Presentation on theme: "From the Schoolyard to the Cyberyard: Bullying Enters a New Age Bill McHenry, PhD, LPC, NCC Randy Thomason, BAAS, LCDC, Graduate student."— Presentation transcript:
From the Schoolyard to the Cyberyard: Bullying Enters a New Age Bill McHenry, PhD, LPC, NCC Randy Thomason, BAAS, LCDC, Graduate student
Cyberbullying can be defined as the willful and repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic communication tools (Sbarbaro, 2011). Another definition is: when an individual or group is bullied, embarrassed, threatened or harassed by another individual or group using interactive technologies.
Reviewing some of the original cases reveals multiple factors and possible outcomes Client response specificity
Credited as being the first case of cyberbullying 9vW10 9vW10 Cyberbullying crossed over into verbal abuse by his peers
x0uU x0uU Illustrated that adults can be involved and many of the other core cyberbullying concepts
Some research indicates that victims of cyberbullying are twice as likely to attempt suicide than those who have not. Cyberbullies are one and a half times as likely to have attempted suicide. A new term called cyberbullicide is a reference used when cyberbullying and suicide are found to be directly or indirectly correlated.
Social Networks Facebook Twitter Linkedin Pinterest MySpace Gaming sites Xbox Live Playstation Network Cell phones Text IM Chat rooms Bash boards Other web sites Ratemyprofessor.com Children’s websites Club Penguin KidzWorld Webkinz
Flaming – Sending hostile messages in an attempt to frighten or anger. Harassment – Repeatedly sending messages that are insulting. Vilification – Attempting to damage someone’s reputation by gossiping or posting hurtful information. Impersonation – Hacking into someone’s account and posing as them. “Trolling” – Responding to another’s post in a sarcastic or degrading way. Outing and Trickery – Sharing personal information, secrets, photos, etc. without their permission. Exclusion – Leading someone to believe that they are a part of a group but then intentionally excluding them. Cyberstalking – Watching for the victim to be online, repeatedly sending intimidating messages, and participating in other behaviors that threaten the person’s sense of security.
Is often justified by the one doing it because its not “serious.” Can cause the individual to feel unsafe about posting anymore. Can lead to a pack mentality with others joining in the behavior.
Those who strive for power (Power Bullies and Mean Girls) Those who want to defend another (Cyber Vigilantes) Those who do it on accident (Inadvertent Cyberbully) Those who seek vengeance on another because they have been cyberbullied.
Typically are coming from a place of inferiority. Are primarily motivated to “prove” their superiority over their peers. Have the faulty belief that this “proof” will resolve their personal feelings of inferiority.
Usually focus on the “protection” of their peer and do not see the harm in their actions. Since attention and power are not their primary intentions they usually work alone.
Pain and impulsivity are the primary motivating factors with this class. They differ from the “Cyber Vigilante” in that they do not intend to inflict pain and do not recognize the potential destructiveness of their actions.
The perception that someone will remain anonymous increases their belief they can say and do anything. Adds to them feeling more powerful. resources/files/audio/ megan.mp3 resources/files/audio/ megan.mp3
Usually are more physically imposing than their victims Must be willing to face their victims in the moment Their audience is limited to those who witness their act Will not fall into any specific physical profile compared to victims Can hide behind the cloak of the internet and bully at any time Their audience can include any people with access to the bully’s act (can go viral).
Age at which children are interacting online is decreasing Children are having interactions with peers they do not have the ability to process
Similar issues as to what victims of traditional bullying experience Increased social anxiety and depression Decreased self-esteem and school performance Feelings of hopelessness and powerlessness Lack of trust in immediate peer group
Know school policies and local laws Designate a school “cyberbullying expert” Take a more active monitoring position Educate students on the consequences Have a response plan in place Involve parents and community members
Develop a supportive environment by: Teaching students to respect others. Empower students to take a stand against all bullying. Enlist the help of older students to serve as mentors for younger ones. Encourage diversity and attempt to mix social cliques. Attempt to engage students who seem unconnected to peers. Foster empathy by providing assignments that help students recognize how victims may feel.
Investigate Consult Law Enforcement Notify the bully’s parents Provide support to the victim Educate Reach out
Provide consequences Beware the problem of punishment (may stop the immediate behavior while teaching the offender to be more careful next time) Consequences could be more prosocial Attempt to involve as many of the “bystanders” as possible
Group counseling benefits according to Yalom: Altruism Cohesiveness Instillation of hope Universality Identification Guidance Interpersonal learning Evelyn Field’s approach Regulate feelings (respond assertively) Understand your role Build self-esteem Become a confident communicator Create a personal “power pack” Develop a support network
Step One: Meet with the target, identify friends and potential allies, secure the victim’s confidence and approval for moving forward Step Two: Meet with all parties involved (minus the target for now), including the cyberbully, if possible Step Three: The counselor expresses concern for the target but does not discuss the cyberbullying Step Four: The counselor explains their desire to help the target improve in school/life, reiterates that no one is in trouble Step Five: The counselor asks members to brainstorm ways to help the target Step Six: The counselor thanks the members and indicates a follow-up session will be held in approximately one week Step Seven: The counselor follows up with members individually
Therapeutic ApproachNeurobiological ImpactHelps to Resolve in the Victim Person-CenteredDopamine, OxytocinInability to trust, relationship formation, willingness to take risks CBTIncreases gray matterAbility to regulate obsessive thoughts SFBTOrganization and production of neurons Ability to utilize reframes REMDMemory processingAbility to process experiences that were previously unavailable
Therapeutic ApproachNeurobiological ImpactHelps to Resolve in the Victim Adlerian/IndividualIncreased neuro- connections between prefrontal cortex and hippocampus Regulation of emotional responses to perceived stimuli Erikson’s Life StagesIncreased neurogenesis in previously underutilized areas of the brain Increased ability to develop new skills Narrative TherapyIncreased activity in the dorso-medial prefrontal area of the brain Self-empowerment and the ability to make meaning Guided imagery, mindfulness, and meditation Increases neurogenesis and synchronization of neurons Self-awareness, foster more stable and reproducible mental states
Bauman, S. (2011). Cyberbullying: What counselors need to know. Alexandria, Virginia: American Counseling Association. Cyber Bullying Research Center Cyberangels.org Hinduja, S., Patchin, J. (2009). Bullying beyond the schoolyard. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press. Luxton, I. D., June, J. D., & Fairall, J. M. (2012). Social Media and Suicide: A Public Health Perspective. American Journal Of Public Health, 102 (S2), S195-S200. doi: /AJPH McHenry, B., Sikorski, A., McHenry, J. (2014). A counselor’s introduction to neuroscience. New York: Routledge. National Crime Prevention Association Netbullies.com Patchin, J., Hinduja, S. (2012). Cyberbullying: Prevention and response. New York: Routledge. Stopbullying.gov www. bullying statistics.org/content/ bullying -and-suicide.html www. bullying statistics.org/content/ bullying -and-suicide.html