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1 Business to Business Exchanges Jenny Arnold Supree Mongrolcheep Matthew Sheets Melissa Sherer.

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1 1 Business to Business Exchanges Jenny Arnold Supree Mongrolcheep Matthew Sheets Melissa Sherer

2 2 B2B Exchanges Overview Case Studies Conclusion

3 3 What are B2B exchanges? B2B exchanges offer digital transaction services that heighten eBusiness performance making it safer and more secure. The B2B market is composed of websites were buyers and sellers come together vertically and horizontally to communicate, bid, advertise, transact, and procure. Source:, www.techechange.com/thelibrary /b2bterminology.html, Viewed February 24, 2004.www.techechange.com/thelibrary /b2bterminology.html Source: “An outlook on B2B Commerce”, www.weforum.org, Viewed March 11, 2004www.weforum.org

4 4 B2B Definition Suppliers Manufacturers Wholesalers Selling to intermediaries rather than directly to the end customer Fewer customers Smaller product ranges Source: Friesen, G. Bruce, “From B2B to …?” Consulting to Management,Vol. 14, 4, 2003, pp.27-33. Source: Angel, Robert, “A new dawn for CRM: This time it’s B2B” Ivey Business Journal Online, Jul/Aug 2003, pp. 1.

5 5 B2B’s are the LARGEST markets known to business! GDP was $10,480,800,000 in 2002 B2B spending in 2004 estimated to be: $7,297,300,000 Source: www.cba.hawaii.edu/aspy/aspymkfa.htm, viewed March 11, 2004www.cba.hawaii.edu/aspy/aspymkfa.htm Source: http://encarta.msn.com, viewed April 4, 2004http://encarta.msn.com

6 6 GartnerGroup Source: www.cba.hawaii.edu/aspy/aspymkfa.htm, viewed March 11, 2004www.cba.hawaii.edu/aspy/aspymkfa.htm

7 7 DRI-WEFA Source: www.cba.hawaii.edu/aspy/aspymkfa.htm, viewed March 11, 2004www.cba.hawaii.edu/aspy/aspymkfa.htm

8 8 Why is B2B bigger? The value of B2B transactions are bigger since the goods and services in the making pass through a lot of hands before they reach an end consumer. Big transaction value however does not always make a difference in the bottom line. B2B derived efficiencies will be competed away by companies whose products and services are uninspired and undifferentiated. Source: Rodriquez, Edel, “Special Report: Is This All You Can Build with the Net? Think Bigger Enough of this B2B talk. Use the Net to construct a unique company. How? Ask your customers.” Fortune Magazine, April 17, 2001

9 9 B2B versus B2C B2B a bonanza B2C a bust B2B startup goals included taking slack out of the supply chain rather than stealing customers. Of money poured into e-business efforts 80% goes to B2B. B2C startups lacked good business models, and often do not receive the money that B2B exchanges received. Source: Rodriquez, Edel, “Special Report: Is This All You Can Build with the Net? Think Bigger Enough of this B2B talk. Use the Net to construct a unique company. How? Ask your customers.” Fortune Magazine, April 17, 2001

10 10 Basic B2B information B2B exchanges may act as a virtual marketplace that are free of geographic limits. Certain exchanges allow businesses to find particular products or suppliers and agree on terms of transactions online. Many others allow complete transactions to take place online. Either way it is easier for buyers or sellers worldwide to come together on the web. B2B exchanges make money through charging a transaction fee (approximately 4%) to buyers and suppliers. Source: Campanelli, Melissa, “Trading Places. (business to business exchages)” Entrepreneur. November 2000

11 11 Types of B2B exchanges Horizontal B2B marketplaces are for supplies common to many industries: e.g. computers or work clothes. Vertical marketplaces are used to trade supplies, such as petroleum or agriculture, that are peculiar to a specific industry. Source: “B2B for beginners-Definitions and Applications” www.gcis.ca/B2B_beginners.html, Viewed February 29, 2004www.gcis.ca/B2B_beginners.html

