Presentation on theme: "AREA OF STUDY ONE KIEREN PROWSE LOYOLA COLLEGE. To gain an understanding of: What is Area of Study One French Revolution? What will the exam look."— Presentation transcript:
To gain an understanding of: What is Area of Study One French Revolution? What will the exam look like in Section A? What can I do to succeed in the exam? Top 5 tips for success!
Dates: 1781 Jacque Necker’s Compte Rendu 4th August 1789 – Night of Patriotic Delirium Phrygian Bonnet
Area of Study One – French Revolution An understanding of the ‘Revolutionary Ideas, Movements, Leaders and Events. Key knowledge: - Chronology of events (timeline) - Causes of tensions and conflict (why did the people want change) - Revolutionary ideas (ideas that suggested change from current system) - Key Leaders (how did individuals develop ideas for change) - Movements (where did the ‘energy’ for change come from)
Key skills: Recall key dates with accuracy. Have full awareness of the causes of tensions and conflicts of the Ancien Regime. Ability to analyse and interpret images/documents/text. ‘Synthesize evidence to develop a coherent argument’ (Understand how one event/idea/leader/movement influence another and be able to link them together. Have knowledge of and be able to use a variety of Historian’s opinions to support your response to a question.
Understanding number 1: You do not have to know everything about everything. 3 or 4 things about all the different topics. Understand how one decision or action influences other events in the development of the revolution. Prepare yourself well in advance for the exam; cramming will not work. Collect and utilise quotes. Paraphrase quotes is a good idea. Take the eyes out of the quote. Write your responses with clarity, conciseness. Correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation and paragraphing is a non negotiable.
King Louis XIV King Louis XV King Louis XVI Divine right monarchy Versailles Taxation system The Three Estates (Church, Nobles, the rest) Marie Antoinette The enlightenment and the Philosophes Montesquieu Voltaire Rousseau Diderot Physiocrats American War of Independence La Fayette Compte Rendu Jacques Necker Charles – Alexander de Calonne Archbishop Brienne Aristocratic Revolt/Assembly of Notables Parlements Royal Session (Seance Royale) 19 November 1787 Day of Tiles Pamphlet war Abbe Sieyes Cahiers de Doleances Society of Thirty Estates-General (great detail needed here) Formation of National Assembly Tennis Court Oath Royal session 23 June 1789 Fall of the Bastille Municipal revolt Great Fear 4th August 1789 – Night of Patriotic Delirium Marxist Historians views Revisionist Historians views Liberal Historians views
28 Million people in 1780. First Estate : Clergy. Second Estate: Nobility. Third Estate: Everybody else: Those least able to afford taxes expected to pay the most. Figures from McPhee; The French Revolution, P.13-18 The poverty of many and the grievances of nearly all French peasants were much aggravated by their liability for taxes from which noble landowners might well be immune…’Hibbert, P.30
Ideas of ‘the Age of Enlightenment’. Voltaire Critical of Catholic Church’s power. Rousseau ‘Noble Savage’’….’The General Will’….’Social Contract’…… Montesquieu Separation of powers between Monarch and state Diderot Encyclopedie – direct public opinion on matters of importance in society. Economics, religion, agriculture. RousseauVoltaire
King had 6 ministers in his cabinet. Venal offices Absolute monarchy
39 differing Generalities or provinces for taxation. 13 unequal legal zones 18 different religious administrative zones Adcock P. 9
War of Polish Succession (1733-1738) War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Seven Years War (1756-1763) American War of Independence (1775- 1783) Significant damage to the royal treasury LaFayette
Massive gulf between rich and poor Small number of wealthy who owned a lot Large number of poor who owned little or nothing.
