Presentation on theme: "Una introduction corta de Espanol Medical A Short Introduction to Medical Spanish."— Presentation transcript:
Una introduction corta de Espanol Medical A Short Introduction to Medical Spanish
Please note: 1. Phrases in this lecture have been translated directly, thus if it says: “Yo soy Sam” I have translated it as literally as I can to “I am Sam”. 2. Cognates are words that are similar sounding in two languages. “Constipation” does not mean “recipe” in Spanish. Find and hold onto cognates for dear life, they are pearls. 3. Practice phrases first, show an interest in learning, and remember how good it is to hear things in your mother tongue. Spanish people are very liberal in their tolerance of grammatical errors and mis-pronounciations. Any (grammatical) error is already forgiven. 4. Spanish reads as it is written, take a stab at “Yo Soy la enfermera” and chances are you are pronouncing it adequately, if not correctly. 5. “Despacio”= slowly. Tell your patients to slow down and obscure phrases become common words. 6. This is a work in progress.
Conjugation Spanish is a language that modifies its verbs to reflect who is doing the action. The modifications are made at the end of the word.
Conjugation: the concept There are three types of verbs in Spanish: ones that end in AR, end in ER and end in IR, there are also irregular verbs. The verb endings are different depending on who is doing the action. I/ Yo You (relaxed)/ Tu He, She, You formal/ El, Ella, Usted We/ Nosotros You (plural) You’all/ Ustedes
How AR Verbs are conjugated Tomar- to take, to drink I/Yo: tomO You (formal)/Tu: tomAS He/She/You/ El/Ella/Usted: tomA We/ Nosotros: tomAMOS You’all/ Ustedes: tomAN
Conjugation Simplified For our sake we can simplify the persons so that we primarily use two of the persons The Yo form, with you meaning I (first person), which if you are the speaker means yourself. A simple rule of thumb is that Yo rhymes with the verb because as noted above, the conjugation is to take out the ar er or ir ending and add O. For example: Comer- to eat. When I want to say “I eat” I say Yo comO. Er is removed, o in its place. Tomar- to drink. When I want to say “I drink” I say: Yo tomO. Vivir- to live. When I want to say “I live” I say: Yo vivO.
Conjugation Continued (irregular) Ser- to be (permenantly). When I want to say “I am” I say Yo SOy. This is because Ser is irregular, but notice that the conjugation still keeps the spirit of the conjugation, i.e. it retains the O sound at the end. It should be Yo sO, but because of how it sounds in the language Y is added and it becomes Yo sOy.
Conjugation Simplified The other useful form besides Yo is the (El/Ella/Usted) form. This basically covers He, She or You. To conjugate you take off the ar, er or ir ending, and add a if it ends in ar, or e if it ends in er or ir. For example: Hablar- to speak. El hablA- He speaks, Ella hablA- She speaks and Usted hablA- you speak.
Conjugation Simplified Entender- to understand El entiendE la forma- He understands the form. Ella entiendE la forma- She understands the form. Usted etiendE la forma- You understand the form. Yo entiendO la forma- I understand the form.
Conjugation Simplified Abrir- to open Yo abrO la puerta- I open the door. El abrE la puerta- He opens the door. Ella abrE la puerta- She opens the door. Usted abrE la puerta- You open the door. If you’ve mastered these two conjugations (the O ending and the E/A ending) you can talk about most issues pretty fluently.
Power Verbs Necesitar- to need Ir- to go to Tener- to have Hacer- to do Poder- to be able to Ser- to be
Power Verbs: Enpowered Necesitar- to need I/Yo necesitO He/She/You /El/Ella/Usted necesitA Que medicina (Usted) necesita tomar? What medicine (You) need to take? Necesito examinar su abdomen. I need to examine your abdomen.
Power Verbs are often irregular, in this instance, you must remember how they are conjugated Ser- to be (permenantly) Soy- I am Es- he/she/you are Ir- to go Voy- I go Va- he/she/you go Poder- to be able to Puedo- I am able to Puede- he/she/you are able to
Ir Ir that means to go can be a rudimentary proxy for a future tense. Thus Voy a caminar.- I am going to walk. Voy a examinar el. -I am going to examine him. Notice that you do not have to conjugate the key verb, you just need to remember that: Voy is for Yo, and Va is for el/ ella/ Usted.
Conversational Pearls Hola- Hello Soy el doctor/la doctora- I am the doctor. Me nombre es Doctor Cook- My name is Dr Cook. Voy a traer el telefono por el translator- I am going to bring the phone for the translator Necesita el translator o Usted puede hablar en ingles?- (Do) You need the translator or (are) you able to speak in english? Nesecito examinar Usted- I need to examine you. Hablo espanol un pequito- I speak spanish a little.
The questions words Quien- who Que- what Cuando- when Donde- where Como- how Por que- why Cuantas- how many Si- Yes and No- No
Questions/ Preguntas Questions in Spanish are just a matter of vocal inflection, raise the tone at the end of the phrase like in English and a statement of fact becomes a question. El toma medication.- He takes medication El toma medication?- Does he take medication? The previous words are needed to guide the question. The vocal inflection just indicates that you are questioning whether what is being said is true. El es bueno- He is good, El es bueno?- He is good? Como el es bueno?- How is he good? Some additional detail is being sought.
