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1 The GNU-Project Payam Pirghaibi The GNU-Project.

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1 1 The GNU-Project Payam Pirghaibi The GNU-Project

2 2 What is GNU? GPL/LGPL The History of GNU GNU/Linux Free Software Foundation and Open Source Initiative Advantages of Free Software Final remarks The GNU-Project

3 3 GNU is a Unix-compatible software system. It‘s source code is free for all and is protected against transformation in commercial software by General Public License. „What is GNU? GNU’s Not Unix.” What is GNU?

4 4 “Free Software“ Free not in the sense of “no cost“ but in the sense of “freedom“ “Free speech, not free beer“ The philosophy of the GNU-Project The GNU-Project

5 5 The four gradations of freedom The freedom to use a software no matter for which purpose (freedom 0) The freedom to examine a software, to understand and to adapt it as one likes (freedom 1) The freedom to distribute copies of the software, to let friends participate and help (freedom 2) The freedom to improve and publish the software, so that everbody can profit from it (freedom 3) The GNU-Project

6 6 License- characteristic Software-typ Non-profitableFree distribution Unlimited useSourcecode available Sourcecode modification All divisions have to be free No mixing with commercial software commercial („Microsoft“) Sample- software, shareware (X)X Freeware („Pegasus-Mail“)XXX licensefree libraries XXXX Free-Software (BSD, NPL,…)XXXXX Free Software (GNU, LGPL)XXXXXX Free Software (GNU GPL)XXXXXXX The GNU-Project

7 7 GPL: Constructed and published in 1983 by Richard Stallman Garanties the freedom of the users while dealing with software LGPL: Libraries Collection of functions The GNU-Project

8 8 Richard Matthew Stallman The GNU-Project

9 9 Born in New York in 1953 Founder of the GNU-Project The first president of the Free Software Foundation Prize winner of the MacArthur Fellowship, the Association of Computing Machinery’s Grace Murray Hopper Award Receiver of the Takeda Foundation Award Devoloper of gcc, GNU Emacs and many other elements of the GNU-Project “The true Hacker“ Richard Matthew Stallman The GNU-Project

10 10 Hacker or Cracker? I am a hacker. With other words, I love to play about with computers, to work with clever computer programms, to understand and write them. I am not a cracker, I don‘t occupy myself with cracking security systems of computers. [...] Newspapers like your‘s [...] convey hacking means the cracking of security systems and nothing else. They bring hackers into disrepute [...]. Wall Street Journal 1984 The GNU-Project

11 Stallman joins IBM - Development of the first UNIX-Version by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie Stallman changes to the Artificial Intelligence Lab of the MIT „But by then it began to be something else because you weren't alone, there were a few other hackers there too, and so it became a social phenomenon. During the daytime if you came in, you could expect to find professors and students who didn't really love the machine, whereas if during the night you came in you would find hackers. Therefore hackers came in at night to be with their culture. And they developed other traditions such as getting Chinese food at three in the morning. And I remember many sunrises seen from a car coming back from Chinatown." The time before GNU The GNU-Project

12 Development of the first Emacs-Version from Stallman as a macrocollection for the ITS-Editor TECO - First PC on the market The “community of hackers“ leaves the MIT AI Lab changes to the DECs commercial operating system - James Gosling writes the Gosling Emacs AT&T commercializes the UNIX System as Closed Source The time before GNU The GNU-Project

13 13 The beginning The printer of the department was the release for the foundation of the GNU-Project - Insufficient functionality of the printer software - Not existing source codes - Non-cooperative colleague in the company Xerox The GNU-Project

14 14 The beginning The GNU-Project starts on September 17th Aim of the project: Creation of a free operating system in the sense of the “Software Sharing Community“ of the AI Lab. This means: - To open the source codes - The freedom to copy, to manipulate and to distribute the software The GNU-Project

15 15 The beginning Stallman leaves the MIT - New Emacs-Version by Stallman - Quarrel between Stallman and the company UniPress Establishment of the Free Software Foundation - GNU Manifesto First version of the GNU General Public License The GNU-Project

16 16 The beginning An almost complete operating system - Start of the GNU Hurd-Project for the development of the Kernel Second version of the GNU General Public License - First version of the GNU Lesser/Library General Public License - Richard Stallman recieves the „Grace-Hopper-Award" of the Association for Computing Machinery for the development of the Emacs-Editor - Linus Torvalds releases Linux Version 0.01 The GNU-Project

17 17 The beginning Development of GNU/Linux Establishment of the Linux-Distributor Debian - The rank of a honorary doctor of the Royal University of Applied Sciences in Stockholm is confered to Richard Stallman Development of the KDE with commercial QT-libraries from the company Trolltech The GNU-Project

18 18 The beginning Launch of the project "GNU Network Object Model Environment“ (GNOME) - Development of the Harmony-library - Stallman and Torvald recieve the “Pioneer Award" of the Electronic Frontier Foundation - Trolltech renounces it‘s copyright on the QT-libraries - Establishment of the Open Source Initiative Stallman recieves the “Yuri Rubinski Award“ - Release of the GNU Lesser GPL Version 2.1 The GNU-Project

19 19 The GNU-Project The future Sectors where the Free Software needs to be accepted: 1. Secret hardware 2. Proprietary libraries 3. Software patents 4. Free documentation

20 20 The GNU-Project Linus Benedict Torvalds Founder of the operating system Linux, named after him.

