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©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 1 of 29 Introduction To Linux Objectives In this lesson, you will learn to: Define operating systems Identify the functions of an operating system Trace the history of the Linux operating system Identify the components of Linux architecture Log on and log out from a Linux session Use the date command Identify the current users working on the system Find the uptime of the system Open the manual pages of the system
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 2 of 29 Introduction To Linux Operating Systems Operating system is a software program that manages the computer hardware, system resources, memory, and interaction between the system and its users. Some popular operating systems are: Linux Unix-Solaris, SCO and Irix Microsoft DOS Microsoft Windows 95 Microsoft Windows 98 Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Microsoft Windows Server 2003
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 3 of 29 Introduction To Linux Functions of an Operating System The functions of an operating system are: Translates a command keyed in by a user to binary code for the CPU to understand the command Handles requests for memory from various applications running on the system Handles communication between the devices and the CPU Rations out the CPU time enabling programs to run concurrently
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 4 of 29 Introduction To Linux Single-User System A single user system is a small, general-purpose system, used by one person at a time such as a personal computer (PC). The example of a single-user operating system is MS DOS. Multi-User System A multi-user system can run multiple programs concurrently, share multiple resources such as printers and disks, and support multiple users working simultaneously on a system. The examples of multi-user operating systems are: Linux Unix Windows NT Terminal Server Windows 2000 Terminal Server Windows 2003 Terminal Server Types of Systems
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 5 of 29 Introduction To Linux Types of Systems (Contd.) A multi-user system: Is a computer with several terminals attached to it Can consist of one CPU with high processing power Can have multiple CPUs to process multiple applications simultaneously Supports multi-programming and multi-tasking Has higher capacity hard disk to store large amount of data There are two types of terminals: Dumb terminal Smart terminal A terminal is an interface that accepts commands from users and sends them to the server for execution. A server is a computer that executes the requests sent by the client computers attached to it.
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 6 of 29 Introduction To Linux History of Unix In 1965, Bell Labs and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) along with General Electric developed one of the first multi-user computer systems called Multiplexed Information and Computing Service (Multics). Around 1969 Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie, two Bell Labs engineers developed Uniplexed Information and Computing Service (Unics), which was later changed to Unix. In 1973, Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie re-wrote Unix using the C programming language. In 1983, an MIT scientist, Richard M. Stallman, launched the GNU’s not Unix (GNU) project to create Unix-like operating system but free from licensing charges. To organize the work on the GNU project, Stallman and other people created the Free Software Foundation (FSF). FSF developed the General Public License (GPL) to build a body of free software protected from those who would use it to create proprietary closed-source systems.
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 7 of 29 Introduction To Linux Evolution of Linux In 1991, Linus Torvalds, a student, while working on Minix wrote the source code for the kernel, and named it Linux. Torvalds made the Linux kernel available on the Internet. The Linux kernel was combined with the GNU system resulting in a complete operating system called GNU/Linux because it was a combination of the GNU system and Linux as the kernel. Linux follows the open development model which means that the current development version of Linux is always open to everybody. Tux, the Linux penguin, is the official mascot.
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 8 of 29 Introduction To Linux Features and Advantages of Linux The features of Linux are: Multi-programming Time-sharing Multi-tasking Virtual memory Shared Libraries POSIX-Compliance Samba Network Information System (NIS) Cron Scheduler Office Suites Data archiving utilities Licensing Web server The advantages of Linux are: Reliability Backward compatibility Simple upgrade and installation process Low total cost of ownership Support for legacy devices GUI interface Multiple distributors Excellent security features Support for high user load Support for development libraries
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 9 of 29 Introduction To Linux Linux Architecture Components of Linux operating system
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 10 of 29 Introduction To Linux Linux Architecture (Contd.) The kernel: Is the core of Linux operating system program Controls the resources of the computer Interacts directly with the hardware The shell: Is a user interface providing services that a user wants Protects the user from knowing the intricate hardware details Linux utilities and application programs: Are a collection of programs that service day-to-day processing requirements Are invoked through the shell
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 11 of 29 Introduction To Linux Comparing Linux with Unix Linux was developed keeping Unix as a reference model and continue to have the same basic architecture and features. Linux and Unix operating systems differ in: Hard disk space requirement Availability of shells Distributions or variants Licensing
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 12 of 29 Introduction To Linux Distributors of Linux All the distributors use the Linux kernel. The distributors add their own utilities and applications and sell these as a customized package. The following are the popular distributors of Linux: Red Hat and its variations, such as Linux ES, Linux AS, Linux WS, Desktop, and Fedora Core Mandrake Debian SuSE Slackware
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 13 of 29 Introduction To Linux Starting a Linux Session After you boot the Linux system, the following prompt appears: Fedora Core release 2 (Tettnang) Kernel 2.6.5-1.358 on an i686 linuxpc1 login: _ At the login prompt, you can enter your login name and password: linuxpc1 login: tom Password: [user enters password here] After successful login, you will see the following prompt on the screen: [tom@linuxpc1 tom]$ _
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 14 of 29 Introduction To Linux Connecting to the Linux Server Remotely You can connect to a Linux server from any computer that has operating systems, such as Windows 9x and Windows NT or 2000, using the following utilities: Telnet: You can launch Telnet from the command line by typing the following command: telnet 172.17.55.242 PuTTY: Is a third-party program. Allows you to make ssh (Secure SHell) connections from the computer that has Windows operating system Runs as an executable application that does not need to be installed on your computer
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 15 of 29 Introduction To Linux Security for the Linux User: Passwords Linux ensures that only authorized users can access the system. Linux allows you to have a password associated with your login name as an additional measure of security. The Linux prompt appears only if you have entered both the user name and the password correctly, otherwise you are asked to re-enter the user name followed by the password. Passwords are not displayed on the screen while they are being entered. A user can change the password using the passwd command. The syntax to use the passwd command is: [steve@linuxpc1 steve]$ passwd
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 16 of 29 Introduction To Linux Viewing the System Date and Time Users can display the current date and time using the date command. [steve@linuxpc1 steve]$ date Thu Aug 12 15:56:21 IST 2004 [steve@linuxpc1 steve]$ _
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 17 of 29 Introduction To Linux Modifying the Screen Linux allows you some measure of screen manipulation with the clear and tput commands. The clear command: Clears the terminal screen. [steve@linuxpc1 steve]$ clear The tput clear command: Clears the standard output device, the screen, and positions the cursor at the top left corner of the screen. [steve@linuxpc1 steve]$ tput clear The tput cup command: Positions the cursor at the specified row and column. The tput smso command: Sets the screen to reverse video. The tput rmso command: Sets the screen back to normal. The tput blink command: Displays a blinking output. The tput reset command: Resets the screen to the default settings.
