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Exam tips Pen (spare) Pencil Sharpener / rubber Spellings Environment

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1 Exam tips Pen (spare) Pencil Sharpener / rubber Spellings Environment
Volcano / Volcanoes Erosion Desert Deciduous Antarctic Don’t forget Look out for questions without lines to write – you may have to draw on maps /graphs! Examiners cannot take marks off you – always answer every question!!

2 GEOGRAPHY UNIT 1 UNIT 2 Restless Earth Living World Water On the Land
Population Change Changing Urban Environments Tourism

3 Human Geography UNIT 2 Population Change Changing Urban Environments
Tourism

4 Demographic Transition Model
You m ay need to draw stage 5 – remember Birth rate falls below Death rate

5 Population Change J Curve S Curve Keywords: Birth rate Death rate
Natural change / natural increase Population Growth rate

6 Factors affecting population change
Changes to farming Mechanisation Children are no longer needed as machinery can be used on farms Education and Women Emancipation Women have a voice and wish to have a career not large family Urbanisation As more people live in cities fewer children are needed for farm work and therefore people have smaller families

7 Population Pyramids Youthful Ageing

8 Sustainable population policy Birth Control Policy China One Child Policy
Consequences Slower natural increase More only children Little emperor syndrome Antisocial behaviour Male dominated population Difficult to find partner 1979 / 1980 onwards Couples who had one child received financial rewards Those who had more than one child were fined Reports of forced abortions and sterilisations Granny police – older members reported those breaking the rule. Since the 1990s Young couples who are both only children can have two children (help elderly) Change of attitude towards girls. Some can now afford to have more than one child and break the rules If the first child is a girl then couples are allowed a second Sex determination scans banned in 1994

9 Non-Birth Control Policy Gambia
Non-birth Control Policy means people are educated not forced to reduce the number of children they have Challenges Strategies Too many young people Religious beliefs Multiple wives Lack of education Poor health care for children School has too many students 2 toilets for 2000 students Running out of resources NGO (Charity) ‘Futures’ distributed condoms to villages on motorbikes. Mobile pharmacy visiting remote rural areas. Female chat shows to discuss contraception Vaccinations for children against whooping cough etc School split day Family planning discussed Backed by religious leaders Educate boys and girls to abstain from sex Healthcare for women to space births

10 Ageing population Graph Skills
The sections show the percentages of each group which (its like a pie chart in a line!)

11 Ageing Population (East Devon, UK and France)
Challenges The reason this is negative is because… More frequent visits to doctors and chemists ….it is a strain on NHS resources. More geriatric operations in hospitals ….it means more money is needed for operations like hip replacements so less money for younger people. People unable to live independently ….more specialist care homes are needed which costs lots of money. People less confident about or are unable to drive ….then they become isolated and lonely. Solutions FRANCE PRONATALIST POLICY

12 Rural to Urban Migration
Push Factors Pull Factors Move people away from the place they live (rural) Draw people towards the place they move to (Urban)

13 Polish Migration Source / origin (Poland) Host / Destination (UK)
Positive Poland Negative Poland Positive UK Negative UK Unemployment is reduced as many Polish workers leave to work in the UK. Birth rate will fall as it is often young people (potential parents) who leave Poland. Population increases in the UK which creates a strain on health and education services Many Poles spend very little on accommodation and food so they can return home with money and set up a business or buy a house. More than half of Polish migrants send money home. About £4 billion is transferred to Poland each year Nearly 7 in 1000 Poles have moved from Poland to the UK, most of them younger working people leading to a shortage of workers and a shortage in pension contributions and taxes Most immigrants integrate well as new arrivals from Poland are better informed and more realistic about life in the UK. (Many children learn about the British way of life in Polish schools). Specialist language teachers and translators have had to be employed in some areas with large immigrant populations . There is less pressure on resources (e.g. land) as people leave to work in the UK. The Polish divorce rate has doubled in 7 years as long periods of separation puts a strain on marriages. UK supermarkets have cashed in on a new market of customers. E.g. Tescos now sell over 100 different lines of Polish food. Pressure on A&E hospital services as few immigrants register with a doctor. Brain drain: often the more skilled and better educated Polish people migrate meaning there is a shortage of skilled labour (e.g. doctors get paid four times as much in the UK compared to Poland) Polish businesses have opened where immigrants have settled and rejuvenated declining neighbourhood shopping areas – often doing jobs British citizens don’t want to do (e.g. farm work, fruit picking etc). Increased racial tension in some areas of the country that has large numbers of immigrants. Polish labourers have filled the gaps in the UK labour market – working hard and for minimum wage.