12 12 B2B Benefits When done correctly…. Cuts transaction costs Large opportunity for transformation because of scale and scope Buyers are able to reduce purchasing costs due to automation of paperwork. Online exchanges also introduce buyers to suppliers that they wouldn’t have traditionally met from traditional channels. Source: Friesen, G. Bruce, “From B2B to …?” Consulting to Management,Vol. 14, 4, 2003, pp.27-33. Source: Campanelli, Melissa, “Trading Places. (business to business exchages)” Entrepreneur. November 2000

13 13 Benefits of B2B exchanges Benefits to Buyers If a customer wants rock bottom prices he is likely to prefer a B2B market place, if he wants a close relationship with a supplier because his orders are large and critical to his core operations he may prefer bilateral e-trade Benefits to Sellers Gives sellers an opportunity to retain some control over their sales channels while minimizing service costs They can take over part of the value added processing e.g. customizing products Source: Practical guide to selling efficiently on any B2B exchange: www.gcis.ca/B2B _sellers_guide.html

14 14 Analyzing the B2B Market 3 Elements Mechanism (info-structure) to support data exchange Set of Marketing Processes Set of institutions to perform these market processes Source: Friesen, G. Bruce, “From B2B to …?” Consulting to Management,Vol. 14, 4, 2003, pp.27-33.

15 15 Analyzing the B2B Market Info-structure Without information and the systems to gather, store, and redistribute, markets can not operate MORE efficient the structure the MORE efficient the market Broken down into physical infrastructure and intangible data Source: Friesen, G. Bruce, “From B2B to …?” Consulting to Management,Vol. 14, 4, 2003, pp.27-33.

16 16 Analyzing the B2B Market Market Processes Trade versus Context Trade: activities that buyers and sellers must undertake to exchange a good or service Includes: search, authentication, pricing, payment, and logistics Context: activities that support the trade process or make them run more efficiently Includes: representation, regulation, influence, dispute resolution, and risk management Source: Friesen, G. Bruce, “From B2B to …?” Consulting to Management,Vol. 14, 4, 2003, pp.27-33.

17 17 Analyzing the B2B Market Institutions: “ecosystem” 3 Groups 1. Principals (buyers or sellers) Goods and Services to exchange 2. Agents (brokers or traders) Represent principals in one or more of the market processes 3. Supporting Cast Members (Bankers, Insurers, Shippers, etc) Provide highly specialized context processes to the market Source: Friesen, G. Bruce, “From B2B to …?” Consulting to Management,Vol. 14, 4, 2003, pp.27-33.

18 18 Analyzing the B2B Market Final Thoughts More than a basic technology platform or well organized economic process Web of personal and institutional relationships An inefficient market is not uniformly inefficient….a combination of elements could be inefficient Source: Friesen, G. Bruce, “From B2B to …?” Consulting to Management,Vol. 14, 4, 2003, pp.27-33.

19 19 The Future of B2B exchanges In 2000, it was estimated that more than half of B2B trade would take place through eBusiness networks or eMarketplaces in 2003 In 2000, B2B exchanges were thought to be growing markets, however there were some doubts about the future. It was estimated that market size would be $1.5 trillion in 2004. (five to ten times larger than estimated B2C markets) Source: B2B terminology: www.techexchage.com/the library/b2bterminologry.htmlwww.techexchage.com/the library/b2bterminologry.html Outlook on B2B commerce: www.weforum.org

20 20 B2B Numbers decrease 2001-1,520 B2B exchanges (markets) 2003-180 will be active (markets) 8.5% survival rate Source: Friesen, G. Bruce, “From B2B to …?” Consulting to Management,Vol. 14, 4, 2003, pp.27-33.

21 21 Why are B2B exchanges struggling? People are creatures of habit Money does not ensure success Prioritizing new features is not easy Launching at the right time is tricky Security is critical Tools for viewing and collaboration are essential Movement is toward private exchanges Source: Wohlers, Terry, “E-Commerce: The Challenges of Creating a B2B exchange” Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. 7,2, 2001, pp. 122.

