Wetting http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Water_droplet_ in_oil_on_brass_surface.JPG http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Water_droplet_i n_oil_on_glass_surface.JPG Ability of liquid to maintain contact with a surface Adhesive forces determine contact angle http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Contact_angle_schematic.png
Research Article “Experimental study and mathematical model of nanoparticle transport in porous media” ◦ Binshan Ju, Tailiang Fan -The following information and graphics are from the listed article unless cited otherwise.
Research Topics Studied two-phase fluid flow through sandstone (which has low permeability) Experimented with wetting using polysilicon nanoparticles to achieve better flow through oil reservoirs for enhanced recovery Developed mathematical model for flow through random porous media http://www.teachnet-lab.org/ps101/bglasgold/rocks/utah_sandstone.jpg https://s3.amazonaws.com/inventables_technology_pr oduction/technology_images/4350/1972_big_web.jpg
Two classes by wettability LHPN-lipophobic hydrophilic polysilicon nanoparticles HLPN-hydrophobic lipophilic polysilicon nanoparticles
Particle size from 10 to 500 nm Mean size ~ 70 nm Roughly spherical Pore throat size from 0.5 to 5,000 nm Pore chambers from 5,000 to 63,000 nm
Large PN can block pore throats Smaller PN can bridge to block pore throats PN can also adsorb to pore walls Wettability of porous material can be altered by adsorption of PN Pore throat HLPN Pore Wall
(A) Wetting angle much larger than π/2 (B) Wetting angle much smaller than π/2
Sandstone cores are taken from drilling wells in H.Z.J. oil field in China Effective permeability is measured before and after treatment with HLPN Effective permeabilities increase 1.6 to 2.1 times
Mass balance is solved for pressure differential Velocity is determined by Darcy’s law PN concentration distribution is obtained from the convection- diffusion-adsorption equation Calculate new values for porosity, absolute permeability, and relative permeability and iterate
Using hydrophobic lipophilic polysilicon nanoparticles (HLPN) made the surfaces oil-wet Tested on sandstone Used as a method to maintain reservoir pressure Constraints on high and low flow rates ◦ Must be economical ◦ Cannot damage reservoir Application: Water Injection https://www.llnl.gov/str/November01/gifs/Kirk1.jpg
The porosity and permeability decline as injection volume increase due to particle adsorption onto pore walls Water injection capacity increases from 0-1.8 PV and then starts to decrease, indicating a possible saturation of the core with particles Application: Water Injection http://www.nist.gov/msel/polymers/complex_fluids/image s/Chastek-Hudson-L-patchy-Fig2d-300c_1.jpg
Used lipophobic hydrophilic polysilicon nanoparticles to make the reservoir water-wet Goal to recover more oil by using water to “push” the oil out Application: Enhanced Oil Recovery http:// liteoilinvestments.com/fundamentals.html
Application: Enhanced Oil Recovery The relations between oil recovery and injecting volume of LHPN.
Comparison of Experiment and Model The comparison of permeability ratios between experimental and numerical results.
Summary of Article Analysis of method to enhance oil recovery –studied two-phase fluid flow –experimented with wetting Nanoparticles of 10 to 500 nm Pore radii of sandstone was 6 to 63,000 nm –from mercury injection tests Wettability of surface sandstone changes by adsorbing nanoparticles –LHPN –HLPN http://www.rgs.uky.edu/odyssey/images/sandstone.jpg
Summary of Article Nanoparticles can be adsorbed on pore surfaces and reduce the pore radii –changes wettability of surface Sandstone’s effective permeability of water increases from 1.6 to 2.1 times original value The mathematical model, numerical results, and experimental data match each other HLPN can enhance water injection capacity LHPN can improve oil recovery
Applications of Nanoparticle Transport Water injection Oil recovery Aerosol instruments Microelectronics Xerography Pharmaceuticals Atmospheric dispersion http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/b7/Xerox_914.jpg http://www.scielo.org.ar/img/revistas/laar/v36n4/4a20g49.gif
Additional Research Needed Address assumptions –one-dimensional flow under isothermal conditions –negligible force of gravity –constant viscosity and density of fluids –all fluids behave as Newtonian fluids Wettability effects in other materials Improvements to nano- particles http://www.apexapex.com/english/images/norsar/js10b.gif http://www.loupiote.com/burningma n/photos/1363757046.shtml
More Reservoir Nanotechnology Improve oil and gas production Produce lighter and stronger equipment Reduce pollution of processing Increase types of smart fluids –advanced drag reduction –wettability alteration –anticorrosive coatings –magnetic properties Introduce new sensors –temperature and pressure ratings –fluid-flow monitoring and recognition http://webdocs.cs.ualberta.ca/~database/MEMS/sma_mems/img/goop.gif http://c0378172.cdn.cloudfiles.rackspacecloud.com/lab_on_a_chip.jpg