Necker Swiss, Protestant, not from Noble origin. ‘Compte Rendu au Roi’ Necker
22 February 1787 144 deputies mostly aristocratic Calonne unpopular Calonne’s motives appeared suspicious Necker producing 10m surplus in 1781, Calonne 115m deficit by 1786??? ‘He (Calonne) totally miscalculated the forces he had let loose, and how to handle them.’Doyle P.70
July 1787, Brienne modifies Calonne’s tax plan but maintains direct land tax on all. Bypasses Assembly of Notables and lodges them with the Parlement of Paris 2 July 1787. ‘Without the consent of the people, the Parlement would not consent to registration of the edicts.’ Fenwick and Anderson P.38
Louis had ‘enough money for the government to function for one afternoon’ (Schama cited in Fenwick and Anderson, P. 41.) Massive Hailstorm on July 13 1788. Louis officially calling for the Estates General for 1 May 1789. Brienne describes Necker as ‘the only man I know who can restore the confidence of the people’. Fenwick and Anderson P.41.
5 December 1788: King announces doubling of the third estate deputies Cahiers (grievences) Abbe Sieyes ‘What is the Third Estate?’. Usefulness in society had been misunderstood. Third estate seen as nothing, but they should be seen as ‘everything’. ‘What is the Third Estate? Everything What had it been before in the political order? Nothing What does it demand? To become something therein.’ Sieyes cited in Fenwick and Anderson P. 44 ‘A law not made by the people is no law at all.’ Sieyes cited in Fenwick and Anderson P.45.
13 June 1789: 3 members of the clergy join the Third Estate. 17 June 1789 the National Assembly. Louis in mourning. Death of son. ‘The Dauphin’s funeral was said to have cost 600k livres.’ Fenwick and Anderson P.77
26 June and 1 July 1789: Troops loyal to Louis enter Paris 10 July: Louis refuses to remove troops from Paris 11 July: Necker is dismissed Sunday 12 July: Paris erupts. Desmoulins call to arms at the Palais Royal incites looting, protesting, confrontations with army
Desmoulins ‘To arms, to arms and let us take the green cockade, the colour of hope…. Yes it is I who call my brothers to freedom; I would rather die than submit to servitude.’ Desmoulins cited in Schama, Citizens P.382 ‘During that single night of largely unobstructed riot and demolition, Paris was lost to the Monarchy.’ Schama, Citizens P. 387 http://francofilesfunfacts.blogspot.com.au/2009/07/camille-desmoulins-incites.html Accessed on 01/08/12
Built on Eastern side of Paris to defend it from the English in the 14 th century. Gun powder Symbol of Royal despotism and tyranny.
Fear of Brigands, foreign armies, King’s militia, were roaming the rural areas of France for retribution. http://www.dipity.com/amaraxmarie/French_Revolution/ Date accessed: 01/08/12
News of disturbances delayed in reaching the Assembly. Progressive members suggested forfeiting their feudal dues to quell uprisings. ‘a moment of patriotic drunkenness.’Schama cited in Fenwick and Anderson P.88 http://www.unet.univie.ac.at/~a0100238/warum.htm Accessed on 01/08/12
Area of Study One Area of Study Two Section A Choose one Revolution Question 1 & 2 Extended response questions 20 Marks (2x10) Question 3 a,b,c&d Analysis task Image or Document 20 marks (2,2,6&10) Section B Choose the other Revolution Question 1 a,b,c&d Analysis task Image or Document 20 marks (2,2,6&10) Question 2 Essay 20 marks
General information: Question Booklet and Answer Booklet separate. Use Blue or Black pen 15 minutes reading time 2 Hours writing time You choose to write for which Revolution for which section. Ensure this is clearly marked. All four Revolutions will be in your question booklet. Date: Monday November 10, 3pm. Be early!
Question 1 & 2 (2 x 10 marks each) Extended Response on AOS 1 Sample Question: 2011 VCAA exam ‘Using three or four points, explain how by 20 June 1789 the frustration and anger of the Third Estate deputies contributed to a revolutionary situation in France in 1789.’