22 22 Evaluating B2B Best Practices Products exchanged – specific or general? Structure of Exchange – public or private? Proposed Benefit - Buyer or Seller? Value-added services - what are current offerings and future roll-out plans? How does the exchange derive a profit – annual fees or transaction commissions? What role do the members play in the management of the exchange?

23 23 Case Studies World Wide Retail Exchange Covisint Steelscreen.com

24 24 World Wide Retail Exchange Premier Internet-based B2B exchange in the retail e- marketplace

25 25 History of the WWRE The company was founded in March 2000 by 17 international retailers. The goal was to enable retailers and manufacturers to eliminate the inefficiencies of the supply chain by simplifying, rationalizing, and automating supply chain processes. Source: www.wwre.com, viewed March 28, 2004www.wwre.com

26 26 Founding Partners The founding partners included Albertson's (US), Auchan (France), Casino (France), CVS (US), Kingfisher (UK), K-Mart (US), Marks Spencer (UK), Royal Ahold (The Netherlands), Target (US), Tesco (UK) and Safeway Inc. (US). At the time, the group operated over 30,000 stores with combined sales of over $300 Billion. Source: www.wwre.com, viewed March 28, 2004www.wwre.com

27 27 Founding Principles The following six principles guide the WWRE's development and growth: Openness Commitment to utilizing the best available technology Focus on improving efficiency and lowering costs for the retail industry Operation as a neutral company Equivalent fee structures for all participants Confidentiality of transaction information Source: www.wwre.com, viewed March 28, 2004www.wwre.com

28 28 Users of the WWRE Retailers and manufacturers can substantially reduce costs across product development, e-Procurement, and supply chain processes in the following industries: Food General merchandise Textile/home Drugstores Source: www.wwre.com, viewed March 28, 2004www.wwre.com

29 29 Value to Customers/Suppliers Low-cost product offerings that are robust, scaleable, integrated, and fully supported Shared technology investments and outsourced assets Ability to access a global membership community and network with other retailers/manufacturers Value-added services from a trusted source, at competitive costs Participation in collaborative activities Complex transactions and interactions made easy through automation Standard setting benefits for all B2B activities

30 30 Strength of Membership Today there are 62 members. Members have stores in over 130 countries. $900 Billion in annual sales. 5,000,000 employees. WWRE has saved over $1 Billion so far!

31 31 Additional Members

32 32 WWRE Alliance Partners As part of its mission, the WWRE seeks to broaden the suite of offerings to members, thus enhancing the value of the Exchange. Through the creation of alliances and partnerships with best-of-breed providers, innovative services can be introduced to WWRE members. These offerings also complement those solutions hosted by the WWRE.

33 33 WWRE Technology Partners WWRE teams with providers of technology solutions that help enable the Exchange to deliver various software, hardware, connectivity and services to members. Collectively, these providers work with the Exchange to bring our members and their trading partners the various Sourcing and Procurement and Supply Chain Collaboration solutions and services that the Exchange offers. WWRE Technology Providers currently power the underlying application software, systems integration, customer service helpdesk, application hosting and integration components.

34 34 Major Products and Services of the Exchange Surplus Goods Exchange (SGE) Perishable Goods Exchange Demand Aggregation Asset Manager

35 35 Surplus Goods Exchange (SGE)

36 36 Visagent Marketplace

37 37 Visagent Trade Screen

38 38 Why use the SGE? Sellers do not pay a fee to use the SGE Buyers pay a small fee, plus transportation WWRE Buyers: 2.5% + transportation Other Buyers: 3.5% + transportation SGE is up to 70-80% less expensive than other alternatives (like liquidation) Trading occurs directly between retailers and suppliers – no intermediaries Source: www.wwre.com, viewed March 28, 2004www.wwre.com

