 Introduction: Our Solution 1. Green Revolving Fund (GRF) Fund raised to finance energy efficient equipment a) Facility-efficiency b) Research-related Regenerate via savings 2. EcoTeam Faculty & Student-based organization Two purposes: a) “Energy consultants” to labs and manage GRF b) Lead green movement in campus

4 GREEN REVOLVING FUND The financial source of energy efficiency projects

5 Green Revolving Fund: Overview Fund that finances energy efficiency projects Sources: External Loans Endowment & Investment Student Fees Donations Grants Regenerates via energy savings from projects

6 Green Revolving Fund: Application Process 2 Types of Applications 1. Facility Efficiency Equipment Ventilation, Lighting, HVAC 2. Research-specific Equipment Extracted From:

7 Green Revolving Fund: Selection Criteria 3 Main Criteria 1. Economic Performance Capital Intensity Rate of Return Payback Period 2. Number of Projects 3. Environmental Benefit Varies by research lab’s location

8 Green Revolving Fund: Tracking Savings Projection-based Savings attributed via projections Pros Less capital intensive Less complex Cons Inaccurate Metering-based Savings attributed via energy meters Pros Accurate More reliable Cons Expensive & Complex

9 ECOTEAMS A behavioral best practice for energy conservation

10 A Need for Durable Behavior Change We reviewed behavioral best practices How to instill ethos of environmental concern? Behavior change is “lowest-hanging fruit” Example: Laboratory Fume Hoods (750,000 hoods in U.S.) Simple closure could save $1.39 billion / year in energy costs Small behavioral changes significantly curtail energy consumption

11 EcoTeam: An Overview Used worldwide Teams of affected stakeholders themselves (lab staff!) Social-support and peer-based team Managers know energy conservation measures are important, but… “Value-action gap” + barriers to implementation Education + procedural guidance + timely feedback = most effective

12 EcoTeam: Responsibilities Green Revolving Fund Manage GRF Act as “energy task force” Serve as central clearinghouse for resources and best practices Apply for rebates (retrofits, utility) Maintain inventory of equipment Green Movement Offer consulting, elective auditing Provide frequent, solutions-based communications Partner with Campus Sustainability Office

13 EcoTeam: Strategies Set clear, achievable intention Post mini-goals publicly Celebrate small successes en route to larger objective Pledges & commitments Prompts (magnets, stickers at decision point) Friendly competitions Huddles

14 EcoTeam: Leadership Strong support from upper management is critical (EPA) Charismatic, known and liked  Internal Champion Sustainability Officer, perhaps? Salary investment small compared to energy expenditures on equipment

15 Sustainability Officer’s Funding and Salary Sources of funding for sustainability officer positions Average salary for sustainability officers ($US), dependent upon years of prior experience

16 A Note About Incentives… Effective short-term kickstarter strategy, but… Create precedent that behavior without reward is not worth doing Behavior that is intrinsically rewarding becomes the incentive Emphasize non-material rewards, but provide a choice Team member can select what best meets his/her needs Sense of empowerment

17 Eudaemonic vs. Hedonic? Non-material rewards create “eudaemonic” well-being Long-term, positive effects and lasting change Enhanced immune system functioning Reduced absenteeism, increased productivity Motivation to continue conservation behavior Material or extrinsic rewards create “hedonic” well-being Does not have same benefits

18 Additional Thoughts EcoTeam framework allows flexibility of design Adaptable to institution Unique team members shape approach & impact EcoTeam resources available online Involve the student body! Incorporate academics Automation Smart metering to identify energy “sinks” and most impactful behavior

19 GOVERNMENT RECOMMENDATIONS A more energy efficient policy world

20 Government Recommendations Policy-makers (e.g. OMB, CEQ) Make application for the GRF an optional step in the grant application process Guide agencies to insert sustainability requirements in general grant clauses to better meet sustainability goals of Executive Order 13514. Grant-making entities (e.g. NIH, CDC) Make sustainability a part of the mission statement Energy efficiency post-award requirements Define & Enforce the requirements Monitoring is taken care of by the university’s EcoTeam

21 Government Recommendations Both Award grants to universities that require funding to initiate GRF Rely on EcoTeams for energy efficiency tracking Hold annual meetings to… Review sustainability performances & trends Understand grant-making entities’ issues with handling sustainability policies Review regulations that involve energy efficiency for grant-making