14 Refugee movements Afghan Refugees
Afghanistan had an estimated population of 28 million 3 million refugees Difficult life, drought, poverty, corruption. The Jungle – area of wasteland on the edge of Calais Entrance to channel tunnel August afghans living there (trying to get to the UK) Wanted to get to England because it is ‘good and safe’ 22nd December 2009 the remaining migrants were arrested. 24 hours later the settlement was bulldozed Many released so returned and attempted to try and get into the UK again. Asylum Seeker – seeking asylum Refugee – granted asylum Economic Asylum Seeker – claiming to need protection but actually moving for economic benefits.

15 Changing Urban Environments

16 Causes of Urbanisation
Urbanisation (increase in the number of people living in cities) 2 Reasons for urbanisation: Rural to urban migration High levels of natural increase

17 Land use CBD Inner City Inner Suburbs Outer Suburbs Rural Urban Fringe
Greenbelt

18 ‘Urban Development Corporation’
UDC ‘Urban Development Corporation’ Use public and private money to complete large scale projects e.g. GEAR Glasgow Eastern Area Regeneration Issues and solutions for people living in urban areas in richer parts of the world Issues Regeneration / solutions Housing Not enough / lower standard in Old inner city Glasgow (Tennanat housing – shared toilets) Regenerate areas of brownfield Build on greenfield site Modify existing homes (windows, bathrooms, insulation) Inner city Gorbals – Glasgow Glasgow harbour Deindustrialisation Social housing Unemployment rate high Crime Congestion New developments Public realm (open space) Street furniture Mixed use housing (some owner occupied) Flagship developments (Titan crane) Traffic Traffic / congestion in CBD Integrated transport Park and ride Kiss and ride Cycle lanes Higher car park prices Bus Lanes Pedestrianised CBD Competition with out of town shopping centres Glasgow CBD Arts Centre 24 hour city (lights) Buccannon street – new shopping area Transport (as above) Titan Crane Multicultural Mix (segregation) Segregation see next slide

19 Strategies aimed at supporting the multicultural mix
Segregation: when people choose to live away from people with different culture and/or ethnicity Reasons: Support each other Familiar culture Specialist facilities Safety in numbers Employment factors Strategies aimed at supporting the multicultural mix Print information in a number of languages Translators in doctors/hospitals/schools Different cultural leaders involved in community discussions Community workers in mosques and schools Create services to meet specific needs (private swimming for muslim ladies) Initiatives to support basic skill devlopment

20 Greenfield Vs Brown field
Satisfying the housing demand – where to build? Greenfield Vs Brown field Advantages of building on greenfield sites Advantages of building on Brownfield sites Some shops and business parks on outskirts so plots can be larger Easier to get planning permission as councils want these sites used Sites in cities are not left derelict and/or empty No restrictions of existing road network New sites do not need cleaning so can be cheaper to prepare Roads already exist Cuts commuting Pleasant countryside environment may appeal to potential home owners Utilities such as water and electricity are already provided More space for gardens Near to facilities in town centres

21 Inner City Problems Solutions: GEAR – Glasgow Easter Area Regeneration
Environmental Social Economic Housing is either old terraced or cheap tower blocks Difficult police community relations High cost of land compared to the suburbs Many derelict buildings – factories, warehouses – often vandalised Higher than average rates of unemployment Local employment declined as industries and docks closed Poorer than average levels of health Shortage of open space Above-average number of pensioners, single parent families etc Low income and widespread poverty Solutions: GEAR – Glasgow Easter Area Regeneration Gorbals / Glasgow harbour and docks

22 CDB (City Centre Regeneration)
Glasgow UDC Urban Development Corporation Rebranding – culture and arts (made Glasgow a place to visit) Burrell Arts Centre 24 hour city (lights on building and bridges) Buccannon street – new shopping area Transport (as in table above) Titan Crane etc (USP – Unique selling point) CCTV Open Space

23 Issues of rapid Urbanisation
Solution Water pollution Rivers – untreated sewage New Water treatment works Air Pollution Burning waste Acid rain Smog Coal power stations Alternative energy Carbon tax Low sulphur coal Monitoring emissions from large companies Waste management Disposal of toxic chemical waster Electronic waste disposal Food waste fed to animals Recycle (Car tyres used for sandals) Law enforcement