39 39 Perishable Goods Procurement

40 40 Problems in Fresh Foods Grocers spend over 70 cents of every sales dollar procuring, transporting and warehousing the products they buy. Grocers continue to rely on paper, fax, and phone to manage key business processes. Studies show a huge percentage of the data in retail catalogues is wrong and invoices contain errors. Source: www.wwre.com, viewed March 28, 2004www.wwre.com

41 41 Agribuys Solution Suite Order Link – allows a retailer to aggregate demand information, thus enabling a central buyer to perform buying activities. Delivery Link – allows a user to track the product from the supplier to the receiving warehouse or store. Logistics Link – allows a user to take the purchase order information and build a truckload of compatible product. Source: www.wwre.com, viewed March 28, 2004www.wwre.com

42 42 Demand Aggregation

43 43 Features of Demand Aggregation Prior to Auction, demand can be aggregated internally and externally. Templates can be set up to manage information across divisions for budgeting. Suppliers can post production schedules to allow buyers to group their orders around predefined shipping dates. Capture and analyze spending patterns. Price Curves are controlled by the Supplier! Source: www.wwre.com, viewed March 28, 2004www.wwre.com

44 44 WWRE Order Execution Process

45 45 Asset Manager

46 46 Benefits of Asset Manager Allows for the storage of digital assets in one location Efficiently share products, photo images, text, multimedia, audio and video with business partners. Improve communications and response time for new products with suppliers. Source: www.wwre.com, viewed March 28, 2004www.wwre.com

47 47 World Wide Retail Exchange IndustryRetail, Food, Healthcare Products ExchangedMostly General Private or PublicPrivate Proposed BenefitBuyer & Seller Value-added Services Asset Management & Demand Aggregation Profit SourcesFees and Commissions Member’s Role in Management of the exchangeEquity Stakes and Governing Board

48 48 Covisint The world’s largest B2B exchange

49 49 What is Covisint A technology services company whose business to business applications and communication services connect the automotive industry. They provide a common connection to suppliers and customers based on common business processes. Covisint enables customers to reduce costs, increase efficiency, enhance quality, and improve time to market. Source: www.covisint.com, Viewed February 26, 2004www.covisint.com

50 50 History of Covisint Covisint was formed in February 2000 when Daimler Chrysler, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors combined efforts to form a single business-to-business supplier exchange. Covisint officially began providing services in the U.S. on January 1, 2001 Source: www.covisint.com, Viewed February 26, 2004www.covisint.com

51 51 Size of Covisint Covisint does not have to publicly reveal it’s financial results since it is owned by the automakers As of February 2004: 25,000 registered customer organizations 135,000 active users Provided services in 96 countries Source:Butters, Jamie and Jeff Bennett, “Covisint Hits rough patch as business falling flat” December 9, 2002 www.auto.com, viewed March 28, 2004www.auto.com Source: www.covisint.com, viewed March 28, 2004www.covisint.com

52 52 About Covisint Covisint is an internet auction site for auto parts and other supplies. Plan included making it quicker and easier for car companies to explain exactly what they want to buy, gather bids from suppliers around the world, and close the best possible deal Source: Butters, Jamie and Bennett, Jeff, “Covisint hits rough patch as business falling flat”, December 9, 2002 www.auto.com, viewed March 28, 2004www.auto.com

53 53 Why is Covisint necessary? Automotive industry supply chain is disconnected and flow of information is constricted. Information gaps exist between the value chain resulting in expensive inefficiencies and unsatisfied customers.

54 54 Covisint Solution Covisint Communicate: provides supplier personnel with access to information they need to work with the host Covisint Connect: used to exchange data between current enterprise applications and it’s suppliers’ applications. Covisint Collaborate: Covisint help desk assistance. Source: www.covisint.com, Viewed February 26, 2004www.covisint.com

55 55 Covisint Communicate Allows for industry participants to access buyer and supplier applications through one common infrastructure. Enables companies to achieve a robust presence by becoming a Trading Partner, which allows them to better communicate with their supply chain Source: www.covisint.com, viewed March 28, 2004www.covisint.com