23 Implications Capital Cost GRF Funding: $10,000 ~ $1,500,000 Operating Cost EcoTeam - Office, Staff, Events, IT Potential Energy Savings Ventilation : 40-70% kWh electricity Heating: 35-50% gas Cooling: 67-28% gas Lighting: 26-56% electricity

24 Assumptions 1. GRF has sufficient funding to sustain lab-wide energy efficiency projects 2. Projects’ IRR higher than interest rate 3. University faculty interested 4. Sustainability Coordinator (energy efficiency expert) can be hired

25 Conclusion 1. Green Revolving Fund Finance energy efficiency projects in labs Share savings with labs 2. EcoTeam a) Oversee GRF & Provide consulting services Facilitate application process for labs Ensure most efficient projects are awarded b) Green Movement 3. Government Recommendations Enforce sustainability policies Leverage GRF & EcoTeam Annual meetings

26 Thank you. Questions?

27 References AASHE. (2008). Higher Education Sustainability Officer Position and Salary Survey. Lexington: AASHE. Bloodhart, B., Swim, J. K., & Zawadzki, M. J. (2013). Spreading the Eco-Message: Using Proactive Coping to Aid Eco- Rep Behavior Change Programming. Sustainability, 1661-1679. Chen, A. (2013, February 01). Big Energy Savings in The New York Times Building Confirmed by Berkeley Lab Study. Retrieved from Environmental Energy Technologies Division (EETD): energy-savings-in-the-new-york-times-building-confirmed-by-berkeley-lab-study De Young, R. (1996). Environment and Behavior. Washington D.C.: Sage Publications. EPA. (2014). Energy Efficiency Program Best Practices. Washington D.C.: EPA. Retrieved from EPA. Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). A functional genomic perspective on human well-being. Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, 13684–13689. Green Billion. (2014, February 18). Harvard Green Loan Fund. Retrieved from Billion Dollar Green Challenge: Ilies, R., Morgeson, F. P., & Nahrgang, J. D. (2005). Authentic leadership and eudaemonic well-being: Understanding leader–follower outcomes. East Lansing: Elsevier. Kaplowitz, M. D. (2012, Nov.). Energy conservation attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors in science laboratories. ScienceDirect, 581-591. Retrieved from MIT. (2007, June 1). Cutting fume hoods' hours saves energy and money. Retrieved from MITnews: National Audubon Society. (2013). Influencing Conservation Action. New York: National Audubon Society. Woolliams, J., Lloyd, M., & Spengler, J. D. (2005). The case for sustainable laboratories: first steps at Harvard University. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 363-382. NationalGrid. (2003). Managing Energy Costs in Colleges and Universities. Boulder: E Source Companies LLC. Retrieved from National Grid U.S. Reindorf, L., & Goldman, M. (2011, February 14). Retrofitting labs to reduce energy consumption. Retrieved from Laboratory Design: Somervell, D. (2011, June 01). S-Lab Briefing 2: Understanding Laboratory Energy Consumption. Retrieved from I2SL: Staats, H., Harland, P., & Wilke, H. A. (2004, May). Effecting Durable Change. Environment and Behavior, 341-367. Retrieved from U.S. Chamber of Commerce. (2013, March 12). MAP: Retail Electricity Prices by State. Retrieved from Institute for 21st Century Energy: U.S. Department of Energy. (2013, Nov.). Better Buildings. Experimenting with Efficiency: Greening the Grant Process for Research Institutions. Washington D.C., Washington D.C., United States. University of California Irvine. (2013). Smart Laboratories Cut Energy Consumption More Than Half. Irvine: University of California Irvine. Weiss, J. (2013, February 20). Revolving Credit – All Grown Up. Retrieved from UNC Environmental Finance Center: White, F. (2012, April 19). Save big on heating, cooling costs with efficiency controls. Retrieved from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Wikipedia. (2014, February 3). List of research universities in the United States. Retrieved from Wikipedia:

28 Metering-based tracking special scenario Labs funded by GRF are metered Equipment can move beyond boundaries University pays “Expected savings” to GRF

29 Representative Lab Consumption Profile Study conducted by I2SL Consumption Ranking: 1. Ventilation 2. Heating/Cooling 3. Research-specific equipment 4. Lighting

30 Regional Difference in Grid Composition Grid’s composition of sources vary from region to region GRF Criteria 3 ensures optimal environmental impacts

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