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DIABETES MANAGEMENT: DIFFERENT TREATMENTS FOR DIFFERENT TIMES Faith Pollock, APRN, CNS, CDE.

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Presentation on theme: "DIABETES MANAGEMENT: DIFFERENT TREATMENTS FOR DIFFERENT TIMES Faith Pollock, APRN, CNS, CDE."— Presentation transcript:

1 DIABETES MANAGEMENT: DIFFERENT TREATMENTS FOR DIFFERENT TIMES Faith Pollock, APRN, CNS, CDE

2 Objectives 1. Verbalize types of diabetes and diagnostic criteria. 2. Discuss the management options for diabetes. 3. Discuss the perioperative management of patients with diabetes.

3 Number of Americans with Diagnosed Diabetes, 1980-2009 www.cdc.gov

4 New Cases of Diagnosed Diabetes National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse. National Diabetes Statistics, 2011. Available at: http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/statistics/ Source: 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey estimates projected to the year 2010

5 Oral medication only 58% No medication 16% Insulin only 12% Insulin and oral medication 14% Treatment of Diabetes National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse. National Diabetes Statistics, 2011. Available at: http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/statistics/

6 Types of Diabetes  Type 1 diabetes  Beta-cell destruction  Do NOT make insulin  Type 2 diabetes  Progressive deficit of insulin secretion  Do make insulin, but resistant and decreases over time  Others  Gestational  Chemical or drug induced  Disease

7 Diagnosis of Diabetes ADA. 2. Classification and Diagnosis. Diabetes Care 2015;38(suppl 1):S9-10; Table 2.1and 2.3 A1cFasting glucose2-h post OGTT glucose Diabetes ≥6.5%≥126 mg/dL≥200 mg/dL Pre- Diabetes 5.7– 6.4% 100–125 mg/dL140–199 mg/dL

8 Medications for Diabetes  Oral agent  9 categories 5 categories mostly used  Non-insulin injectable  2 categories  Insulin  5 categories

9 Oral Medications  Biguanides   hepatic glucose production metformin Liver  Sulfonylureas   insulin secretion glyburide glipizide glimepiride Pancreas

10 Oral Medications (2)  TZDs   insulin sensitivity pioglitazone rosiglitazone Muscle  DPP-4 Inhibitors   insulin secretion (with food)   glucagon secretion sitagliptin saxagliptin linagliptin alogliptin Pancreas and Liver

11 Oral Medications (3)  SGLT2 Inhibitors  Blocks glucose reabsorption by the kidney  glucosuria canagliflozin deapagliflozin empagliflozin Kidney

12 Non-insulin Injectables  GLP-1 Receptor Agonists   insulin secretion (with food)   glucagon secretion  Slows gastric emptying   satiety exenatide exenatide extended release liraglutide albiglutide dulaglutide

13 Non-insulin Injectables (2)  Amylin Mimetics   glucagon secretion  Slows gastric emptying   satiety pramlintide

14 Insulins  Basal  Controls glucose when NOT eating

15 Insulins (2)  Short and Rapid-acting  To bolus for meals or to correct high glucose

16 Insulins (3)  Mixed (basal and short or rapid-acting)

17 0600 Time of day 20 40 60 80 100 BLD Insulins Compared to Normal Insulin Profile B=breakfast; L=lunch; D=dinner 0600 0800 1800 12002400 0600 Insulin glargine / determir aspart / lispro / glulisine Regular NPH

18 Components of Insulin Pumps Infusion Set Reservoir (for insulin) Picture from diabetes.niddk.nih.gov Very thin cannula in subcutaneous tissue

19 How Does a Pump Work?  Reservoir is filled with rapid acting insulin  Infusion set—  administers insulin SQ 24 hours/day  often placed in the abdomen, thigh or hip/buttock area  patient can disconnect pump from the infusion set and reconnect later (exception: disposable pumps)  Pump programmed to administer—  Basal – continuous rate/hour to maintain glucose control when NOT eating  Prandial – bolus per patient for nutrition intake  Correction – bolus per patient for high glucose  Patient should NOT be disconnected from the pump for more than 1 to 2 hours 19

20 Meal Planning with Diabetes

21 Carbohydrate Foods Starch (bread, rice, potatoes pasta, cereal) Fruit and fruit juices Milk and yogurt Sweets Digested Glucose from Carbohydrate foods Bloodstream 2004 Adapted from International Diabetes Center, Minneapolis

22 Preoperative Assessment  A detailed history of diabetes therapy is essential to guide the practitioner in preoperative instructions  medication therapy  characteristics of the surgery when the patient must stop eating prior to the procedure timing of the procedure duration of the procedure