Introductory statement outlining your contention: The frustration and anger of the Third Estate deputies at the Estates General contributed significantly to the development of a revolutionary situation in France in 1789. 3-4 paragraphs of detail that support your contention: - Unfair voting system at the Estates General - Third Estate deputies wore different clothing and met in separate meeting hall. - Locked out of meeting hall on June 20 Concluding sentence that relates to the question. Response should have highly detailed levels of information. Dates, names, places, events. Should sign post; ie. Firstly, secondly, thirdly etc. Should include 2-3 small quotes. Word range: 200-300 words
Analysis task on AOS 2 Image or extract 2 comprehension questions; a) and b) worth 2 marks each 2 extended responses; c) worth 6 marks d) Worth 10 marks and requires the use of Historians views to support your response. Total 20 marks
Sample Question Louis XVI, King of France, the People at the Tuileries, 20 th June 1792. 2011 VCAA exam
a)Identify two social classes depicted in the representation. 2 Marks b)Identify two ways the artist has suggested the Revolution was not peaceful in 1792. 2 Marks. Respond directly from image/extract. Do not elaborate Simple responses. Only provide 2 if you are asked for 2.
By referring to parts of the representation, and using your own knowledge, explain the tensions that contributed to the revolutionary actions by 1792. Write a small plan. Introductory statement that addresses the question. 3 main points of information that form the basis of your paragraphs. Ie. - Pressure of international war with Austria and Prussia - Louis XVI flight to Varennes and veto in the first constitution - Growing power of the San Cullotes and the Revolutionary Commune through June and August 1792 Paragraphs should follow the TEEL process. Small concluding sentence that refers to question. Lots of detail (dates, names, places, events) Minimum 2-3 quotes supporting the information you are writing. One reference to the extract or image. Word length range: 200-300 words approximately.
Evaluate to what extent the representation is a reliable depiction of the way the new society was created. In your response, refer to different parts of the representation and to other views of the Revolution. Make a plan Introductory statement that addresses the question and states your contention ie. Is the image useful or not useful in understanding the tensions and conflicts. 3-4 main points of information that form the basis of your paragraphs. Paragraphs should follow the TEEL process. Small concluding sentence that refers to question. Lots of detail (dates, names, places, events) Minimum 2-3 quotes supporting the information you are writing. One reference to the extract or image. 3 references to Historian’s views or quotes from historians. Blended in throughout your response. Word length range: 300-400 words approximately.
Intro statement outlining contention The representation of Louis with the invaders of the Tuileries on 20 June 1792 is an unreliable depiction of how the new society was created. 3-4 Paragraphs supporting and/or opposing contention. - No mention of reorganisation of society; removal of taxes, separation of church and state. Revisionist perspective. From ‘below’. - No mention of International War. Doyle; Revolution was caused by financial problems. - No mention of the divisions of political parties. Furet’s changing political ideas. - Does mention Louis Veto/Use of violence or fear; Schama use of Violence. Concluding sentence that relates to question and contention. Must use high levels of detail 2-3 quotes throughout response One reference to the extract or image. 3 references to Historian’s views or quotes from historians. Word length range: 600-700 words approximately.
Texts: Adcock, Michael; Analysing the French Revolution, 2 nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Port Melbourne, 2009. Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. 2 nd Edition. Oxford University Press, New York, 2002. Fenwick, Jill and Anderson, Judy; Liberating France. HTAV, Melbourne, 2010. Hibbert, Christopher. The French Revolution. Penguin Books, London, 1980. McPhee, Peter. The French Revolution; 1789-1799. Oxford University Press, New York, 2002. Schama, Simon. Citizens; A Chronicle of the French Revolution. Penguin Books, London, 2004. Images: Photos are authors own. Images have been sourced from Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ Main_Page All other images have been referenced in the presentation. These materials are to be used for the purpose of individual study only. Some materials may be subject to copyright under the Copyright Act 1968. All reasonable attempts have been made to trace copyright holders for permission to use materials but the presenter invites anyone who believes they have copyright over items to contact him if they have any concerns.