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Competency 4.02 Understand the Banking System

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1 Competency 4.02 Understand the Banking System
4.0 Understand the Role of Finance in Business Competency 4.02 Understand the Banking System Objective 4.02-A Analyze the roles/responsibilities of the Federal Reserve. go to website, learn more about Fed, visit Richmond, visit the bank, tour virtual money museum.

2 The Federal Reserve System
What is the Federal Reserve System? Why does it exist? Who participates? How is it organized?

3 The Federal Reserve (The Fed) A Centralized Banking System
Federal Reserve Act signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson Organized by the Federal Government in 1913 Why have “ The Fed” ? Purpose: To establish and maintain confidence in the US monetary system To ensure and safe, healthy and stable economy To supervise and regulate member banks and help serve the public efficiently. * Prior to the Federal Reserve Act anyone could issue currency or coin money

4 Who Participates in Federal Reserve?
All National Banks are required to be part of the Fed Optional for state banks Divisions are called DISTRICTS There are 12 DISTRICTS in the United States Every state comes under a district Each Federal Reserve Bank is a corporation, owned by its member banks NC is in District 5, the Richmond District. Charlotte has a regional office.

5 The Federal Reserve What are the two arms of “The Fed”?
Board of Governors Represents the government (public) sector District Federal Reserve Banks Represents the business (private) sector

6 Board of Governors Usually meet about twice a week, ordinarily on Mondays and Wednesdays Public is invited to look into the meetings of the Board of Governors Usually discuss monetary policy such as lowering and raising interest rates The Board Room at the Federal Reserve in Washington, DC

7 Members of the Board of Governors
Ben S. Bernanke, Current Chairman Alan Greenspan, Retired Chairman   Chairman is appointed by President and confirmed by Senate Similar to procedure for Supreme Court Justices

8 Purpose of Federal Reserve
Established to supervise and regulate banks Known as the “Bank’s bank” The central bank of the United States Assists banks with serving the public more efficiently All national banks are required to join the Federal Reserve System State banks have the option of joining the system

9 The Federal Reserve System Services
Supervision of banks Agent for the federal government Regulates monetary policy Lends money to member banks Acting as a clearinghouse Participation in open market activities Sets loan limits & standards Supplies currency

10 1. Fed Supervision: Set Reserve Requirements
Member banks are required to keep a certain percentage (10% for many years) of all deposits in the bank’s vault or on deposit with the district federal reserve bank Reserves: funds set aside for emergencies Example: a rush of withdrawals by customers Purpose: to reduce risk of bank panics and protect depositor’s money

11 1. Fed Supervision: Audits Member Banks
Inspects banks by auditing financial records Audit -an inspection of records to verify the: 1. accuracy of books (records) of the bank 2. bank is complying with banking laws Similar to Individuals/corporations who are audited by the IRS to review the accuracy of a tax return.

12 1. FED Supervision: Approves Bank Mergers
Q: Why do banks merge? To be more competitive -to offer customers more locations (local, regional, national, international) -to offer a variety of services more efficiently -to compete with a growing array of other financial service companies such as: *money market and other mutual funds *mortgage companies *credit unions and *credit arms of industrial firms (General Electric and Ford Motor) Here are some recent bank mergers approved by “The Fed” in Bank of New York bought Mellon Financial Corporation for $18.3 Billion JPMorgan Chase bought Bear Stearns for $1.1 Billion Bank of America bought Merrill Lynch Bank of America for $50 Billion Wells Fargo bought Wachovia for $15.1 Billion

13 2. Fed Acts as Agent for Federal Government
The Fed holds a checking account for the US Treasury Disburses social security benefits and other transfer payments using the direct deposit system Accepts some types of federal tax money Example: Federal tax depositories Payroll taxes - federal income tax, FUTA, and social security taxes are deposited using federal deposit coupon into a national bank

14 3. FED Regulates Monetary Policy
What is Monetary Policy? When the Federal Reserve influences money and credit conditions in the economy to achieve economic goals How? The Fed determines amount of money in circulation and available for loans, then either increases or decreases to stabilize/stimulate the economy Tight money- policy when less money is available at higher interest rates, slows (stabilizes) economy Loose money- policy when more money is available at lower interest rates, increases (stimulates) economy

15 4. FED Lends Money to Member Banks
Monitors the discount rate of interest - rate used by the Fed to loan money to member banks Compare banks to intermediaries (go-betweens) trading in money at “wholesale” prices The Fed changing interest rates affect borrowers (member banks) who pass rates to consumers Raising rate - discourages borrowing Reducing rate - encourages borrowing Note: the Federal Reserve does not loan money to individuals or businesses (only member banks) HOWEVER, rates the Fed charges member banks “trickle down” and affect the interest rates for consumers

16 5. FED Acts as Clearing House
Clears/Processes/Settles checks for member banks Federal Reserve uses the Automated Clearing House (ACH) to electronically complete fund transfers (check settlements) between banks Interdistrict Settlement Fund in Washington, DC used for between district transfers Checks/deposit slips have MICR coding Magnetic Ink Character Recognition Scanners read MICR on checks to electronically process data accurately and rapidly through the ACH and Interdistrict Settlement Fund

17 6. FED Participates in Open Market
Participates in open market operations by buying and selling government securities Q: What are government securities? A: Treasury bills and bonds – loans to government in various denominations (amounts) and for various time periods Advantages and Disadvantages + offer a fixed rate of interest over a fixed period of time + attractive because not subject to income taxes - cannot be easily transferred and are non-negotiable

18 Open Market Operations
Government securities are sold at a discount (from face value), but are redeemed (cashed in) for face value on the maturity (due) date Examples: Purchase treasury note for $7500 (discount price), redeem at maturity date for $10,000 (face value) Purchase Series EE savings bond for $25, redeem in 7 years at maturity for $50

19 Government Securities
Savings bonds - Example Series EE- Denomination minimum $25 Payable after 6 months Earns interest up to 30 years Short-term obligation of the U.S. Treasury Treasury bill – maturity in one year or less Issued to mature in 13 weeks, 26 weeks, 52 weeks Long-term obligation of the U.S. Treasury Treasury note – maturity at 1 to 10 years, minimum $1000 Treasury bond - maturity at 10 + years

20 Open Market Operations
Bank discount rates encourages borrowing by member banks, and therefore encourages borrowing by consumers Purpose of open market operations Regulate money supply Most frequent method of controlling the economy Who controls open market operations? Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC)- A committee within the Federal Reserve

21 7. The FED Sets Lending Standards
Sets standards for consumer legislation dealing with lending and credit Sets limits for loans and investments by member banks News: Federal Reserve revised bank lending rules since banking crisis Ex: Lower % of total loans for land/acreage

22 8. The Fed Supplies Currency
Money defined: a medium of exchange for value US money = currency and coins Federal Reserve supplies paper currency Legal Tender for all debts, public and private Paper currency supplied is “Federal Reserve Notes” Printing currency (paper money, bills) Bureau of Printing and Engraving Counterfeiting - federal crime Coinage Minting supplied and regulated by the Department of Treasury, US Mint

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