23 Clinic Assessment  Type of diabetes  type 1 patients CANNOT be without insulin  Does patient reliably glucose monitor  A1c  How well has the patient been controlling glucose?  Should elective surgery be postponed? Comorbidity risk Wound healing Risk of infection

24 97 126 154 183 212 240 269 298 326 10 6 7 8 9 5 11 12 13 Estimated Average Blood Glucose (mg/dL) over 3 to 4 months A1C (Percent) Normal 4 to 6% A1c

25 Clinic Assessment (2)  Hypoglycemia  Symptomatic of hypoglycemia?  At what glucose level is patient symptomatic?  When does hypoglycemia usually occur? Hypoglycemia is defined by the American Diabetes Association as a blood glucose less than 70 mg/dL. Some patients have symptoms at higher glucose levels.

26 Clinic Assessment  Oral diabetes medication  Insulin  Hypoglycemic injectables  Inhalable insulin Obtain dose and specific timing

27 Pre-Surgery Medication Guidelines Oral Diabetes MedicationsGuidelines See List BelowHold dose(s) the day of procedure. metformin glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride sitagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, alogliptin, vildagliptin canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin pioglitazone, rosiglitazone acarbose, miglitol repaglinide, nateglinide combinations of these drugs

28 Pre-Surgery Medication Guidelines (2) InsulinGuidelines Rapid-acting or short-acting (Regular, lispro, aspart, glulisine) Hold scheduled mealtime dose the day of procedure. If using sliding (correction) scale insulin, dose according to scale to correct elevated glucoses. Long-acting (glargine, detemir) If taking ONLY glargine or detemir: Take 75% of usual dose evening before procedure. Take 75% of usual morning dose day of procedure. If taking glargine or determir with meal time insulin: Take usual dose evening before procedure. Take 75% of usual morning dose day of procedure. Intermediate (NPH) Take usual dose evening before procedure. Take 50% of usual morning dose day of procedure.

29 Pre-Surgery Medication Guidelines (3) InsulinGuidelines Mixed Insulin: (70/30, 75/25, 50/50) Take usual dose evening before procedure. Hold dose day of procedure. Recommend contacting the patient’s provider for further orders. Insulin Concentrated: R-U-500 Take 50% usual dose evening before procedure. Hold dose day of procedure. Recommend contacting the patient’s provider for further orders. Insulin Pumps Continue BASAL rate only. Decrease BASAL rate by 25% the day of procedure. Instruct patient to bring extra pump supplies to the procedure. Inhalable Insulin: Afreeza ® Hold scheduled mealtime dose day of procedure.

30 Pre-Surgery Medication Guidelines (4) Hypoglycemic InjectablesGuidelines albiglutide dulaglutide exenatide, exenatide XR liraglutide pramlintide Hold dose(s) day of procedure.

31 Pre-Surgery Glucose Management  OUTPATIENTS  Monitor glucose morning of procedure and every 4 hours until procedure  Correct HYPERglycemia per usual routine if using sliding (correction) scale insulin  For symptoms of HYPOglycemia or blood glucose 100 mg/dL.  Hospital or procedure areas will manage glucose upon arrival.

32 Pre-Surgery Glucose Management (2)  INPATIENTS  Monitor glucose prior to procedure  Correct HYPERglycemia per sliding (correction) scale insulin or per physician order  Follow HYPOglycemia protocol if needed  Preoperative nursing will manage glucose per Anesthesia orders after arrival to surgical area

33 Hyperglycemia Pre-Surgery  Causes  Inappropriate discontinuation of diabetes medication  History of poor glucose control  Stress hyperglycemia  When to post-pone surgery  Acute complications of hyperglycemia Dehydration Ketoacidosis Hyperosmolar nonketotic state

34 Hypoglycemia Pre-Surgery Hypoglycemia is defined by the American Diabetes Association as a blood glucose less than 70 mg/dL. Some patients have symptoms at higher glucose levels.  Follow hypoglycemia protocol  D50 IV  Dextrose containing IV fluids

35 Intra and Post-Operative Management  Glucose goal  Patient outcomes  Insulin therapy  Insulin pumps

36 Intraoperative Glucose Goal  Patients with well controlled glucose  100-180 mg/dL  120-180 mg/dL for coronary bypass surgery  Patient with poorly controlled glucose  Preop glucose baseline Symptomatic of hypoglycemia at normal glucose Increased oxidative stress with glucose reduction

37 Postoperative Outcomes  Retrospective study in 55,408 noncardiac surgeries  Higher rates of postoperative infection were associated with a mean 24 hour postoperative serum glucose concentrations of 150 mg/dL or higher King, J.T., et. al. (2011). Glycemic control and infections in patients with diabetes undergoing noncardiac surgery. Annals of Surgery. 253(1), 158-165.