56 56 Trading Partner’s Page

57 57 Promised Value to Customers Covisint Connect provides reliable delivery of any business document to any point in the supply chain Covisint Connect is a new way to conduct traditional store-and-forward Electronic Document Interchange (EDI)

58 58 Promised Value to Suppliers Cost effective solution to engage smaller trading partners Improved data integrity Affordable electronic communication with trading partners

59 59 Covisint Collaborate Enables suppliers to connect effectively and efficiently through three phases: Project Goal and Scope of Work: understanding project goals and business objects of the customer. Supplier Rationalization and Prioritization: work with individual companies to provide timely and accurate information Supplier Recruitment and Status Reporting: Covisint provided applications that are licensed to each supplier with an individual contract Source: www.covisint.com, February 26, 2004www.covisint.com

60 60 Troubles for Covisint In July 2000, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) launched an investigation to explore the possibility of anti-trust implications. Since the founders represented a large share of the auto market their online exchange could raise anti-trust concerns. The FTC wanted to make sure that the arrangement would not allow for the big auto makers to collude in order to force down prices. Source: “Anti-trust and Competitive Issues in B2B Trading Exchanges: Covisint Inc.” Centre for Asian Business Cases, ECCH, July 12, 2002

61 61 Covisint’s Response They issued the Antitrust Compliance Policy for Covisint. This was designed to provide the officers, directors, and employees with guidelines for compliance with the antitrust laws. Any employee who did not comply with this policy was subject to discipline which could include a demotion or dismissal. Management was also responsible for the conduct of all employees reporting to them. Source: www.covisint.com, viewed February 26, 2004www.covisint.com

62 62 The Outcome On September 11, 2000 Covisint received clearance from the FTC, because they would be open to participation for all potential suppliers and would not be the exclusive vehicle through which automakers purchased parts. Since Covisint did not start providing services until January 2001, they were considered not to be in business, therefore in the future they may raise anti- trust concerns based on how it was going to do business.

63 63 The Outcome (cont) Covisint was the first B2B exchange to be reviewed by the FTC, and it therefore sparked debate on how the B2B industry should be regulated. The FTC stated that the antitrust analysis of a B2B exchange will be specific to it’s mission, structure, it’s particular market circumstances, procedures, and rules for organization and operation, and actual operations and market performance. Source: “Anti-trust and Competitive Issues in B2B Trading Exchanges: Covisint Inc.” Centre for Asian Business Cases, ECCH, July 12, 2002

64 64 More Troubles for Covisint Bogus auctions made suppliers reluctant to sell their products through Covisint. Stiff competition from other internet companies making it difficult to charge needed prices. Covisint unable to make expected $240 billion in transaction value every year. In 2002, Covisint had about $70 million in annual revenues when it had hoped to have $150 million. Source: Butters, Jamie and Jeff Bennett, “Covisint hits rough patch as business falling flat” December 9, 2002, www.auto.com, viewed March 28, 2004www.auto.com Source: Hamm, Steve, “B2B Isn’t Dead. It’s Learning” Business Week. December 18, 2002

65 65 Results of Recent Problems In December 2003, Covisint signed an agreement with Freemarkets a global supply management solutions to acquire the sourcing and services assets of Covisint Freemarkets will now be positioned as the premier provider of sourcing technologies and services to the automotive industry Freemarkets will provide the auctioning services for Covisint Source: “Freemarkets signs agreement to acquire Covisint Auction Services, www.freemarkets.com, viewed March 28, 2004 www.freemarkets.com

66 66 Covisint Industry Auto Products Exchanged Specific Private & PublicPrivate Proposed BenefitBuyer & Seller Value-added Services Connect, Communicate, & Collaborate Profit Source(s)Commissions Member’s Role in Management of the ExchangeMembers sit as Board of Directors

67 67 Steelscreen.com The Metal Industry

68 68 Understanding the challenge Exploiting new technology in an old industry: “Imagine you have been dating someone for years. The relationship is blossoming, but one day your sweetheart informs you that instead of calling, you should communicate by email. And if you want to get together, you should arrange that through an online dating service, where you will competing with other suitors. That, in essence, is the message that suppliers of everything from paperclips to maintenance services got a couple of years ago when manufacturers eager to try business-to-business, or B2B, exchanges on the Internet,” says Laird Harrison, Time Magazine writer. Source: Harrison, Laird. “B2B Survivors” Time Magazine, December 24, 2001.