Commands are all in the tone In like manner to say something can be a way of commanding that it be done. Usted levanta!- You get up! Or likewise, Yo examino usted- I examine you.
Medical Verbs Abrir- to open Acostar se- to lie down Amputar- amputate Andar- to walk Apagar- to shut off Apretar- to squeeze Aprender- to learn Assistir- to attend Attender- to assist Ayudar- to help Bajar- to lower Buscar- to look for Caer- to fall Cambiar- to change Caminar- to walk Consultar- to consult Cerrar- to close Circular- to circulate Cocinar- to cook Comer- to eat Comprar- to buy Congelar- to freeze Contagiar- to infect Contaminar- to contaminate Cortar- to cut Crecer- to increase, to grow Cubrir- to covor Curar- to cure Danar- to damage Dar- to give Decir- to say Defecar- to defecate Deletrear- to spell Descansar- to rest Decrecer- to decrease, to shrink Desear- to desire Desinfectar- to disinfect Doler- to hurt Dormir- to sleep Embarzar se- to become pregnant Encender- to turn on Encontrar- to find Escupar- to spit Escuchar- to listen Empujar- to push against Enfermar se- to get sick Entrar- to enter Enyesar- to put a cast on, 鍍 o cast � Estar- to be (temporarily) Esterilizar- to sterilize Evitar- to avoid Examinar- to examine Exhalar- to exhale Firmar- to sign Fumar- to smoke Gastar- to waste Golpear- to hit, to strike Guardar- to protect, to guard Hablar- to speak Hacer- to do Indicar- to indicate Infectar- to infect Inhalar- to inhale Ingresar- to admit Immunizar- to immunize Inyectar- to inject Ir- to go Jalar- to push Lastimar- to hurt Lavar- to wash Levantar- to get up Levanter- to lift Limpiar- to clean Llamar- to call Llevar- to carry Manejar- to drive Masticar- to chew Medir- to measure Mirar- to look Mojar- to wet Morir- to die Mover- to move Necesitar- to need Observar- to observe Oir- to hear Operar- to operate Orinar- to urinate Pasar- to happen Pensar- to think Perder- to lose Pesar- to weigh Poder- to be able to Poner- to put, to place Preguntar- to question Preparar- to prepare Quedar- to remain Quemar- to burn Quitar- to remove Recetar- to prescribe Regresar- to return Respirar- to breath Saber- to know Sacar- to take (like to take an x ray) Salir- to leave Sentar se- to sit Sentir se- to feel Seguir- to follow Secar- to dry Sangrar- to bleed Ser- to be (permenantly) Sufrir- to suffer Tener- to have Terminar- to end Tocar- to touch Tomar- to drink, to consume Torcer- to twist Toser- to cough Trabajar- to work Traer- to bring Tragar- to swallow Usar- to use Venir- to come Vendir- to sell Vestir se- to dress Vir- to see Volver- to return Vomitar- to vomit Visitar- to visit
Vocabulary-body parts Abdomen- el abdomen Arm- el brazo Artery- la arteria Back- la espalda Bladder- la vejiga Bone- el hueso Bottom- las nalgas Breast- la mamma Chest- el pecho Ear- el oido Esophagus- el esophago Eye- el ojo Face- la cara Foot- el pie Finger- el dedo Forearm- el antebrazo Gall bladder- la vesicular biliar Genetalia- la genitalia Hair- el pello Hand- el mano Head- la cabeza Heart- el corazon Heel- el talon Joint- la articulation Kidney- el rinon Knee- la rodilla Large Intestine- el intestino grueso Leg- la pierna Liver- el higado Lung- el pulmon Mouth- la boca Neck- el cuello Nerve- el nervio Nose- la nariz Ovary- el ovario Pelvis- la pelvis Penis- el pene Rectum- el recto Shoulder- el hombro Skin- el piel Small Intestine- el intestino delgado Stomach- el estomago Teeth- los dientes Throat- la garganta Tongue- la lengua Trachea- la trachea Toe- el dedo de pie Ureter- el ureter Urethra- la urethra Vein- la vena Wrist- la muneca
Case You are on a hike in Fairmount Park, climbing one of the small hills when half way up you come upon an elderly couple, the man is lying upon the ground and the woman looks distressed. She is speaking in Spanish and you notice that your cell phone does not have any reception. What key pieces of information would you like to have regarding the man’s health? What Spanish phrases would you like to know?
EMERGENCY PHRASES Usted tiene falta de aire?- (Do) you have difficulty breathing (fault of air)? Usted tiene problemas de salud?- Do you has problem of health? Que son los problemas de salud para el?- What are the problems of health with him? El tiene allergias?- He have allergies? Usted tiene dolor?- You have pain? Usted tiene dolor de pecho?- You have chest pain? Donde esta el dolor?- Where is the pain? Con que dura el tiene este problema? - With what duration he has this problem ? (how long?) Soy el doctor- I am the doctor Voy a ayudar Usted- I am going to help you. Va a acostar- You are going to lie down. Si / No- Yes / No Haga Eso- do this
When you are self sufficient… Que es la palabra en espanol para este?- What is the word in spanish for this?
Then the learning begins
Referencias Joanna Rios Ph.D. and Jose Fernandez Torres (2004). McGraw-Hill’s Complete Medical Spanish. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Robert O Chase and Clarisa Medina de Chase (2003). An Introduction to Spanish for Health Care Workers. New Haven: Yale University Press