21 21 The GNU-Project Born on December 28th in Helsinki 1988 Beginns his studies at the university of Helsinki 1990 First experiences with C-programming August 25th Announcement of his plan to write an operating system in the newsgroup comp.os.minix Linus Benedict Torvalds

22 22 September 17th First Linux-Version Employed at Transmeta in California Currently working at the Open Source Devolopment Lab (OSDL) Linus Benedict Torvalds The GNU-Project

23 23 The GNU-Project What is Linux? Linux is only a Kernel A piece of software that regulates the communication between the hardwarecomponents and the userprogramms Linux is put together by Linus and Unix Right: GNU/Linux

24 24 The GNU-Project The development of GNU/Linux September 17th Linux Version 0.01 Oktober 5th First official version of the Linux Kernel Dezember 19th Release of the first independant running version of Linux

25 25 The GNU-Project The development of GNU/Linux 1992 New version with more functionality Kernel is protected by GPL The rights of Linux are ceded from Mr. William R. Della Croce, Jr. to Torvalds

26 26 The GNU-Project Linux logo Why a penguin? Re: Linux Logo Linus Torvalds Sun, 12 May :39: (EET "Linus likes penguins". That's it. There was even a headline on it in some Linux Journal some time ago (I was bitten by a Killer Penguin in Australia - I'm not kidding). Penguins are fun.

27 27 The GNU-Project Linux logo Why TUX? Re: Let's name the penguin! (was: Re: Linux 2.0 really _is_ released..) James Hughes Mon, 10 Jun :25: (T)orvalds (U)ni(X) -> TUX!

28 28 The GNU-Project Linux logo Why TUX? Re: Let's name the penguin! (was: Re: Linux 2.0 really _is_ released..) James Hughes Mon, 10 Jun :25: (T)orvalds (U)ni(X) -> TUX!

29 29 The GNU-Project Linux today 10 million users Torvalds‘ announcement in Berlin in 1996: World Domination through Linux

30 30 The GNU-Project Free Software Foundation and Open Source Initiative

31 31 The GNU-Project Free Software Foundation 1985 Establishment by Richard Stallman. Aims: To open the source code The freedom to copy the software The freedom to manipulate the software The freedom to distribute the software “Free speech, not free beer“

32 32 The GNU-Project Open Source Initiative 1998 Establishment by Eric S. Raymond and Bruce Perens. Aims: To open the source code Free distribution Free Software as a business-model Help Linux and Open Source software to a broader use

33 33 The GNU-Project Free Software Foundation Linux Examples of FSF and OSI products:

34 34 The GNU-Project Free Software Foundation MySQL Examples of FSF and OSI products:

35 35 The GNU-Project Free Software Foundation Apache Examples of FSF and OSI products:

36 36 The GNU-Project Free Software Foundation Apache Examples of FSF and OSI products:

37 37 The GNU-Project Free Software Foundation Sendmail Samba KDE, GNOME Mozilla OpenOffice Perl, Phyton, PHP Examples of FSF and OSI products:

38 38 The GNU-Project Characteristic of Free Software Social aspects Improvement of quality Flexibility/compatibility Reuseability Credibility Independence Cost advantage

39 39 The GNU-Project Costcomparison — 245 x Standard Workstations — 3 x Developer Workstations — 2 x Graphics/Design Workstations — 1 x Mail Server — 5 x File/Print Server — 1 x Proxy/Firewall Server — 1 x Intranet & SQL Server — 1 x E-Business Server (incl. SQL & Web Server)

40 40 The GNU-Project Microsoft solution: Norton Antivirus copies$12, MS Internet Information Server2 copies$0.00 MS Windows 2000 Advanced Server9 copies$35, MS Commerce Server1 copy$12, MS ISA Standard Server copy$1, MS SQL Server copy$4, MS Exchange Standard Server copy$1, Windows XP Professional250 copies$74, MS Visual Studio 6.03 copies$3, MS Office Standard250 copies$119, Adobe Photoshop 62 copies$ Additional Client Access Licenses2 copies$15, Total:$282,973.50

41 41 The GNU-Project Linux solution: Linux Distribution (eg SuSE 7.3)only 1 copy necessary$79.95 Apache (Web server)provided with distribution$0.00 Squid (Proxy server)provided with distribution$0.00 PostgreSQL (Database)provided with distribution$0.00 iptables (Firewall)provided with distribution$0.00 Sendmail / Postfix (Mail servers)provided with distribution$0.00 KDevelop (IDE)provided with distribution$0.00 GIMP (Graphics)provided with distribution$0.00 OpenOffice (Productivity suite)provided with distribution$0.00 The Exchange Project (e_ Commerce system) only 1 copy necessary (free download ) $0.00 Total:$79.95

42 42 The GNU-Project Final remarks

43 43 The GNU-Project Source Declaration - Linus Torvalds und David Diamond, Just for fun. Wie ein Freak die Computerwelt revolutionierte, München The GNU Project: - The Open Source Definition: - GPL/LGPL:

44 44 The GNU-Project Questions?


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