24 Problems of rapid urbanisation Cairo, Egypt
Largest city in Africa Rapid urbanisation since 1960 Housing Illegally built brick built houses On land reserved for growing crops Informal houses cover 80% of the land. 2-3 million people live in ‘Cities of the Dead’ Traffic / congestion Over crowded roads Pedestrians run over Especially busy when call to prayer Motorists ignore traffic lights. Water/sewage / waste Crumbling sewers date back to 1910 Solution Multi storey apartments 40 new settlements build – new towns to house 15 million people 6th October City west of Cairo – well planned. New ring road Cairo metro - air conditioned / clean stations to encourage people to use it Televisions on metro platforms Used by 2 million commuters a day Greater Cairo sewage project – repairing sewers Extending sewers to areas without them New licences for rubbish collectors (Zabbaleen) to operate as collectors and recyclers. Waste – recycle more Air/water pollution – eating away monuments/pyramids

25 Issues of living in a Squatter Settlement Sao Paulo, Brazil
Areas of cities (usually on the outskirts) that are build by people using materials and on land that doesn’t belong to them. Informal Sector The part of the economy where jobs are created by people to try and get an income and is not recognised in official figures e.g. mending bicycles, shoe shining). Living Conditions Poor education * Build out of recycled materials * No running water Illegal power supply * Drug crime and Prostitution * Gangs / guns No waste drainage Roads to narrow for waste collection Dangerous buildings (some very flammable)

26 Paradise City Must link to how this improved peoples lives.
Paraisopolis ASH – Assisted Self Help Site and Service Education/schools Must link to how this improved peoples lives.

27 Sustainable Urban Living
Bedzed, Greater London You must be able to describe the strategy and link this to why this is sustainable living

28 Tourism

29 Tourism - Growth Reasons for increase/growth
1) Social and economic factors increase in disposable income since 1950 People have fewer children Car ownership has grown People have more leisure time 2) Improved technology Travel is quick and easy (motorway, airport expansion and faster jet aircraft) Flying cheaper and booking online 3) Expansion of holiday choice Growth of National Parks Cheap package holidays to mainland Spain New destinations all over the world Ecotourism and unusual destinations such as Antarctica are expanding rapidly.

30 Uses of cities, mountains and coasts
Interpret photographs to describe how the physical / human landscape can be used for tourism

31 Contribution to economy
UK UK economy earns £80 billion every year. 27.7. million overseas visitors spend over £13 billion Restaurants (£20 billion) and hotels (£16 billion) More jobs and income London Eye is the most visited attraction in the UK with 3.7 million visitors per year. France Has more tourists than any other country USA Earns more money than any other country from tourism ESSENTIAL JOBS CREATED INCOME AND EMPLOYMENT (80% in Barbados)

32 Benefits of tourism in poorer countries
Employment Tax visitors (pays for new water supplies, drainage, electricity, and roads) Extra jobs created indirectly (Hotels buy food from farmers etc.) Helps develop new businesses providing services (taxis, bars and restaurant, builders and maintenance).

33 Tourism in the UK Domestic tourism (grew quickly in the 1950s and 60s)
UK seaside holidays peaked in the mid 1970s (40 million visitors annually) Britain's seaside resorts declined as package holidays abroad grew in number and affordability.

34 Impacts of external factors on visitor numbers to the UK
Terrorism World Trade Centre in New York – 11 September security stepped up – check in times increased. London 7th July 2005 underground attacks – tourism reduced Exchange Rates Currency exchange rates control the value of money for tourists on holiday. The Banking crisis Autumn 2008 banking crisis may mean people have less money to spend

