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Creativity Gagan Deep Kaur Dept. of HSS IIT Bombay.

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Presentation on theme: "Creativity Gagan Deep Kaur Dept. of HSS IIT Bombay."— Presentation transcript:

1 Creativity Gagan Deep Kaur Dept. of HSS IIT Bombay

2 Creativity ? ? ? ? ?

3 Creative Process Creativity Creative Being

4 Creative Process – Wallace (1926)

5

6 What Wikipedia says…. Divergent thinking is a thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions. … [it] typically occurs in a spontaneous, free- flowing manner…..[J. P. Guilford, 1950] Lateral thinking is solving problems through an indirect and creative approach…. [Edward De Bono, 1970] Thinking outside the box … is to think differently, unconventionally or from a new perspective….{John Adair, 1969} Brainstorming is a group creativity technique by which a group tries to find a solution for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its members….[A. F. Osborne, 1953] Creativity refers to the phenomenon whereby a person creates something new …. that has some kind of value.[….. ]

7 Tests of Creativity Psychometric Approaches ◦Guilford Tests ◦Torrance Tests

8 Guilford Tests (1950s) Unusual Uses Task Suggesting Plot titles Suggesting Consequences Word Fluency Making objects … Ability to generate multiple solutions to a problem…

9 Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (1960s…) Imaginative Stories Task Situations Task Creative Design Task Improvements Task Picture Construction Task... ideas, ideas, ideas…..

10 Creativity Quotient Fluency – Number of ideas Flexibility – Kinds of ideas Originality – How novel is the idea Elaboration – How detailed is the idea

11 Merits of Psychometric Approaches De-mystification of Creativity [Theology, Plato – Romanticists like Keats, Wordsworth etc.] Development of Techniques to Nurture Creativity [Guilford, Torrance] Novel-combinations as chief ingredient of creative process

12 Computers as tools… Replication of creative process Generation of multiple solutions Idea should be Novel & Useful, Original, resulting from intense motivation and be towards clarifying some vague problem Newell, Shaw And Simon [1963]

13 Artificial Creativity AM(Automated Mathematician)  Douglas Lenat, 1977 Bacon  Pat Langley, 1977 Cybernetic Artists…

14 Cybernetic Poet AARON I think I'll crash. Just for myself with God peace on a curious sound for myself in my heart? And life is weeping From a bleeding heart of boughs bending such paths of them, of boughs bending such paths of breeze knows we've been there You broke my soul the juice of eternity, the spirit of my lips. Harold Cohen, Ray Kurzweil, 1985-

15 Mechanism of AARON Generates drawings by using 2 kinds of knowledge - declarative (external world) & procedural (representation-building process) Starts from foreground to background Can revise its drawings

16 Are we there then? Is Creativity all about novel-combination of existing elements? Specialized-domains vs Everyday creativity Is creativity skill only ?

17 Creativity is …? Skill ? Inherent ability ? A cognitive process ? Inborn or Socially Originated/Encouraged? What does it mean to be creative?

18 Creative Process Creativity Creative Being

19 What Wikipedia says…. Divergent thinking is a thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions. … [it] typically occurs in a spontaneous, free- flowing manner….. Lateral thinking is solving problems through an indirect and creative approach…. Thinking outside the box … is to think differently, unconventionally or from a new perspective…. Brainstorming is a group creativity technique by which a group tries to find a solution for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its members…. Creativity refers to the phenomenon whereby a person creates something new …. that has some kind of value.

20 None of These Talent Spontaneity Intelligence Originality Novelty Creativity as defined by…. Necessary & Sufficient Conditions ??

21 Talent -> Creativity ? Talent -> Creativity ? Talent as Inborn Creativity as learned, socially promoted Talent necessary but not sufficient for creativity

22 Spontaneity -> Creativity ? Fluency, Flexibility – quantifiable measurement of creativity Is on-the-spot bizarre behavior creativity?

23 Intelligence –> Creativity ? IQ = CQ ?? No correlation between intelligence and creativity

24 Originality -> Creativity (?) Margaret Boden  P-Creative  H-Creative Simultaneous Creation by more than one persons

25 Originality -> Creativity (?) Simultaneous Creativity Discovery of Planet Neptune (1846) by J. C. Adams & U. L. Verrier Law of Conservation of Energy ( ) by J.R.V Mayer & J.P. Joule Oxygen ( ) by C. W. Scheele and Joseph Priestley Evolution by Natural Selection (1858) by C. Darwin & Alfred Wallace Anesthesia (1842) by C. W. Long and Thomas Morton Telephone (1876) by G. Bell and E. Gray (still disputed)

26 Novelty -> Creativity (?) Radical vs Simple novelty Usefulness in novelty

27 Creative Process Creativity Creative Being

28 Creativity & Society Vincent Van Gogh ( )

29 Creativity & Society Bach ( ) Felix Mendelssohn ( )

30 Creativity & Society “Abjure, Curse And Detest” - Galileo facing Inquisition in Papal Court, 1615 E pur si muove

31 Vindication at last! “The error of the theologians of the time… was to think that our understanding of the physical world's structure … by the literal sense of Sacred Scripture… “ Pope John Paul II, 4 November, 1992 [Wikipedia]

32 Creative Process Creative Being Creativity

33 Creativity is (?)… To make something happen  Product, idea, solution…. In newer ways  P/H-creative Ways - that are useful

34 Consensus on ‘Creativity’ ? Stages of Creative Process Creativity as a skill (also) that can be Nurtured ! Tests of Creativity – Debatable! ◦Unfounded Assumptions ◦Unfounded Inferences ! Can an Autistic child be Creative ? Further studies required !

35 Creativity ? ? ? ? ?

36 References In the order of discipline:- Psychology Wallace G. [1926]. The Art of Thought, Hardcourt Brace, NY, USA Guilford J. P. [1967]. The Nature of Human Intelligence, McGraw Hill, USA Torrance E. P [1974]. Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Scholastic Testing Service Inc. USA. Retrieved from Management Sciences Allan G. [2006]. Intelligence Tests And Immigration to United States Amabile T. [1998]. How to Kill Creativity. Harvard Business Review. 76[5]

37 References Artificial Intelligence Ritchie G.D & Hanna F. K. [1984]. AM: A Case Study in AI Methodology. Artificial Intelligence Langley P. W. [1977]. BACON: A Production System That Discovers Empirical Laws. Proceedings of IJCAI. P. 344 Newell A, Shaw J G, Simon H [1963]. The Process of Creative Thinking. In Gruber et al (Eds.) Contemporary Approaches to Creative Thinking. Atherton. NY, USA. Pp Veale T., Gervas P, Pease A. [2006]. Understanding Creativity: A Computational Perspective. Retrieved from

38 References Philosophy Boden M. [2004]. The Creative Mind: Myths And Mechanisms. Routledge. UK Novitz D. [1999]. Creativity And Constraint. Australasian Journal of Philosophy. 77[1] Misc Vernon P. E [1970]. Creativity: Selected Readings. Penguin Books. USA Image Sources Given in Footnotes


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