Reservoir Nanotechnology Future Short-term: –Enhance gas-to-liquids technology –Improve LNG quality and recovery Mid-term –Develop superpipelines –Transport compressed natural gas Long-term –Process methane hydrates –Integrate electric plants and processing plants http://legalplanet.files.wordpress.com/2009/08/lng-tanker.jpg http://rhapsodyinbooks.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/meth1.jpg
Rebuttal from Group U2: Group U2: -Kyle Demel -Kyle Demel -Keaton Hamm -Keaton Hamm -Bryan Holekamp -Bryan Holekamp -Rachael Houk -Rachael Houk http://www.ite.tu-clausthal.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Bilder_ITE/Lagerst_tte.jpg
We agree that: –The article was appropriate (A+) –The introduction was good –Slides contained adequate information –The pictures complemented the topic –Adequate eye contact was given Improvements for us to work on: –Focus less on detailed equations –Do a better job clarifying the logic and purpose of the nanotechnology –Make graphics bigger –Have less text in some slides Improvements for critiques: –Include better/more pictures –Do not just repeat what we said; explain how we can improve; –Find motivation to actually critique http://inmedialog.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/aplus.gif http://news.softpedia.com/images/news2/How-Dangerous-Are-Nanoparticles-2.jpg http://media.photobucket.com/image/wr ong%20equations/tsukmeibols/humor- penguin-logic.jpg
Review by Group U1- Kamal, John, Robert, Rodrigo to U2 The group did a fine job picking an appropriate article on the subject, but there was a lot of confusion at first as to what the technology actually did. They seemed to have a hard time explaining that to us. The introduction to the topic was good, and they provided a lot of information about why there is a need for better recovery processes. They had some good pictures that helped accentuate the topic and then there were some pictures that were really generic. After the Q&A session we had a better idea of how the technology works, and the group did a good job overall.
Group 3: Krista Melish James Kancewick Phillip Keller Mike Jones
PRESENTATION REVIEW Good presentation format Introduction, article, applications, further research Moderate amount of eye contact One of the presenters looked mostly at the slides during presentation Adequate use of figures Inconsistency in font sizing Some cases having the font size too small Low to moderate use of “filler phrases” Such as “like” and “uhhhh” Overall Grade: 90 MATERIAL REVIEW Article relevant to the application of nanotechnology in reservoir engineering Use of hydrophobic lipophilic polysilicon nanoparticles (HLPN) made the surfaces oil-wet Goal to recover more oil by using water to “push” the oil out Questions for further research: What are the disposal methods for hydrophobic lipophilic polysilicon nanoparticles ? What are the effects of HLPN on materials other than sandstone?
N ANOTECHNOLOGY IN R ESERVOIR E NGINEERING Reviewer: Group U4 R EVIEW G ROUP U4
T HE P RESENTATION Nanoparticles can be used to enhance the percentage of oil recovered from the ground. This is done by changing the wettability of the oil reservoir, making it easier for water injection techniques to be used. Effective use of images to describe concepts. Slides contained the information necessary to understand the topic. M AIN P OINTS
Nanotechnology in reservoir engineering Review of Team U2 by Team U5 – Jaynesh Shah, Greg Pudewell, Edwin L. Youmsi Pete and John Pack.
Oral and Quality of Slides Review The speakers did a good job of speaking without many pauses or filler words They were knowledgeable on the subject, showing they did a lot of research The slides had a consistent theme Try n0t reading off the slides as much At times, a bit wordy
Technical Review The presentation was a bit confusing technically Good use of technical jargon Paper selection was relevant and recent There were a lot of equations Highlight the important ones
Of the lecture presented by Group U2 - Kyle Demel, Keaton Hamm, Bryan Holekamp, Rachel Houk Reviewed by Group U6 - Pavitra Timbalia, Michael Trevathan, Jared Walker
Great use of illustrations; they had them on almost every slide. They all dressed nicely and were knowledgeable about their topic. They also maintained eye contact with the audience. There were too many equations presented for us to understand the most relevant ones.
The technology presented was using nanoparticles which were either hydrophobic or lycophobic to increase production of oil in a reservoir. The particular particle used would depend on a specific situation. Further research is needed to determine the effects of the nanoparticles on the casing and tubing. Applications could include using this technology in other formations besides sandstone.