1Exam tips Pen (spare) Pencil Sharpener / rubber Spellings Environment Volcano / VolcanoesErosionDesertDeciduousAntarcticDon’t forgetLook out for questions without lines to write – you may have to draw on maps /graphs!Examiners cannot take marks off you – always answer every question!!
2GEOGRAPHY UNIT 1 UNIT 2 Restless Earth Living World Water On the Land Population ChangeChanging Urban EnvironmentsTourism
3Human Geography UNIT 2 Population Change Changing Urban Environments Tourism
4Demographic Transition Model You m ay need to draw stage 5 – remember Birth rate falls below Death rate
5Population Change J Curve S Curve Keywords: Birth rate Death rate Natural change / natural increasePopulation Growth rate
6Factors affecting population change Changes to farmingMechanisationChildren are no longer needed as machinery can be used on farmsEducation and WomenEmancipationWomen have a voice and wish to have a career not large familyUrbanisationAs more people live in cities fewer children are needed for farm work and therefore people have smaller families
8Sustainable population policy Birth Control Policy China One Child Policy ConsequencesSlower natural increaseMore only childrenLittle emperor syndromeAntisocial behaviourMale dominated populationDifficult to find partner1979 / 1980 onwardsCouples who had one child received financial rewardsThose who had more than one child were finedReports of forced abortions and sterilisationsGranny police – older members reported those breaking the rule.Since the 1990sYoung couples who are both only children can have two children (help elderly)Change of attitude towards girls. Some can now afford to have more than one child and break the rulesIf the first child is a girl then couples are allowed a secondSex determination scans banned in 1994
9Non-Birth Control Policy Gambia Non-birth Control Policy means people are educated not forced to reduce the number of children they haveChallengesStrategiesToo many young peopleReligious beliefsMultiple wivesLack of educationPoor health care for childrenSchool has too many students2 toilets for 2000 studentsRunning out of resourcesNGO (Charity) ‘Futures’ distributed condoms to villages on motorbikes.Mobile pharmacy visiting remote rural areas.Female chat shows to discuss contraceptionVaccinations for children against whooping cough etcSchool split dayFamily planning discussedBacked by religious leadersEducate boys and girls to abstain from sexHealthcare for women to space births
10Ageing population Graph Skills The sections show the percentages of each group which (its like a pie chart in a line!)
11Ageing Population (East Devon, UK and France) ChallengesThe reason this is negative is because…More frequent visits to doctors and chemists….it is a strain on NHS resources.More geriatric operations in hospitals….it means more money is needed for operations like hip replacements so less money for younger people.People unable to live independently….more specialist care homes are needed which costs lots of money.People less confident about or are unable to drive….then they become isolated and lonely.Solutions FRANCE PRONATALIST POLICY
12Rural to Urban Migration Push FactorsPull FactorsMove people away from the place they live (rural)Draw people towards the place they move to (Urban)
13Polish Migration Source / origin (Poland) Host / Destination (UK) Positive PolandNegative PolandPositive UKNegative UKUnemployment is reduced as many Polish workers leave to work in the UK.Birth rate will fall as it is often young people (potential parents) who leave Poland.Population increases in the UK which creates a strain on health and education servicesMany Poles spend very little on accommodation and food so they can return home with money and set up a business or buy a house.More than half of Polish migrants send money home. About £4 billion is transferred to Poland each yearNearly 7 in 1000 Poles have moved from Poland to the UK, most of them younger working people leading to a shortage of workers and a shortage in pension contributions and taxesMost immigrants integrate well as new arrivals from Poland are better informed and more realistic about life in the UK. (Many children learn about the British way of life in Polish schools).Specialist language teachers and translators have had to be employed in some areas with large immigrant populations. There is less pressure on resources (e.g. land) as people leave to work in the UK.The Polish divorce rate has doubled in 7 years as long periods of separation puts a strain on marriages.UK supermarkets have cashed in on a new market of customers. E.g. Tescos now sell over 100 different lines of Polish food.Pressure on A&E hospital services as few immigrants register with a doctor.Brain drain: often the more skilled and better educated Polish people migrate meaning there is a shortage of skilled labour (e.g. doctors get paid four times as much in the UK compared to Poland)Polish businesses have opened where immigrants have settled and rejuvenated declining neighbourhood shopping areas – often doing jobs British citizens don’t want to do (e.g. farm work, fruit picking etc).Increased racial tension in some areas of the country that has large numbers of immigrants.Polish labourers have filled the gaps in the UK labour market – working hard and for minimum wage.
