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Presentation on theme: "REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA"— Presentation transcript:

Social Studies 9/10 Chapter Notes

2 CANADA: A REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY What regions are evident?

3 Five Themes of Canada’s Geography
Location: relative and absolute Place: human and physical Human and Environment Interactions: adaptation, modification, dependence Movement: migration and transportation Regions: consistent, focused, aligned, linked

4 Canada: territorial template over satellite photo composite

5 Divisions and Places Political divisions: provinces and territories
Placing the Canadian map

6 Fundamentals of physical geography
Geology-process, structure, time Topography-relief, slope Soils-texture, pH, organic matter Vegetation-water, arboreal, ecotone Climate-air mass, current, precipitation, temperature, system

7 Underlying geology Pink: precambrian granites Green: younger sediments
Yellow: faulted and meta-morphized sediments Blue: older sediments

8 Glacial legacy Wisconsin-last ice age, maximum 18,000 yrs. BP
Southern limits- Wisconsin and Ohio Valley Recedes-15,000-7,000 yrs. BP Covers virtually all of Canada and northern US Ice free corridor from Alaska through Yukon into northern BC

9 Remnant glacial landscapes
Ice margin End moraine Glacial lakes Spillways Kettle lakes Eskers Drumlins Till plain Erratic

10 Glacial till and erratic

11 esker

12 Drumlin and drumlin field

13 Glacial lake Louise and Paternoster Lakes


15 St. Lawrence Lowlands Less than 2% of landmass; smallest region
Windsor to Quebec City Sedimentary geology with glacial deposits Moderate climate Fertile soils Long growing season Close to the US Canadian HEARTLAND

16 French Canadian ‘long lot’ farms and Niagara Falls

17 The Great Lakes and Ottawa

18 Toronto climate

19 Canadian Shield 50% of Canada’s landmass; largest region
Almost entirely contained in Canada Geological core underlies North America Precambrian rocks more than 3 billion yrs. Exposed granite and shallow soils Glaciation evident Mixed Boreal forest Northern continental climate

20 Canadian shield vistas

21 Ste. Agathe climate

22 Appalachian Uplands Over 2% of landmass Northern part of Appalachians
Rounded uplands and plateaux Numerous islands along drowned shoreline Narrow river valleys Rocky, shallow soils Mixed forests Cool maritime climate Short summer wet, winter

23 Interior farms and forests, coastal settlements

24 Fredericton, NB

25 Hudson Bay Lowlands Over 3.5% landmass Muskeg or wet peat lands
Many lakes Low ridges of sand and gravel Poorly drained Level Northern climate Maritime influence Short, warm summer Long, cold winter

26 Moosonee climate graph and Hudson Bay Lowland vista

27 Interior Plains About 20% land mass Geologic base of sedimentary rock
Shaped by glaciation and re-directed drainage Incised river valleys Slopes up from east to west with rich soils Hudson’s Bay watershed Oil and gas deposits Continental climate Moderate to low precipitation

28 Plains agriculture and Regina climate graph

29 Cordillera Region of intra-regional differences About 16% of land mass
Formed million years ago from collision of North American and Pacific Plates Rockies up thrust sediments Coastal mountains volcanic: ‘ring of fire’ Glaciers remain in Alpine areas Fertile valleys and deltas Coniferous Multiple micro-climates

30 Mountains and valleys

31 Banff and Victoria climate graphs

32 Arctic lowlands About 13% land mass Coastal plains and lowlands
Islands and drowned shorelines Sedimentary Permafrost Frost action is the main geomorphic process Polar desert with very low precipitation Extreme arctic climate conditions

33 Iqaluit climate graph and Arctic Lowlands vista

34 Innuitian Mountains About 12% land mass Plateaux and mountains
Extreme glaciation and extensive weathering of sedimentary rock Extensive coastal drowning and fjiords Islands Uplifting and isostatic rebound Extreme cold Pack ice and ice flows Glacier calving

35 Arctic mountain scenery and resolute climate graph

36 Drainage: Well drained south; poorly drained north

37 Climate Continental and maritime influences Prevailing winds
Jet stream Mountain effects Air masses Freezing point Seasonal variability Precipitation Cloud cover Evaporation

38 Where are the people? Population distribution
In cities near the USA 80% in cities over 100,000 80% within 100km of the US border ‘main street Canada’: Windsor to Quebec City Agricultural western interior Coastal and river valley settlement in Atlantic region Resource points in the Shield and the North Western cordillera valleys and the BC coast

39 Canada CMAs and Population Change, 1996-2001

40 Canada’s Urban and Agricultural settlement Archipelago
Pattern set over 100 years ago Islands of population and settlement amid a vast, inhospitable and often empty land Contrast between heartland and hinterland Regional centers Hugging the border The empty north

41 The People, Place, Region Relationship
Resource extraction periphery Rural sphere Suburban area Urban center Canada has always had urban centers where most people lived and worked Urban centers were surrounded by a rural sphere to constitute the heartland Beyond the rural lands, towns and villages, a sparsely populated resource extraction periphery or hinterland extended to the farthest reaches of the country With transportation advances people moved to the commuting suburbs of cities

