Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA Social Studies 9/10 Chapter Notes.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA Social Studies 9/10 Chapter Notes."— Presentation transcript:

1 REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA Social Studies 9/10 Chapter Notes

2 CANADA: A REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY What regions are evident?

3 Five Themes of Canada’s Geography  Location: relative and absolute  Place: human and physical  Human and Environment Interactions: adaptation, modification, dependence  Movement: migration and transportation  Regions: consistent, focused, aligned, linked

4 Canada: territorial template over satellite photo composite

5 Divisions and Places Placing the Canadian map Political divisions: provinces and territories

6 Fundamentals of physical geography  Geology-process, structure, time  Topography-relief, slope  Soils-texture, pH, organic matter  Vegetation-water, arboreal, ecotone  Climate-air mass, current, precipitation, temperature, system

7 Underlying geology  Pink: precambrian granites  Green: younger sediments  Yellow: faulted and meta-morphized sediments  Blue: older sediments

8 Glacial legacy  Wisconsin-last ice age, maximum 18,000 yrs. BP  Southern limits- Wisconsin and Ohio Valley  Recedes-15,000-7,000 yrs. BP  Covers virtually all of Canada and northern US  Ice free corridor from Alaska through Yukon into northern BC

9 Remnant glacial landscapes  Ice margin  End moraine  Glacial lakes  Spillways  Kettle lakes  Eskers  Drumlins  Till plain  Erratic

10 Glacial till and erratic

11 esker

12 Drumlin and drumlin field

13 Glacial lake Louise and Paternoster Lakes

14

15 St. Lawrence Lowlands  Less than 2% of landmass; smallest region  Windsor to Quebec City  Sedimentary geology with glacial deposits  Moderate climate  Fertile soils  Long growing season  Close to the US  Canadian HEARTLAND

16 French Canadian ‘long lot’ farms and Niagara Falls

17 The Great Lakes and Ottawa

18 Toronto climate

19 Canadian Shield  50% of Canada’s landmass; largest region  Almost entirely contained in Canada  Geological core underlies North America  Precambrian rocks more than 3 billion yrs.  Exposed granite and shallow soils  Glaciation evident  Mixed Boreal forest  Northern continental climate

20 Canadian shield vistas

21 Ste. Agathe climate

22 Appalachian Uplands  Over 2% of landmass  Northern part of Appalachians  Rounded uplands and plateaux  Numerous islands along drowned shoreline  Narrow river valleys  Rocky, shallow soils  Mixed forests  Cool maritime climate  Short summer wet, winter

23 Interior farms and forests, coastal settlements

24 Fredericton, NB

25 Hudson Bay Lowlands  Over 3.5% landmass  Muskeg or wet peat lands  Many lakes  Low ridges of sand and gravel  Poorly drained  Level  Northern climate  Maritime influence  Short, warm summer  Long, cold winter

26 Moosonee climate graph and Hudson Bay Lowland vista

27 Interior Plains  About 20% land mass  Geologic base of sedimentary rock  Shaped by glaciation and re-directed drainage  Incised river valleys  Slopes up from east to west with rich soils  Hudson’s Bay watershed  Oil and gas deposits  Continental climate  Moderate to low precipitation

28 Plains agriculture and Regina climate graph

29 Cordillera  Region of intra-regional differences  About 16% of land mass  Formed million years ago from collision of North American and Pacific Plates  Rockies up thrust sediments  Coastal mountains volcanic: ‘ring of fire’  Glaciers remain in Alpine areas  Fertile valleys and deltas  Coniferous  Multiple micro-climates

30 Mountains and valleys

31 Banff and Victoria climate graphs

32 Arctic lowlands  About 13% land mass  Coastal plains and lowlands  Islands and drowned shorelines  Sedimentary  Permafrost  Frost action is the main geomorphic process  Polar desert with very low precipitation  Extreme arctic climate conditions

33 Iqaluit climate graph and Arctic Lowlands vista

34 Innuitian Mountains  About 12% land mass  Plateaux and mountains  Extreme glaciation and extensive weathering of sedimentary rock  Extensive coastal drowning and fjiords  Islands  Uplifting and isostatic rebound  Extreme cold  Pack ice and ice flows  Glacier calving

35 Arctic mountain scenery and resolute climate graph

36 Drainage: Well drained south; poorly drained north

37 Climate  Continental and maritime influences  Prevailing winds  Jet stream  Mountain effects  Air masses  Freezing point  Seasonal variability  Precipitation  Cloud cover  Evaporation

38 Where are the people? Population distribution  In cities near the USA  80% in cities over 100,000  80% within 100km of the US border  ‘main street Canada’: Windsor to Quebec City  Agricultural western interior  Coastal and river valley settlement in Atlantic region  Resource points in the Shield and the North  Western cordillera valleys and the BC coast

39 Canada CMAs and Population Change,

40 Canada’s Urban and Agricultural settlement Archipelago  Pattern set over 100 years ago  Islands of population and settlement amid a vast, inhospitable and often empty land  Contrast between heartland and hinterland  Regional centers  Hugging the border  The empty north