35 Butlers Tourist Resort Life Cycle Model

36 Blackpool Stage What happened in Blackpool Exploration
Small numbers of people are attracted by the miles of beautiful golden beaches – known as ‘the golden mile’. Local people have not yet developed many tourist services. It is still a small fishing village. Involvement The rail network linked Blackpool to the large industrial towns. The local people see the opportunity to make money and start to provide accommodation, food, transport and other services for visitors. They built two piers for people to walk along. Development Job opportunities develop for locals as large companies build hotels and leisure complexes like the Winter Gardens (ballroom, theatre and opera house) and Blackpool Tower (ballroom, aquarium and circus). Locals g et involved to attract more visitors and set up the Illuminations in 1879 (The Greatest Free Lightshow on Earth). Consolidation Tourism is now a major part of the economy and nearly all people have jobs that rely on tourists. The Pleasure Beach is the biggest attraction – with The Big Dipper being the star event. Stagnation The resort starts to become unfashionable and visitor numbers start to decrease. People have more paid holiday leave and package holidays in Mediterranean resorts become popular in the 1960s. Rejuvenate / Decline ?? Visitor numbers have decreased as visitors prefer other places for holidays. Stag and hen dos are the main source of income. This puts off family holiday makers as there is lots of antisocial behaviour. Visitor numbers dropped from 17 million to 11 million 1000 hotels closed (hotels visitors fell by 25%)

37 Blackpool – Issues and solutions
Strategy used to cope with Blackpool’s problems - SOLUTIONS Unreliable summer weather – wet and windy More covered walkways between the main visitor attractions and around the shops are to be built. Indoor activities such as the aquarium and Water World (opened in 2006)have been improved. Unemployment in out of season months. £10 million investment into the Blackpool Illuminations so that it can be extended into Autumn and extend the visitor season. Off season events such as concerts, festivals and conferences are promoted. Beach and sea water pollution Beaches have been cleaned up and now three of them have earned an EU Blue Flag (an award for clean beaches). Overcrowding and traffic jams on Bank Holidays. The M55 motorway now links up to the M6. Improvements have been made to Blackpool’s North railway station.

38 Blackpool Successes Failures Reason for failure
The Pleasure Beach remains the most visited attraction in the UK. New see front promenade with seating etc Visitor numbers fell from 7 to 6 million between 2000 and 2005. The super-casino, which would have attracted a lot of investment into the area) was awarded to Manchester (the whole idea was later scrapped  Council by some attractions back and invest more money in them e.g. Blackpool Tower The Labour Party now uses Manchester for its annual conferences instead of Blackpool. This used to bring a lot of political and business visitors to the area. Blackpool’s image is now one of deprivation and high rates of unemployment. People are put off by its image of a stag and hen party weekend and binge drinking.  Promote tourism through a ‘I <3 Blackpool’ campaign Blackpool is too big for small solutions like Rick Stein’s famous fish and chip restaurant in Padstow, Cornwall which has attracted many visitors to the area.

39 Tourism in UK – National Parks Lake District, Windermere
Challenges Honeypot sites Bank erosion on Windermere Footpath erosion Congestion House prices (multiplier effect) Management strategies Speed limit of 10mph on lake Windermere Fix the fells scheme (geotextiles, local stone, signs and education) Park and ride (CarFree CareFree scheme) Affordable housing for local people

40 National Parks – Skill question
Use Figure E to describe recreational activities tourism may complete whilst visiting the Lake District.

41 Mass Tourism Mass tourism: tourism on a large scale to one country or region. This equates to the development and Consolidation phase of the Butler tourist resort life cycle model.

42 Masai Mara Safari (Tropical) Kenya
Why are so many tourists attracted to Kenya? Tourists could visit the National Parks of Amboseli and Masai Mara. Tourists could photograph the amazing wildlife, including the ‘Big Five’. These are buffalo, elephant, lion, leopard and rhino. Tourists could trek up mountains such as Mount Kenya. Tourists could visit the coastal strip from Malindi to Mombasa and see the white sands and Coral reefs. Tourists could visit Lake Victoria.

43 Mass Tourism ENVIRONMENTAL Impacts/Effects of Mass tourism POSITIVE
NEGATIVE Income from tourism (e.g. entrance fees) may pay for management, conservation and repairs. Specific local damage (e.g. divers damaging coral reefs, pressure on honeypot sites, wildlife disturbed etc) Greater awareness of the need for conservation of landscapes, vegetation, wildlife and ancient monuments. Complete destruction of environments in order to build hotels, roads and airports. ECONOMIC and SOCIAL Impacts/Effects of Mass tourism New infrastructure (e.g. airports, roads, water and electricity) can benefit other industries so they make more money. Tribes like the Masai were forced off their land so National Parks could be set up for tourists. The tribe receives only 2% of money spent at Masai Mara Park. New job opportunities - regular work and reliable wage Only 15% of the money earned through tourism goes to the locals. The rest goes to big companies Low income jobs can be converted to provide a better living (e.g. fishing boats can be used for boat trips. Some local people may lose jobs (e.g. farmers and fishermen) Great earner of foreign exchange and increases the size of the economy Tourism numbers are not always the same each year - numbers can go up and down so it is not always a reliable form of making money.