38 Postoperative Outcomes (2)  Perioperative hyperglycemia (>180 mg/dL) was associated with adverse outcomes in general surgery patients with and without diabetes (11, 633)  Reoperative interventions  Infections  Death  Patients with hyperglycemia on the day of surgery who received insulin (with or without diabetes) had no significant increase in these adverse outcomes Kwon, S., et. al. (2012). Importance of perioperative glycemic control in general surgery: A report from the Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program. Ann Surgery, 257(1), 8-14.

39 Glucose Control with Insulin  Subcutaneous  Rapid or short acting Short acting preferred (aspart, lispro, glulisine)  Injection before and/or after surgery  Not often during surgery  IV insulin  IV push  Insulin pump (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion-CSII)  Insulin infusion Major surgeries Replace insulin pump

40 Insulin Pump Therapy or CSII  Insulin pumps are a SAFETY concern perioperatively  Several different models available With tubing, without tubing, wireless, disposable Continuous glucose sensor  Cannot be exposed to MRI, CT scans and X-rays  Basal rate may not be accurate when patient NPO  Patient not alert to self-manage!  There are NO standardized guidelines!

41 CSII Perioperative Guidelines  Abbott NW Hospital task team developed  Clinical specialist, anesthesia, managers, pharmacy, nursing, medical safety officer  CSII may be considered—  For surgical procedures 2 hours or less of actual scheduled OR time  If the infusion site is not located in the operative area  If glucose <300 mg/dL  If there will be no MRI, CT scan or X-rays

42 CSII Perioperative Guidelines (2)  Preoperative  Metered glucose within 60 minutes of arrival  RN contacts Diabetes CNS or hospitalist for assessment  Decision made if CSII or alternative insulin plan Close relationship with Anesthesia Diabetes CNS or hospitalist documents recommendations

43 CSII Perioperative Guidelines (3)  Intraoperative  CSII if meets criteria Basal rate (may be reduced)  CSII disconnected for short procedures with radiology May give bolus dose of insulin via pump before disconnect  Insulin infusion Procedures >2 hours Major surgery Expect high doses of pain meds post op Initiation rate determined by Diabetes CNS or hospitalist  Metered glucose every 1 hour

44 CSII Perioperative Guidelines (4)  Postoperative  Metered glucose upon arrival to recovery  RN contacts Diabetes CNS or hospitalist  Decision made if— Safe to discharge home for ambulatory patients Safe to continue CSII Will continue insulin infusion  Inpatient policies and protocols implemented CSII Insulin infusion

45 Summary  Know the type of diabetes for which your patient has been diagnosed  Assess glucoses regularly perioperatively  Know what medication your patient takes for glucose management  What medication and dose was taken evening prior and the day of surgery  Assess if your patient has experienced hypoglycemia overnight prior and the day of surgery  If your patient uses a CSII, collaborate with the perioperative team for safe use with surgery

46 Questions

47 References Abdelmalak, B., et al. (2012). Perioperative glycemic management in insulin pump patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Current Pharmaceutical Design.18, 6204-6214. Boyle, M. E., et.al. (2012). Guidelines for application of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (insulin pump) therapy in the perioperative period. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. 6(1), 184-190. Desai, S. P., et. al. (2012). Strict versus liberal target range for perioperative glucose in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: A prospective randomized control trial. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 143, 318-325. Joshi, G. P., et. al. (2010). Society for ambulatory anesthesia consensus statement on perioperative blood glucose management in diabetic patients undergoing ambulatory surgery. Anesthesia Analg, 111, 1378-87. King, J.T., et. al. (2011). Glycemic control and infections in patients with diabetes undergoing noncardiac surgery. Annals of Surgery. 253(1), 158-165. Kwon, S., et. al. (2012). Importance of perioperative glycemic control in general surgery: A report from the Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program. Ann Surgery, 257(1), 8-14. Micromedex Solutions. (2015). Drug reference library. Retrieved February 6, 2015, from http://www.micromedexsolutions.com Smiley DD, Umpierrez GE. (2006). Perioperative glucose control in the diabetic or non diabetic patient. South Med J. 99:580. UpToDate. (2013). Perioperative management of diabetes mellitus. Retrieved September 20, 2013, from http://www.uptodate.com/contents/perioperative-management-of-diabetes-mellitus.


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