Exaggeration To enlarge, increase, or represent something beyond normal bounds so that it becomes ridiculous and its faults can be seen. Caricature is the exaggeration of a physical feature or trait and is often seen in political cartoons.
Incongruity To present something that is out of place or absurd in relation to its surroundings Oxymoron, metaphor, and irony are used a lot here.
Reversal To present the opposite of the normal order (the order of events, hierarchical order) Order of events…ex. serving dessert before the main dish or having breakfast for dinner. Hierarchical order…Like having a young child make the decisions for a family or a delivery boy making the decisions for a company president.
Parody To imitate the techniques and/or style of some person, place, or thing in order to comment on or criticize the original Audience must be familiar with the original text/person/situation that is being ridiculed in order for parody to work.
The Simpsons South Park The Daily News with Jon Stewart The Onion Police Academy Austin Powers Scary Movie Weird Al Yankovic Saturday Night Live
The Simpsons—satirizes ordinary American life & institutions: education, family life, religion, politics, etc. South Park—satirizes American culture & politics The Daily News with Jon Stewart—satirizes current news The Onion—satirizes American culture Police Academy – spoof on police movies of 80s Austin Powers – spoof on James Bond movies Scary Movie – spoof on horror movies Weird Al Yankovic – spoof on popular songs Saturday Night Live – spoof on culture, celebrities, politics…
All are examples of SATIRE.
ANALYZING SATIRE USING COMPLETE SENTENCES, answer the following questions about the political cartoon you were given. Be prepared to share with the class. 1. Describe the cartoon’s images and text. 2. What is the artist’s viewpoint regarding the subject of the cartoon? Be as specific as possible. 3. In what specific ways does the cartoon mock its subject? Try to identify & explain the use of specific techniques: exaggeration, incongruity, reversal, and/or parody.
1.A test administrator sits behind a desk. In front of him, lined up in a straight line, are a bird, a monkey, a penguin, an elephant, a fish in a fishbowl, a seal, and a dog, all of which seem to be smiling. Behind the animals is a tall, large tree. The test administrator tells the animals that the selection test will only be fair if all the animals do the exact same task: climb the tree. 2.The cartoonist seems to be saying that in an effort to be fair, educators give everyone regardless of background and strengths/weaknesses the same test, but giving everyone the same test is inherently unfair. A goldfish and seal would pass a swimming test easily, while the monkey would perform well on a climbing test. Humans, like animals, have a variety of strengths and capabilities. 3.Incongruity is used in showing the test administrator’s sitting behind a desk outdoors and in having wild animals lined up, calmly listening to the man’s directions. The animals are a metaphor for children, and irony is used in the cartoon’s message about fairness: Educators think that being fair is giving the same test to all children although doing so is inherently unfair.