69 69 Steelscreen’s Founding Fathers Founded in 1999 by group from the European metals and telecom industries. Source: Subirana, Brian. “STEELSCREEN.com: Challenges in aligning technology and strategy in B2B” The European Case Clearing House, March 2002. Fredrik Ohrn Financial Manager David Schelin CEO Peter Anderberg Marketing Manager Anders Candell Technical Manager “Steelscreen’s founders have an extensive knowledge on the metal business, which guarantees the marketplace really fulfills the needs of the European companies,” says Mario Vergna, Commercial Director of ILTA INOX.

70 70 Steelscreen’s Proposition & Goals Offer a meeting point for buyers and sellers, allowing them to communicate more efficiently with a trading tool tailored to the needs of the metals industry. Become the leading marketplace for the metal products in Europe, by making the purchase and sale of metals on the European metals market simpler and more efficient, through a neutral marketplace. Also aimed to offer a range of related value-added services, to be provided by service partners. Source: Subirana, Brian. “STEELSCREEN.com: Challenges in aligning technology and strategy in B2B” The European Case Clearing House, March 2002.

71 71 E-Commerce Trading Models First Generation: Many Sellers to One Buyer Second Generation: One Seller to Many Buyers Third Generation: Neutral “STEELSCREEN.com: Challenges in aligning technology and strategy in B2B” The European Case Clearing House, March 2002.

72 72 Third Generation Model: Benefits for Suppliers Sell their products with lower operating costs Needs are satisfied Transactions processed faster Gain competitive advantage Reaches most users Does not require large IT investments NO GREAT DISADVANTAGES! Source: Subirana, Brian. “STEELSCREEN.com: Challenges in aligning technology and strategy in B2B” The European Case Clearing House, March 2002.

73 73 Third Generation Model: Benefits for Buyers Simplified negotiation process Needs are satisfied NO GREAT DISADVANTAGES! Source: Subirana, Brian. “STEELSCREEN.com: Challenges in aligning technology and strategy in B2B” The European Case Clearing House, March 2002.

74 74 $$$$ Revenue Model $$$ Sales Commissions of 0.5 to 1% of Transaction Value. Not involved in the actual transactions between buyer and seller. No fee charged to purchasing party. Source: Subirana, Brian. “STEELSCREEN.com: Challenges in aligning technology and strategy in B2B” The European Case Clearing House, March 2002.

75 75 Steelscreen’s Members Spring 2000,Trading on the web started End of August 2000, more than 700 members had joined. Source: Subirana, Brian. “STEELSCREEN.com: Challenges in aligning technology and strategy in B2B” The European Case Clearing House, March 2002.

76 76 Types of Members Selling Member: Information and Selling Buying Member: Information and Purchasing Buying and Selling Member (wholesalers): Information, Purchasing and Selling Associated Member: Information Steelscreen is an Internet Marketplace providing buyers and sellers the most efficient market channel. Source: Subirana, Brian. “STEELSCREEN.com: Challenges in aligning technology and strategy in B2B” The European Case Clearing House, March 2002.

77 77 Why be a member of Steelscreen? Cheaper: Fee less than half paid to intermediaries Faster: Distributed to all potential business partners Simpler: Inquiries and Offers specified More Efficient: Reach all members at once Time Saving: Spend time only with rewarding contacts Up-to-date: Facts, trends and analyses Comprehensive: Growing number of services Independent: Neutral to both sides European: Standard and languages Secure: Maximum security Source: Subirana, Brian. “STEELSCREEN.com: Challenges in aligning technology and strategy in B2B” The European Case Clearing House, March 2002.