14Refugee movements Afghan Refugees Afghanistan had an estimated population of 28 million3 million refugeesDifficult life, drought, poverty, corruption.The Jungle – area of wasteland on the edge of CalaisEntrance to channel tunnelAugust afghans living there (trying to get to the UK)Wanted to get to England because it is ‘good and safe’22nd December 2009 the remaining migrants were arrested. 24 hours later the settlement was bulldozedMany released so returned and attempted to try and get into the UK again.Asylum Seeker – seeking asylumRefugee – granted asylumEconomic Asylum Seeker – claiming to need protection but actually moving for economic benefits.
16Causes of Urbanisation Urbanisation (increase in the number of people living in cities)2 Reasons for urbanisation:Rural to urban migrationHigh levels of natural increase
17Land use CBD Inner City Inner Suburbs Outer Suburbs Rural Urban Fringe Greenbelt
18‘Urban Development Corporation’ UDC‘Urban Development Corporation’Use public and private money to complete large scale projects e.g. GEAR Glasgow Eastern Area RegenerationIssues and solutions for people living in urban areas in richer parts of the worldIssuesRegeneration / solutionsHousingNot enough / lower standard in Old inner cityGlasgow (Tennanat housing – shared toilets)Regenerate areas of brownfieldBuild on greenfield siteModify existing homes (windows, bathrooms, insulation)Inner cityGorbals – GlasgowGlasgow harbourDeindustrialisationSocial housingUnemployment rate highCrimeCongestionNew developmentsPublic realm (open space)Street furnitureMixed use housing (some owner occupied)Flagship developments (Titan crane)TrafficTraffic / congestion in CBDIntegrated transportPark and rideKiss and rideCycle lanesHigher car park pricesBus LanesPedestrianisedCBDCompetition with out of town shopping centresGlasgow CBDArts Centre24 hour city (lights)Buccannon street – new shopping areaTransport (as above)Titan CraneMulticultural Mix (segregation)Segregation see next slide
19Strategies aimed at supporting the multicultural mix Segregation: when people choose to live away from people with different culture and/or ethnicityReasons:Support each otherFamiliar cultureSpecialist facilitiesSafety in numbersEmployment factorsStrategies aimed at supporting the multicultural mixPrint information in a number of languages Translators in doctors/hospitals/schools Different cultural leaders involved in community discussions Community workers in mosques and schools Create services to meet specific needs (private swimming for muslim ladies) Initiatives to support basic skill devlopment
20Greenfield Vs Brown field Satisfying the housing demand – where to build?Greenfield Vs Brown fieldAdvantages of building on greenfield sitesAdvantages of building on Brownfield sitesSome shops and business parks on outskirts so plots can be largerEasier to get planning permission as councils want these sites usedSites in cities are not left derelict and/or emptyNo restrictions of existing road networkNew sites do not need cleaning so can be cheaper to prepareRoads already existCuts commutingPleasant countryside environment may appeal to potential home ownersUtilities such as water and electricity are already providedMore space for gardensNear to facilities in town centres
21Inner City Problems Solutions: GEAR – Glasgow Easter Area Regeneration EnvironmentalSocialEconomicHousing is either old terraced or cheap tower blocksDifficult police community relationsHigh cost of land compared to the suburbsMany derelict buildings – factories, warehouses – often vandalisedHigher than average rates of unemploymentLocal employment declined as industries and docks closedPoorer than average levels of healthShortage of open spaceAbove-average number of pensioners, single parent families etcLow income and widespread povertySolutions:GEAR – Glasgow Easter Area RegenerationGorbals / Glasgow harbour and docks
22CDB (City Centre Regeneration) GlasgowUDC Urban Development CorporationRebranding – culture and arts (made Glasgow a place to visit)Burrell Arts Centre24 hour city (lights on building and bridges)Buccannon street – new shopping areaTransport (as in table above)Titan Crane etc (USP – Unique selling point)CCTVOpen Space