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 18 of 29 Introduction To Linux Identifying the Current Users Working on a System The who command is used to display the names of all the users who are currently logged in. [steve@linuxpc1 steve]$ who root tty1 Sep 21 12:29 root tty2 Sep 21 14:54 andrew pts/0 Sep 21 11:36 (172.17.55.178) tom pts/1 Sep 21 11:15 (172.17.55.133) The ‘ who am i ’ command displays the name of the current user logged in. [steve@linuxpc1 steve]$ who am I steve pts/0 Sep 22 18:08 (172.17.55.167)
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 19 of 29 Introduction To Linux Determining the Uptime of the System The uptime command is used to find the duration for which the system has been running. It gives a one ‑ line display of the current time, how long the system has been running, how many users are currently logged on, and the system load averages for the percentage CPU utilization in the last 1, 5, and 15 minutes respectively.
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 20 of 29 Introduction To Linux Displaying the Manual Pages Linux provides two commands for displaying reference on commands: man: Displays pages of the specified command from the Linux reference manual. For example, to get detailed information about the ls command, you can use the following command: [steve@linuxpc1 steve]$ man ls info: Provides detailed information about a command. The syntax to use the info command is: $ info [options] [menu item] For example, you can use the following command to display detailed information about the emacs editor: $ info emacs
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 21 of 29 Introduction To Linux Ending a Linux Session Typing exit or logout at the shell prompt ends your current Linux session. The system then displays the login: prompt on the screen to initiate another login session in Linux.
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 22 of 29 Introduction To Linux Demonstration-Initiating a Linux Session Problem Statement Deez Telecommunications Inc. is a call center operating in three shifts per day. Tom is the system administrator with Deez Telecommunications for the morning shift. He needs to perform the following routine tasks: Report the daily attendance of each shift Check the load on the Linux server through the shift Change the password, once every week, for security reasons
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 23 of 29 Introduction To Linux Demonstration-Initiating a Linux Session (Contd.) Problem Statement (Contd.) Tom submits a report to the management, on all the above issues, by the end of the shift. Today, Tom has received several complaints about the server being slow. The users are facing difficulty accessing and working on the server over the network. Help Tom to identify the load average in the system and submit the same in his daily report.
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 24 of 29 Introduction To Linux Demonstration-Initiating a Linux Session (Contd.) Solution To identify the clogging in the network and to prepare the daily report, Tom needs to perform the following tasks: 1.Connect to the Linux server remotely. 2.Identify the number of users logged on to the Linux server and their login time. 3.Identify the percentage CPU utilization of the system. 4.Change the password as it is the sixth day today. 5.Consolidate and submit the report.
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 25 of 29 Introduction To Linux Summary In this lesson, you learned: Software is categorized into: System software Application software The functions of an operating system include: Command interpretation Memory management Peripheral management Process management Operating systems can be classified as: Single-user operating systems Multi-user operating systems
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 26 of 29 Introduction To Linux Summary (Contd.) A multi-user system consists of a central server connected to several terminals that could be either: Dumb terminals Smart terminals UNIX was the first multi-user operating system. Linux follows the open development model. Linux has the following features: Multi-programming Time-sharing Multi-tasking Virtual memory Shared libraries POSIX compliance Samba Network Information Service (NIS)
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 27 of 29 Introduction To Linux Summary (Contd.) CRON scheduler Office suites Various data archiving utilities Licensing Linux has the following advantages: Reliability Backward compatibility Simple upgrade and installation process Low TCO Support for legacy devices GUI through the X Window system Multiple Distributions No known viruses Excellent security features
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 28 of 29 Introduction To Linux Summary (Contd.) Can support a high user load Has a number of development libraries You can start a Linux session by logging on to the Linux server or by connecting to the Linux server remotely. You can log out from a Linux session with the logout or exit command. You can remotely log on to a Linux server using the following utilities: Telnet PuTTY Security for a Linux user is offered in the form of a unique username and password that is known to the user only. Some other commonly used commands are: date : Used to view and change the current system date and time tput clear : Clears the contents of the screen tput cup : Used to position the cursor on a specified row and column
©NIIT The Linux Operating System: An Introduction Lesson 1A / Slide 29 of 29 Introduction To Linux Summary (Contd.) tput smso : Sets the screen to reverse video tput rmso : Sets the screen back to normal tput blink : Used for a blinking output tput reset : Resets the screen back to the default settings who : Displays the information of all the users currently logged on the Linux system uptime : Finds the duration for which the system has been running man : Displays help on any Linux command info : Displays detailed help on any Linux command in form of hyperlinks
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