42 Three Popular Canadian Explanations and One Not So Popular Bilateral Explanation
Resource extraction Fish, furs, minerals, crops Staples Development International, national, regional scales Center/periphery relationship Heartland/Hinterland Settlement in patches or islands Distinct from the US Physical Disunity (or United Despite Geography) Economy linked to the larger neighbor Settlement pattern aligned with US Borderland Relationship with US

43 Canada as a storehouse of raw materials: old and new explanations
‘Hewers of wood and drawers of water’ Fish, furs, wood, minerals, crops Colonial power dictates Colony formation Colonial settlement shaped by staples extraction and export patterns Colonial seaport dominance in colony Trade with “Mother Countries” France and Britain establish the framework The US shifts the focus and the ways of trade Resources in the contemporary economy Wood, minerals, agricultural products still major component of export economy Increased emphasis on global markets while maintaining US as major trading partner

44 Fisheries, then and now: Historic Grand Banks; Pacific Salmon catch and prospects

45 Fur trade legacy

46 Renewable forestry

47 Agricultural potential

48 Agricultural production

49 Minerals and Mining

50 Mining potential

51 Oil

52 Metropolitan Heartland
“main street Canada” Red area is continuous urban ribbon Green area is adjacent commuter shed and integrated use region Toronto and Montreal metropolitan cores linked to other growth centers along the spine

53 BC lower mainland and calgary-edmonton corridor

54 Financial services

55 CN and CP railway systems

56 Airports and airport authorities

57 Ethnic diversity

58 Ethnic “minorities” in cities
Toronto: Canada’s cosmopolitan leader Allophones in Montreal Asian populations expand in most cities Black populations in most Canadian cities but predominate in east Aboriginal populations growing in all urban centers

59 Canada’s regional character: socio-economic regions shaped by
Topography Political boundaries Language Historical patterns Cultural identity Shape affected by: Heartland/Hinterlands relations Confluence of political, cultural and social dynamics=regional identity Proximity of the US

60 Meshing physiography and human geography to comprehend Canada’s Regions

61 Canada’s regions map North and south distinguished
Settlement and urbanization acknowledged Cultures recognized Political divisions sustained Traditional aggregates

62 Placing Canada into temporal and geographical context
1000s of years of indigenous human presence European contact over centuries: late 15th to 19th European re-settlement by force, treaty, depopulation (disease) Historical geography matters socially, politically and ecologically Map shows Canada at Confederation

63 Canada in global context (globalization index)
Canadian participation in globalization Global Linkages Global Relationships Bordering

64 Current “Geographical” Issues
Native land claims: British Columbia, the North, creation of Nunavut Environmental crises: energy, climate change, forest degradation Borders: US, Arctic Federal/Provincial: the national/regional power balancing act, fiscal control City growth and expansion: newcomers, transportation, crime, planning

65 Key words and concepts Physical Geography Air mass Alpine Appalachian
Geography Basics Adaptation Human and environment interaction Location Place Province Region Territorial template Territory Physical Geography Air mass Alpine Appalachian Archipelago Arctic Lowlands Boreal Canadian Shield Continental climate Cordilleran Drainage system Drumlin Drowned shoreline End moraine

66 Physical Geography (cont.)
Erratic Esker Fjiord Glacial lake Glaciation Glacier calving Hudson Bay Lowlands Ice free corridor Incised valley Innuitian Interior Plains Isostatic rebound Jetstream Kettle lake Maritime climate Micro-climate Muskeg Pack ice Paternoster lakes Peatlands Permafrost Physiographic region Plant hardiness zone Polar desert Precambrian

67 Physical Geography (cont.)
Relief ‘Ring of Fire’ Sedimentary Spillway St. Lawrence Lowlands Topography Till plain Wisconsin glaciation Human Geography Aboriginal Agri-food Airport authority Allophone Borderland relationship Borders CMA CN and CP Commuter shed Climate change Corridor Confederation Cultural identity European contact Energy crisis Ethnic diversity Ethnic minority Federal/Provincial issues

68 Human Geography (cont.)
Forest heritage Fur trade Global linkages Global relationships Globalization Index Grand Banks Heartland/Hinterland Indigenous ‘Main Street Canada’ Metropolitan core Mineral lease Native land claims Oil pipeline Physical disunity Population density Resource extraction periphery Resource points Rural sphere Staples development Suburban area Urban center

69 References Adams, Michael, Fire and Ice: The United States, Canada, and the Myth of Converging Values. Toronto: penguin, Bone, Robert M. The Regional Geography of Canada. Don Mills: Oxford, 2005. Lemon, James T. Liberal Dreams and Nature’s Limit: Great Cities of North America Since Toronto: Oxford, Lipset, Seymour M. Continental Divide: The Values and Institutions of the United States and Canada. New York: Routledge, 1990. McCann, L. D., ed., A Geography of Canada: Heartland and Hinterland. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, (several later editions). Warkentin, John, Canada: A Regional Geography. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, Many maps and images may be obtained at the following websites as well as through search engines: Any comprehensive atlas of Canada is an asset See also, Historical Atlas of Canada. 3 volumes. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.


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