23Issues of rapid Urbanisation SolutionWater pollutionRivers – untreated sewageNew Water treatment worksAir PollutionBurning wasteAcid rainSmogCoal power stationsAlternative energyCarbon taxLow sulphur coalMonitoring emissions from large companiesWaste managementDisposal of toxic chemical wasterElectronic waste disposalFood waste fed to animalsRecycle (Car tyres used for sandals)Law enforcement
24Problems of rapid urbanisation Cairo, Egypt Largest city in AfricaRapid urbanisation since 1960HousingIllegally built brick built housesOn land reserved for growing cropsInformal houses cover 80% of theland.2-3 million people live in ‘Cities of the Dead’Traffic / congestionOver crowded roadsPedestrians run overEspecially busy when call to prayerMotorists ignore traffic lights.Water/sewage / wasteCrumbling sewers date back to 1910SolutionMulti storey apartments40 new settlements build – new towns to house 15 million people6th October City west of Cairo – well planned.New ring roadCairo metro - air conditioned / clean stations to encourage people to use itTelevisions on metro platformsUsed by 2 million commuters a dayGreater Cairo sewage project – repairing sewersExtending sewers to areas without themNew licences for rubbish collectors (Zabbaleen) to operate as collectors and recyclers.Waste – recycle moreAir/water pollution – eating away monuments/pyramids
25Issues of living in a Squatter Settlement Sao Paulo, Brazil Areas of cities (usually on the outskirts) that are build by people using materials and on land that doesn’t belong to them.Informal SectorThe part of the economy where jobs are created by people to try and get an income and is not recognised in official figures e.g. mending bicycles, shoe shining).Living ConditionsPoor education * Build out of recycled materials * No running waterIllegal power supply * Drug crime and Prostitution * Gangs / gunsNo waste drainageRoads to narrow for waste collectionDangerous buildings (some very flammable)
26Paradise City Must link to how this improved peoples lives. ParaisopolisASH – Assisted Self HelpSite and ServiceEducation/schoolsMust link to how this improved peoples lives.
27Sustainable Urban Living Bedzed, Greater London You must be able to describe the strategy and link this to why this is sustainable living
29Tourism - Growth Reasons for increase/growth 1) Social and economic factorsincrease in disposable income since 1950People have fewer childrenCar ownership has grownPeople have more leisure time2) Improved technologyTravel is quick and easy (motorway, airport expansion and faster jet aircraft)Flying cheaper and booking online3) Expansion of holiday choiceGrowth of National ParksCheap package holidays to mainland SpainNew destinations all over the worldEcotourism and unusual destinations such as Antarctica are expanding rapidly.
30Uses of cities, mountains and coasts Interpret photographs to describe how the physical / human landscape can be used for tourism
31Contribution to economy UKUK economy earns £80 billion every year.27.7. million overseas visitors spend over £13 billionRestaurants (£20 billion) and hotels (£16 billion)More jobs and incomeLondon Eye is the most visited attraction in the UK with 3.7 million visitors per year.FranceHas more tourists than any other countryUSAEarns more money than any other country from tourismESSENTIAL JOBS CREATEDINCOME AND EMPLOYMENT (80% in Barbados)
32Benefits of tourism in poorer countries EmploymentTax visitors (pays for new water supplies, drainage, electricity, and roads)Extra jobs created indirectly (Hotels buy food from farmers etc.)Helps develop new businesses providing services (taxis, bars and restaurant, builders and maintenance).
33Tourism in the UK Domestic tourism (grew quickly in the 1950s and 60s) UK seaside holidays peaked in the mid 1970s (40 million visitors annually)Britain's seaside resorts declined as package holidays abroad grew in number and affordability.