44 Linking Mass Tourism and Ecotourism ESELENKEI CONSERVATION AREA
Problem that needs addressing The ESELENKEI CONSERVATION AREA solves this problem by:  Too many visitors damage the environment and scare the animals  Visitor numbers are limited to eight per group. No permanent buildings. Code of conduct – no closer than 20 meters to wildlife 4x4 safari jeeps damage soil as they go of tracks to get close to animals Jeeps are only allowed to follow designated tracks Water is used in large quanitites due to the numebr fo tourists visiting Grey Water is used for watering vegetation Noisy generators use energy to prepare food and light camps Solar ovens are used to cook food Solar lights are used to provide soft lighting  Local traditions and cultures are lost  All accommodation is based on traditional tents and they are decorated in a traditional fashion. Traditional dances are demonstrated to tourists How this feature makes tourism in the area sustainable (i.e. Tourists can carry on visiting without harming local people’s incomes or harming the environment. This means future generations will be able to continue to have tourists visit)

45 Example of link between activity and sustainability:
Sustainable development allows economic growth to occur, when can continue over a long period of time and will not harm the environment. It helps the people alive today but does not create problems for future generations. Example of link between activity and sustainability: Ecotourists visit Kenya for its wildlife and NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS. The environment and wildlife become ECONOMIC resources - and so do the traditions of its local people. Ecotourism brings MONEY to the area. Local people, government and businesses value nature and tradition more. The environment and way of life are SUSTAINED and it is protected for future generations.

46 Stewardship and Conservation
The personal responsibility for looking after thing through careful management, in this case the environment. No one should damage the present or future environment. The careful and planned use if resources in order to manage and maintain them for future generations Ecotourism Aim: To provide small scale holidays which have little effect on the local environment Ecotourism is tourism that focuses in protecting the environment and the local way of life.

47 Extreme tourist - Antarctica
Target market: People looking for a physical challenge and risks Around 30 years old Unmarried Without children High powered job / good income (trips are expensive)

48 SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT
Extreme tourist - Antarctica WHY VISIT? SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT More disposable income means that the number of people who can afford to visit Antarctica has grown Penguin fever has been caused by films such as Happy Feet and March of the Penguins! Hotel building has been banned. . Very low temperatures have been recorded in Antarctica. It can be as low as -60oC so people want to experience this extreme environment for themselves. Tourists can climb rock faces and hike over the landscape. Apart from the research stations no one lives there and there are very few buildings From 2013 the new Polar Code limits the number and size of ships. Ships larger than 500 will not be allowed and a maximum number of 100 tourists will be allowed on shore at any given time. Antarctica is a Wilderness. This means that it is virtually untouched by mankind. Visitors get to experience this Wilderness. Tourists fly over the ice in helicopters. Scuba diving under the ice is popular After 2011 ships will not be allowed to use heavy fuel oil as it is caused very dangerous pollution in the event of an accident. Kayaking and exploring the water in boats Antarctica is easier to access with more tour operators running trips there. People want to visit wild places because of the attraction of their natural environments. The IAATO (International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators) was set in 1991 Tourists can enjoy the amazing scenery and animals from luxury cruise ships. Antarctica is centred around the South Pole and is one and half times the size of the USA. The IAATO has set limits on the number of tourists allowed on shore at any one time. In 1992, 6,700 tourists visited Antarctic. This rose to 45,000 by 2009. Visit scientific stations to learn more about Antarctica. No litter or waste is allowed to be left on Antarctica. Visitors are not allowed near Sites of Specific Scientific Interest (SSSIs). No one lives in Antarctica permanently. There can be up to 1000 scientists there sometimes. Cruise ships have to keep their used water and dispose of it when they return back to the port rather than dump it in the sea The Treaty of Antarctica was agreed in countries signed an agreement to protect Antarctica from pollution, war, and mining..

49 MAP SKILLS

50 Maps Choropleth Topological Physical

51 Compass rose How can we remember the points of the compass?
‘Never eat shredded wheat!’ Now think of your own slogan.

52 4-figure grid references

53 6-figure grid references

54 6-figure grid references

55 Scale


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