Presentation on theme: "The Industrial Revolution 1700-1914 By Sam Irving."— Presentation transcript:
The Industrial Revolution By Sam Irving
The Rise of Industry BIG Idea: Beginning in mid-1700s Great Britain, a series of innovations in agriculture and industry led to profound economic and social changes in western Europe and the U.S.
Preindustrial Society Most people farmed. 75% of the population lived in rural villages. 75% of the population lived in rural villages. Nature’s seasons determined work schedule. Peasants rented small strips of land and shared common lands. No fences No fences
High infant death rate and low life expectancy. 1/3 died within a year 1/3 died within a year ½ died before age 21 ½ died before age 21 Average life expectancy was 40. Average life expectancy was 40.
Pre-Revolution Industry Domestic System: workers produced goods, such as cloth, at home. Worked in coal mines when not planting or harvesting.
The Enclosure Movement Wealthy British landowners took over and fenced off both private and common lands into one estate. Increased efficiency and productivity. Crop rotation & orderly planting with seed drills. Crop rotation & orderly planting with seed drills. Less farmers required, causing many to become urban industrial workers.
How would this agricultural revolution lead to an industrial revolution???
3 Needs for Industry Capital: money to invest in industry. Landowners profited from large-scale farming. Landowners profited from large-scale farming. Growing middle-class profited from trade. Growing middle-class profited from trade. Joint-stock companies Slave Trade Encouraged by the British Gov’t. Encouraged by the British Gov’t.
Natural Resources Rivers for power and shipping Rivers for power and shipping Iron and coal deposits Iron and coal deposits Other resources from colonies Other resources from colonies
Labor Supply: enclosure led to population growth and increased urbanization.
The Textile (clothing) Industry Leads the Way. In the domestic system, women produced yarn, cloth, and clothes at home.
In 1733, John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle” allowed yarn to be woven faster.
In 1760, James Hargreaves’s “Spinning Jenny” allowed spinners to spin more yarn faster.
In 1768 Richard Arkwright developed a spinning machine that ran continuously on waterpower.
The “Powered Loom,” invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1787, could be run by horse, water, or steam.
In 1793, Eli Whitney’s “Cotton Gin” allowed raw cotton to be cleaned faster and cheaper. Full mechanization of the British textile industry by the late 1700s.
The Factory System :Organized production bringing workers and machines together under the control of managers. Why did the factory system replace the domestic system? Why did the factory system replace the domestic system? Machines are too large and expensive to be used at home. Machines are too large and expensive to be used at home.
Infrastructure for Industry SteamSteam, steel, canals and paved roads. Steam The Bessemer process to create steel
Assignment ELT: Describe characteristics of economic systems throughout history. “The Industrial Revolution” reading and crossword.
Industrial Capitalism BIG Idea: Following Adam Smith’s economic philosophy, large-scale industrial capitalism developed in western Europe and the U.S.
Great Britain initially tried to keep industrial technology a secret by restricting the flow of machines and skilled workers to other countries. In 1789, industrial spinner Samuel Slater emigrated to the U.S. disguised as a farmer. Using Great Britain as a model, western Europe and the U.S. began rapid industrialization.
Capitalism (a.k.a. Free enterprise/market) : economic system in which individuals, not the gov’t, own the means of production (land & factories) & decide how to run their business to make a profit.
What’s this? Business Cycle: alternating periods of business expansion and decline. Recessions & depressions Recessions & depressions
Mass Production Division of Labor: each worker does one specialized task. Identical products move on an assembly line. Henry Ford Henry Ford Replace human labor with machines.
How would mass production affect productivity & profits? Increased productivity & profits Lower prices
Adam Smith (Father of Capitalism) Laissez-Faire: a policy of allowing business to run without government interference. (Don’t Touch) Let supply and demand operate freely. Let supply and demand operate freely.
Individual self-interest adds up to the common good. Competition creates the best goods at the lowest prices. Competition creates the best goods at the lowest prices. The profit motive encourages efficient production. The profit motive encourages efficient production.
Is Smith right? Has industrial capitalism benefited society? Let’s take a look at a few industrial revolution inventions.
Thomas Edison invented the incandescent light bulb in the 1870s, making electric lighting cheap and accessible.
Alexander Gram Bell invented the telephone in 1876.
Henry Ford’s assembly line mass production of the Model T made cars available and affordable (1913).
Industrial Society Population Growth More & cheaper food More & cheaper food Increased life expectancy Increased life expectancy Upward social mobility Less rigid social structure Less rigid social structure Urbanization: growth of cities
Assignment Essential Learning Target: Give examples of how philosophical beliefs have influenced society. Let’s read the economic philosophy behind industry and big business. Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations
Socialism and the Working Class BIG Idea: New socio-economic realities spurred on new ways of thinking.
The Working Class Industry led many to urban poverty. Capitalist competition led to long hours, low wages, and dangerous working conditions. Child Labor Child Labor Rigid bell schedules Rigid bell schedules
Boy dragging a cart filled with coal through a tunnel in a Scottish mine about (An average cart weighted pounds)
A textile mill in Macon, Georgia circa 1909.
A tenement in New York, Often, entire working-class families would share this one room.
What’s the meaning of this political cartoon?
Formed labor unions for collective bargaining. What do unions do? What do unions do?
Socialism : economic theory stating that the means of production (land, factories, etc.) should be publicly owned and wealth distributed equally among all. Replace competition with cooperation. Replace competition with cooperation.
Karl Marx (Scientific Socialism) Materialism: Economics, or the means of supporting life, is the basis of all human culture and social institutions. Economic Systems Economic SystemsSlaveryFeudalismCapitalismSocialism
History advances through stages of economic class conflict. In the last stage, workers (proletariat) will overthrow owners (bourgeoisie) and create communism (socialism). 1. Slaves v. Masters 2. Peasants v. Lords 3. Workers v. Owners 4. Communism
Without private property, social classes and government will vanish. Governing Principle: “From each according to his ability, to each according to his need.”
Assignment Essential Learning Target: Give examples of how philosophical beliefs have influenced society. Industrial Life created new ways to think about the world. Let’s read Marx’s Communist Manifesto. Let’s read Marx’s Communist Manifesto.
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