34Impacts of external factors on visitor numbers to the UK TerrorismWorld Trade Centre in New York – 11 September security stepped up – check in times increased. London 7th July 2005 underground attacks – tourism reducedExchange RatesCurrency exchange rates control the value of money for tourists on holiday.The Banking crisisAutumn 2008 banking crisis may mean people have less money to spend
36Blackpool Stage What happened in Blackpool Exploration Small numbers of people are attracted by the miles of beautiful golden beaches – known as ‘the golden mile’. Local people have not yet developed many tourist services. It is still a small fishing village.InvolvementThe rail network linked Blackpool to the large industrial towns. The local people see the opportunity to make money and start to provide accommodation, food, transport and other services for visitors. They built two piers for people to walk along.DevelopmentJob opportunities develop for locals as large companies build hotels and leisure complexes like the Winter Gardens (ballroom, theatre and opera house) and Blackpool Tower (ballroom, aquarium and circus). Locals g et involved to attract more visitors and set up the Illuminations in 1879 (The Greatest Free Lightshow on Earth).ConsolidationTourism is now a major part of the economy and nearly all people have jobs that rely on tourists. The Pleasure Beach is the biggest attraction – with The Big Dipper being the star event.StagnationThe resort starts to become unfashionable and visitor numbers start to decrease. People have more paid holiday leave and package holidays in Mediterranean resorts become popular in the 1960s.Rejuvenate / Decline ??Visitor numbers have decreased as visitors prefer other places for holidays. Stag and hen dos are the main source of income. This puts off family holiday makers as there is lots of antisocial behaviour.Visitor numbers dropped from 17 million to 11 million1000 hotels closed (hotels visitors fell by 25%)
37Blackpool – Issues and solutions Strategy used to cope with Blackpool’s problems - SOLUTIONSUnreliable summer weather – wet and windyMore covered walkways between the main visitor attractions and around the shops are to be built.Indoor activities such as the aquarium and Water World (opened in 2006)have been improved.Unemployment in out of season months.£10 million investment into the Blackpool Illuminations so that it can be extended into Autumn and extend the visitor season.Off season events such as concerts, festivals and conferences are promoted.Beach and sea water pollutionBeaches have been cleaned up and now three of them have earned an EU Blue Flag (an award for clean beaches).Overcrowding and traffic jams on Bank Holidays.The M55 motorway now links up to the M6. Improvements have been made to Blackpool’s North railway station.
38Blackpool Successes Failures Reason for failure The Pleasure Beach remains the most visited attraction in the UK.New see front promenade with seating etcVisitor numbers fell from 7 to 6 million between 2000 and 2005.The super-casino, which would have attracted a lot of investment into the area) was awarded to Manchester (the whole idea was later scrapped Council by some attractions back and invest more money in them e.g. Blackpool TowerThe Labour Party now uses Manchester for its annual conferences instead of Blackpool. This used to bring a lot of political and business visitors to the area.Blackpool’s image is now one of deprivation and high rates of unemployment. People are put off by its image of a stag and hen party weekend and binge drinking. Promote tourism through a‘I <3 Blackpool’campaignBlackpool is too big for small solutions like Rick Stein’s famous fish and chip restaurant in Padstow, Cornwall which has attracted many visitors to the area.
39Tourism in UK – National Parks Lake District, Windermere ChallengesHoneypot sitesBank erosion on WindermereFootpath erosionCongestionHouse prices (multiplier effect)Management strategiesSpeed limit of 10mph on lake WindermereFix the fells scheme (geotextiles, local stone, signs and education)Park and ride (CarFree CareFree scheme)Affordable housing for local people
40National Parks – Skill question Use Figure E to describe recreational activities tourism may complete whilst visiting the Lake District.
41Mass TourismMass tourism: tourism on a large scale to one country or region. This equates to the development and Consolidation phase of the Butler tourist resort life cycle model.
42Masai Mara Safari (Tropical) Kenya Why are so many tourists attracted to Kenya?Tourists could visit the National Parks of Amboseli and Masai Mara.Tourists could photograph the amazing wildlife, including the ‘Big Five’. These are buffalo, elephant, lion, leopard and rhino.Tourists could trek up mountains such as Mount Kenya.Tourists could visit the coastal strip from Malindi to Mombasa and see the white sands and Coral reefs.Tourists could visit Lake Victoria.
43Mass Tourism ENVIRONMENTAL Impacts/Effects of Mass tourism POSITIVE NEGATIVEIncome from tourism (e.g. entrance fees) may pay for management, conservation and repairs.Specific local damage (e.g. divers damaging coral reefs, pressure on honeypot sites, wildlife disturbed etc)Greater awareness of the need for conservation of landscapes, vegetation, wildlife and ancient monuments.Complete destruction of environments in order to build hotels, roads and airports.ECONOMIC and SOCIAL Impacts/Effects of Mass tourismNew infrastructure (e.g. airports, roads, water and electricity) can benefit other industries so they make more money.Tribes like the Masai were forced off their land so National Parks could be set up for tourists. The tribe receives only 2% of money spent at Masai Mara Park.New job opportunities - regular work and reliable wageOnly 15% of the money earned through tourism goes to the locals. The rest goes to big companiesLow income jobs can be converted to provide a better living (e.g. fishing boats can be used for boat trips.Some local people may lose jobs (e.g. farmers and fishermen)Great earner of foreign exchange and increases the size of the economyTourism numbers are not always the same each year - numbers can go up and down so it is not always a reliable form of making money.
