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1/33 Nobuaki ARAI, Junichi OKUYAMA (Graduate school of Informatics, Kyoto Univ.) Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University.

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Presentation on theme: "1/33 Nobuaki ARAI, Junichi OKUYAMA (Graduate school of Informatics, Kyoto Univ.) Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University."— Presentation transcript:

1 1/33 Nobuaki ARAI, Junichi OKUYAMA (Graduate school of Informatics, Kyoto Univ.) Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

2 What is Bio-logging? New informatics technique for biology Sensing technique of the behavior of animals living in the unobservable field One of the technique for describing the information in the natural field Features Target = wild animals (≠ Human sensing) Animal-borne devices & Close monitoring (≠ Remote sensing) 2/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

3 Biosphere (Ecosystem) Human life Coexistence Why do we need Bio-logging? Coexistence between Biosphere and Human Advancement of human life have a risk of endangering the coexistence Accurate assessment of effect of human activities on biosphere, especially the environment out of human sight the animals living there Out-of-sight environment Biosphere (Ecosystem) Human life Advancement 3/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

4 Visual observation  Basic method  Some limitations: in inaccessible environment such as Deep sea & Sky Various methods have been conducted  Aerial survey  Deep-sea research vehicle, ROV (Remotely-operated vehicle)  Tag-recapture method 4/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

5 Various types of Tags For fish 5/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

6 Intelligent tags  With various sensors  Miniaturized tag Two types of tags  Large-capacity memory (Data logger)  With radio/ ultrasonic transmitters 6/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

7 Initial stage of data loggers (Sakamoto et al. 1989) 7/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

8 First record of long-term diving behavior 233 m Dive depth (m) 8/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

9 Transition of Micro data logger Analog device to Digital device Large-capacity memory, various sensors SensorObtainable information PressureDepth TemperatureAmbient/ body temperature AccelerationActivity, posture PropellerSwim speed LightLight intensity, Location Magnetic field Orientation, Magnetic intensity/ inclination Potential Heart rate, Brain wave, Muscle potential SoundSound pressure, Location ImageStill image, Movie GPSAccurate location 9/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

10 Need to retrieve the Data logger Target animals were only … Animals having homing ability to their nest/ colony Fishes suffered from high-level fishing pressure 10/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

11 Development of retrieval method (Left) Mekong giant catfish with data logger & time-scheduled release system. (Right) Retrieval process of data logger using time-scheduled release system. 11/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

12 Acquisition of animal information using a transmitter (Biotelemetry) Radio (VHF) telemetry Terrestrial animals (Birds, Insects, Mammals) Ultrasonic telemetry Aquatic animals (Fish) Satellite telemetry World-scale migrants (Migrant birds, sea turtles, Marine mammals) 12/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

13 Radio telemetry Animal locations are indentified by searching the radio signals at more than two point 13/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

14 Ultrasonic telemetry 14/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

15 1.Four hydrophones settled on the bottom of the ship receive the signals from the target animals. 2.A receiver calculates the direction of target animals and distance from ship, and show on the PC monitor. 3.Simultaneously, the location of the ship is obtained with GPS. Tracking type receiver 15/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

16 Fixed type receiver Some receivers are deployed on the sea floor/along the river Receivers record the ID, date, and additional information of animals when they come into the detection range Fixed type receiver & Interface 16/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

17 Satellite telemetry ARGOS system 1.Transmitters are programmed to send signals to satellites at periodic intervals 2.Polar orbiting satellites pick up the signals and relay them in real- time back to Argos processing center 3.Center calculates the location of transmitter by Doppler effect 17/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

18 Micro data loggers Measurement items: Activity, Physiological condition, Ambient environmental condition, Location (only in air) Advantages Detailed data regardless location and time Less work if the retrieval method is established Disadvantages Expensive No data without logger retrieval Characteristics of Bio-logging methods 18/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

19 Radio/ Ultrasonic telemetry (Tracking type) Measurement items: Location, Environment condition, Physiological condition, Activity Advantages Reasonable price of transmitters Real-time measurement Disadvantages No data without signal receptions Hard work and cost for tracking animals 19/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

20 Radio/ Ultrasonic telemetry (Fixed type) Measurement items: Location, Environment condition, Physiological condition, Activity Advantage s Light work Simultaneous multi-tracking Disadvantages Detection range depends on the number of receivers No data without the animals in the detection range 20/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

21 Satellite telemetry ( ARGOS ) Measurement items: Location, Environment condition, Physiological condition, Activity Advantages Obtain the data at any place on the earth where transmitters can communicate with the satellite Light work Disadvantages Quite expensive of transmitters and charge for satellite communication Bad accuracy of location data 21/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