41 The People, Place, Region Relationship Resource extraction periphery Rural sphere Suburban area Urban center  Canada has always had urban centers where most people lived and worked  Urban centers were surrounded by a rural sphere to constitute the heartland  Beyond the rural lands, towns and villages, a sparsely populated resource extraction periphery or hinterland extended to the farthest reaches of the country  With transportation advances people moved to the commuting suburbs of cities

42 Three Popular Canadian Explanations and One Not So Popular Bilateral Explanation

43 Canada as a storehouse of raw materials: old and new explanations

44 Fisheries, then and now: Historic Grand Banks; Pacific Salmon catch and prospects

45 Fur trade legacy

46 Renewable forestry

47 Agricultural potential

48 Agricultural production

49 Minerals and Mining

50 Mining potential

51 Oil

52 Metropolitan Heartland  “main street Canada”  Red area is continuous urban ribbon  Green area is adjacent commuter shed and integrated use region  Toronto and Montreal metropolitan cores linked to other growth centers along the spine

53 BC lower mainland and calgary- edmonton corridor

54 Financial services

55 CN and CP railway systems

56 Airports and airport authorities

57 Ethnic diversity

58 Ethnic “minorities” in cities  Toronto: Canada’s cosmopolitan leader  Allophones in Montreal  Asian populations expand in most cities  Black populations in most Canadian cities but predominate in east  Aboriginal populations growing in all urban centers

59 Canada’s regional character: socio- economic regions shaped by Topography Political boundaries Language Historical patterns Cultural identity Shape affected by:  Heartland/Hinterlands relations  Confluence of political, cultural and social dynamics=regional identity  Proximity of the US

60 Meshing physiography and human geography to comprehend Canada’s Regions

61 Canada’s regions map  North and south distinguished  Settlement and urbanization acknowledged  Cultures recognized  Political divisions sustained  Traditional aggregates

62 Placing Canada into temporal and geographical context  1000s of years of indigenous human presence  European contact over centuries: late 15 th to 19 th  European re-settlement by force, treaty, depopulation (disease)  Historical geography matters socially, politically and ecologically  Map shows Canada at Confederation

63 Canada in global context (globalization index) Canadian participation in globalization Global Linkages Global Relationships Bordering

64 Current “Geographical” Issues  Native land claims: British Columbia, the North, creation of Nunavut  Environmental crises: energy, climate change, forest degradation  Borders: US, Arctic  Federal/Provincial: the national/regional power balancing act, fiscal control  City growth and expansion: newcomers, transportation, crime, planning

65 Key words and concepts Geography Basics  Adaptation  Human and environment interaction  Location  Place  Province  Region  Territorial template  Territory Physical Geography  Air mass  Alpine  Appalachian  Archipelago  Arctic Lowlands  Boreal  Canadian Shield  Continental climate  Cordilleran  Drainage system  Drumlin  Drowned shoreline  End moraine

66 Physical Geography (cont.)  Erratic  Esker  Fjiord  Glacial lake  Glaciation  Glacier calving  Hudson Bay Lowlands  Ice free corridor  Incised valley  Innuitian  Interior Plains  Isostatic rebound  Jetstream  Kettle lake  Maritime climate  Micro-climate  Muskeg  Pack ice  Paternoster lakes  Peatlands  Permafrost  Physiographic region  Plant hardiness zone  Polar desert  Precambrian

67 Physical Geography (cont.)  Relief  ‘Ring of Fire’  Sedimentary  Spillway  St. Lawrence Lowlands  Topography  Till plain  Wisconsin glaciation Human Geography  Aboriginal  Agri-food  Airport authority  Allophone  Borderland relationship  Borders  CMA  CN and CP  Commuter shed  Climate change  Corridor  Confederation  Cultural identity  European contact  Energy crisis  Ethnic diversity  Ethnic minority  Federal/Provincial issues

68 Human Geography (cont.)  Forest heritage  Fur trade  Global linkages  Global relationships  Globalization Index  Grand Banks  Heartland/Hinterland  Indigenous  ‘Main Street Canada’  Metropolitan core  Mineral lease  Native land claims  Oil pipeline  Physical disunity  Population density  Resource extraction periphery  Resource points  Rural sphere  Staples development  Suburban area  Urban center

69 References  Adams, Michael, Fire and Ice: The United States, Canada, and the Myth of Converging Values. Toronto: penguin,  Bone, Robert M. The Regional Geography of Canada. Don Mills: Oxford,  Lemon, James T. Liberal Dreams and Nature’s Limit: Great Cities of North America Since Toronto: Oxford,  Lipset, Seymour M. Continental Divide: The Values and Institutions of the United States and Canada. New York: Routledge,  McCann, L. D., ed., A Geography of Canada: Heartland and Hinterland. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1982 (several later editions).  Warkentin, John, Canada: A Regional Geography. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall,  Many maps and images may be obtained at the following websites as well as through search engines:  Any comprehensive atlas of Canada is an asset  See also, Historical Atlas of Canada. 3 volumes. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.


Download ppt "REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA Social Studies 9/10 Chapter Notes."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google