44Linking Mass Tourism and Ecotourism ESELENKEI CONSERVATION AREA Problem that needs addressingThe ESELENKEI CONSERVATION AREA solves this problem by: Too many visitors damage the environment and scare the animals Visitor numbers are limited to eight per group. No permanent buildings.Code of conduct – no closer than 20 meters to wildlife4x4 safari jeeps damage soil as they go of tracks to get close to animalsJeeps are only allowed to follow designated tracksWater is used in large quanitites due to the numebr fo tourists visitingGrey Water is used for watering vegetationNoisy generators use energy to prepare food and light campsSolar ovens are used to cook foodSolar lights are used to provide soft lighting Local traditions and cultures are lost All accommodation is based on traditional tents and they are decorated in a traditional fashion.Traditional dances are demonstrated to touristsHow this feature makes tourism in the area sustainable (i.e. Tourists can carry on visiting without harming local people’s incomes or harming the environment. This means future generations will be able to continue to have tourists visit)
45Example of link between activity and sustainability: Sustainable development allows economic growth to occur, when can continue over a long period of time and will not harm the environment. It helps the people alive today but does not create problems for future generations.Example of link between activity and sustainability:Ecotourists visit Kenya for its wildlife and NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS. The environment and wildlife become ECONOMIC resources - and so do the traditions of its local people. Ecotourism brings MONEY to the area. Local people, government and businesses value nature and tradition more. The environment and way of life are SUSTAINED and it is protected for future generations.
46Stewardship and Conservation The personal responsibility for looking after thing through careful management, in this case the environment. No one should damage the present or future environment.The careful and planned use if resources in order to manage and maintain them for future generationsEcotourismAim: To provide small scale holidays which have little effect on the local environmentEcotourism is tourism that focuses in protecting the environment and the local way of life.
47Extreme tourist - Antarctica Target market:People looking for a physical challenge and risksAround 30 years oldUnmarriedWithout childrenHigh powered job / good income (trips are expensive)
48SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT Extreme tourist - AntarcticaWHY VISIT?SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENTMore disposable income means that the number of people who can afford to visit Antarctica has grownPenguin fever has been caused by films such as Happy Feet and March of the Penguins!Hotel building has been banned..Very low temperatures have been recorded in Antarctica. It can be as low as -60oC so people want to experience this extreme environment for themselves.Tourists can climb rock faces and hike over the landscape.Apart from the research stations no one lives there and there are very few buildingsFrom 2013 the new Polar Code limits the number and size of ships. Ships larger than 500 will not be allowed and a maximum number of 100 tourists will be allowed on shore at any given time.Antarctica is a Wilderness. This means that it is virtually untouched by mankind. Visitors get to experience this Wilderness.Tourists fly over the ice in helicopters. Scuba diving under the ice is popularAfter 2011 ships will not be allowed to use heavy fuel oil as it is caused very dangerous pollution in the event of an accident.Kayaking and exploring the water in boatsAntarctica is easier to access with more tour operators running trips there.People want to visit wild places because of the attraction of their natural environments.The IAATO (International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators) was set in 1991Tourists can enjoy the amazing scenery and animals from luxury cruise ships.Antarctica is centred around the South Pole and is one and half times the size of the USA.The IAATO has set limits on the number of tourists allowed on shore at any one time.In 1992, 6,700 tourists visited Antarctic. This rose to 45,000 by 2009.Visit scientific stations to learn more about Antarctica.No litter or waste is allowed to be left on Antarctica.Visitors are not allowed near Sites of Specific Scientific Interest (SSSIs).No one lives in Antarctica permanently. There can be up to 1000 scientists there sometimes.Cruise ships have to keep their used water and dispose of it when they return back to the port rather than dump it in the seaThe Treaty of Antarctica was agreed in countries signed an agreement to protect Antarctica from pollution, war, and mining..