History Celtic communities: from 600 BC Romans: from 55 BC until circa 440 Germanic tribes: Angles, Saxons, Frisians and Jutes – From first half of 5th century to 1066. Scandinavian tribes: from 8th to 11th centuries Normans: from 14th October 1066 (up to 14th century)
History IrelandWalesScotland Annexation 11691282-51603 Union 18011536-421707
History: sample of migrations Between 11th & 13th centuries – Pre-capitalist migrations: Normans, Italians, Flemish, Dutch, Germans. Between 16th & 17th centuries – Ideological, religious and economic migrations: French Huguenots, Dutch Protestants, Gipsies, African Slaves. 20th century: – Increase in immigration from the Commonwealth, notably the Indian sub-continent (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh ) and the Caribbean. – Increase in migration to and from other EU member states. – Increase in the number of people seeking asylum in Britain: asylum-seekers from the Balkans, the Middle East, and South Asia (particularly the former Yugoslavia, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan and Sri Lanka)
Migrations Ethnic minorities are not spread evenly throughout the country. The ethnic minority population, 47 per cent of whom had been born in Britain, is young and growing. Blacks and Bangladeshis in the professions are so few that they don’t show up in the percentages (...) but Indians, both male and female, are highly represented here. Unskilled jobs are largely done by Blacks and Whites (though the percentage of Blacks is double of the Whites). – The highest percentage of overall unemployment is to be found among the Pakistanis and Bangladeshis, at 27.9 per cent, with Blacks only a shade less badly off. But Blacks were worst off with regard to long-term (over a year) unemployment, at 15.8 per cent (...) Among Whites, by contrast, overall unemployment was at 9.1 per cent and long-term at 4.0 per cent. – Slowly, Black and Asian numbers were increasing in the police forces, as also in local government and many other walks of life. In the five years 1988-93, reported racist attacks doubled. §Marwick, A. 1996. British Society since 1945. London: Penguin.