22 How to attach devices Within 3-5 % of Body mass After the attachment Observation of animal behavior Confirmation of drop/ work of devices (Mellas and Haynes 1985) 22/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

23 Time-series analysis Activity rhythm: Diel pattern Periodic movements: Wing/ Flipper stroke, Tail beat Home range analysis Estimation of home range of animals by statistical analyses (Minimum convex polygon, Karnel density etc.) 23/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

24 Stroke frequency of Adélie Penguin Adélie Penguin attached the acceleration data logger ( A) Penguin strokes its flippers so hard during the decent phase of the dive against its positive buoyancy. (B) Penguin moves up with its positive buoyancy without stroking during the ascent Cited from : N.Arai et al., Analysis of diving behavior of Adelie penguins using acceleration data loggger, Polar Biosci., 13, , /33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

25 Home range analysis by GPS-Argos satellite transmitter Location data by GPS Data transfer by Argos system (c) is a home range calculated from the measurement result by the Argos system based on the fixed kernel method. (d) is a home range calculated from the measurement result by the GPS. Based on the GPS-Argos transmitter results, the home range is almost entirely confined to the breeding pond. According to the Argos system results, the home range extends to the surrounding area of the island beyond the breeding pond. 25/33 Cited from: T. Yasuda, N. Arai, Fine-scale tracking of marine turtles using GPS-Argos PTTs. Zool. Sci. 22: (2005). Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

26 1. Behavior analysis of green turtles using micro data loggers 2. A study on homing behavior of rockfish using ultrasonic biotelemetry 26/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

27 Behavior analysis of green turtles using micro data loggers A green turtle landing for nesting on the beach of Huyong Island in the Andaman sea, Thailand The turtle was attached a data logger recording the depth every second to determine the difference in the dive behavior between rainy and dry seasons Photo by Dr. Yasuda 27/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

28 Time series data of depth where the turtle stayed Turtle 1 and 3 rested at the depth of 0 ~ 40m and 0~90m, respectively. The stay depth tended to become deep while shifting from the dry to rainy season. In the sea around the Similan Islands, the oceanographic conditions often deteriorate by monsoons in the rainy season. The deterioration of this oceanographic condition may have changed depth where the green turtle stayed. Cited from: Tohya Yasuda “Migration and diving behaviors of green sea turtles” (in Japanese) In: Aquatic Biotelemetry and Fishing gear telemetry (edited by Katsutaro Yamamoto, Takeshi Yamane and Yasushi Mitsunaga). Koseisha Koseikaku Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan. pp (2006). 28/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

29 A study on homing behavior of rockfish using ultrasonic biotelemetry Kansai International Airport, Japan opened in 1994 as a real seadrome that took into consideration the maintenance of the environment. The surrounding ocean area of the Kansai Airport is assumed to function as the nursery for the marine creatures because of the prohibition by the Osaka Pref. fishery adjustment rules of any collection of the fishery resources. However, how such fishes utilized this area was uncertain. 29/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

30 Insertion of the ultrasonic coded transmitter into the body cavity of a rockfish under anesthesia 30/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

31 Tracking experiment using a tracking type receiver (VR28, Vemco Co., Canada) A set of four hydrophones (a) is placed in the water from the gunwale (b). The hydrophone detected the ultrasonic coded signals from the sample fish and the signals were processed with the receiver onboard. The direction and strength of the signals were displayed on the PC (d). The position is measured with GPS at the same time (c). A fixed type receiver (VR2, Vemco co., Canada) and A communication interface (a) (b) (c) (d) 31/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

32 Study area of the tracking experiment on the rockfish The ultrasonic transmitters were inserted in the rockfish collected in A, B, and C points. Then, the rockfish were released at points R1 and R2 and were tracked by ultrasonic telemetry. Homing rate Point A: 100 % (3 of 3 fish) Point B: 60 % (6 of 10 fish) Point C: 67 % (8 of 12 fish) The telemetry study provided the finding that the rockfish returned back to their habitat when the transportation and release was performed. Cited from: Hiromichi Mitamura “Homing and site fidelity of black rockfish” (in Japanese) In: Aquatic Biotelemetry and Fishing gear telemetry (edited by Katsutaro Yamamoto, Takeshi Yamane and Yasushi Mitsunaga). Koseisha Koseikaku Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan. pp (2006). A B C R2 R1 32/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.

33 Conclusion Bio-logging is new informatics technology to obtain the information of animals in the natural field More miniaturization of device is expected More various sensors are expected Data obtained by Bio-logging will be multi- channelized and large amount Need to develop the analysis method for Bio-logging data 33/33 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.


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