78 78 One Member’s Thoughts….. “Trading on Steelscreen gives us several major advantages. The most important benefit is the ability to find, evaluate and select the right business partner. This helps us to avoid risks. In addition, our goal is to save time and money and make our trading process more efficient. Steelscreen helps us to achieve this,” says Mario Vergna, Commercial Director of ILTA INOX. Source: www.steelscreen.com, viewed April 2, 2004www.steelscreen.com

79 79 Steelscreen Exchange Any metal product is tradable, the more standardized the easier it is to use the system. Steelscreen is an Internet Marketplace providing buyers and sellers the most efficient market channel. “Anderson Consulting has projected that 40-60% of all metal produced in the world will be sold via internet by 2005”. Source: Subirana, Brian. “STEELSCREEN.com: Challenges in aligning technology and strategy in B2B” The European Case Clearing House, March 2002.

80 80 Supplier’s Area: How to send a Spot Item Creating a Spot Item and Product Selection. Completing and Sending the Spot Item.

81 81 Supplier’s Area: Replying to an Inquiry

82 82 The Buyer’s Area: Sending an Inquiry Creating an Inquiry and Product Selection. Completing and sending the Inquiry.

83 83 Buyer’s Area: Replying to a Spot Item

84 84 Registering Member’s Standards Steelscreen offers the most complete database of standards and alloy information. A Member can search the database by designation, chemical composition and mechanical properties. A member can add their own standards and alloys and define specific characteristics. = Saves time, finds products that suit the member’s needs and products can be customized to specific characteristics. Source: Subirana, Brian. “STEELSCREEN.com: Challenges in aligning technology and strategy in B2B” The European Case Clearing House, March 2002.

85 85 Standards Tailored to Member’s Needs Defining the Standard

86 86 Standards Tailored to Member’s Needs cont’d Completing the Grades

87 87 Steelscreen Industry Steel Product Exchanged Specific Private & PublicPrivate Proposed BenefitBuyer & Seller Value-added ServicesFinancial Services and Logistics Profit Source(s)Commissions on Transactions Member’s Role in Management of the exchangeNone

88 88 Conclusions

89 CovisintSteelscreenWWRE Industry AutoSteel Retail, Food, Healthcare Products Exchanged Specific Mostly General Private & PublicPrivate Proposed BenefitBuyer & Seller Value-added Services Connect, Communicate & Collaborate Financial Services & Logistics Asset Mgmt & Demand Aggregation Deriving a ProfitCommissions Commissions on Transactions Fees & Commissions Members Role in Management of the Exchange Members sit as Board of Directors None Equity Stakes & Governing Board

90 90 Survivors Covisint-Automotive Elemica-Chemical Exostar-Defense E2Open-Technology Global Healthcare-Healthcare Pantellos Group-Utility Trade-Ranger-Energy Source: Ulfelder, Steve. “B2B Survivors” Computerworld, Vol 38,5, 2004, pp. 27-28

91 91 Changing the Focus “Three years ago, the tech was our raison d’etre. No longer. We’ve gone from being IT experts to being purchasing agents,” Trade Ranger CEO, John Wilson. “In 2000, we thought we’d move faster. We thought we’d bring people right in to the Net and XML. But soon we realized we were pushing a rock uphill. Health care (IT) systems aren’t the most up to date….People had EDI and didn’t want to change that. We had to back off our aspirations of making major changes quickly,” Kevin Ruffe, Chief Operating Officer with Healthcare Exchange LLC. Source: Ulfelder, Steve. “B2B Survivors” Computerworld, Vol 38,5, 2004, pp. 27-28 Source 3

92 92 How did B2B exchanges survive? Patience with 5 to 7 year plans (Trade- Ranger) Downplayed technology from the outset (Pantellos Group) “From the beginning, we knew that it was about value-added, not just technology," Jim Neikirk, CEO. Never clear as to whether the survivors will be truly successful. Source: Ulfelder, Steve. “B2B Survivors” Computerworld, Vol 38,5, 2004, pp. 27-28

93 93 Questions?


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