Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER TWO Financial Statements, Taxes, and Cash Flows."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER TWO Financial Statements, Taxes, and Cash Flows
Key Concepts and Skills Know the difference between book value and market value Know the difference between accounting income and cash flow Know the difference between average and marginal tax rates Know how to determine a firm ’ s cash flow from its financial statements
Chapter Outline The Balance Sheet The Income Statement Taxes Cash Flow
Balance Sheet The balance sheet is a snapshot of the firm ’ s assets and liabilities at a given point in time Assets are listed in order of decreasing liquidity Ease of conversion to cash Without significant loss of value Balance Sheet Identity Assets = Liabilities + Stockholders ’ Equity
Net Working Capital and Liquidity Net Working Capital Current Assets – Current Liabilities Positive when the cash that will be received over the next 12 months exceeds the cash that will be paid out Usually positive in a healthy firm Liquidity Ability to convert to cash quickly without a significant loss in value Liquid firms are less likely to experience financial distress But liquid assets earn a lower return Trade-off to find balance between liquid and illiquid assets
Building the balance sheet A firm has current assets of 100 SR, net fixed assets of 500 SR, short-term debt of 70 SR and long-term debt of 200 SR. what does the balance sheet look like? What is shareholder’s equity? What is net working capital?
Ex 1 Page 41 Penguin Pucks, Inc., has current assets of 5,100 $, net fixed assets of 23,800 $, current liabilities of 4,300$, and long-term debt of 7,400 $. What is the value of the shareholder’s equity account for this firm? How much is net working capital?
Ex 16 page 42 Prepare a 2009 balance sheet for Bertinelli Crop. Based on the following information cash= 195,000 $ ; patents and copy rights = 780,000 $ ; accounts payable= 405,000 $; accounts receivable= 137,000$ ; tangible net fixed assts = 2,800,000 $; inventory= 264,000 ; notes payable= 160,000$ ; accumulated retained earnings= 1,934,000 $; long-term debt= 1,195,300.
Market Vs. Book Value The balance sheet provides the book value of the assets, liabilities, and equity. Market value is the price at which the assets, liabilities,or equity can actually be bought or sold. Market value and book value are often very different. Why? Which is more important to the decision-making process?
Income Statement The income statement is more like a video of the firm ’ s operations for a specified period of time. You generally report revenues first and then deduct any expenses for the period Matching principle – GAAP says to show revenue when it accrues and match the expenses required to generate the revenue
Ex 15 Page 42 Given the following information for Rosato Pizza Co., calculate the depreciation expense : sales= 41,000 $, costs 19,500 $, addition to retained earnings 5,100$, dividend paid 1,500 $, interest expense 4,500$, tax rate 35 percent.
Taxes The one thing we can rely on with taxes is that they are always changing Marginal vs. average tax rates Marginal tax rate – the percentage paid on the next dollar earned Average tax rate – the tax bill / taxable income Other taxes
EXAMPLES Suppose our corporation has a taxable income of 200,000 $ what is the tax bill? If the taxable income was 60.000 $ what is the tax bill? If the taxable income was 1.000.000$ what is the tax bill? ALGERNON, Inc. has a taxable income of 85.000 $. What is the average tax rate? Its marginal tax rate? EXAMPLE 2.4
EX 6&7 Page 41 The Renata Co. had 236.000 $ in 2009 taxable income. Using the rates from table 2.3 in the chapter, calculate the company’s 2009 income taxes? What is the average tax rate? What is the marginal tax rate?
Ex 18 Page 43 (Refer to table 2.3) Corporation Growth has 88.000 $ in taxable income, and corporation Income has 8.800.000 $ in taxable income. A. What is the tax bill for each firm? B. Suppose both firms have identified a new project that will increase taxable income by 10.000$. How much in additional taxes will each firm pay ?Why is this amount the same?
The Concept of Cash Flow Cash flow is one of the most important pieces of information that a financial manager can derive from financial statements The statement of cash flows does not provide us with the same information that we are looking at here We will look at how cash is generated from utilizing assets and how it is paid to those that finance the purchase of the assets
CASH FLOW FROM ASSETS Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA) = Cash Flow to Creditors + Cash Flow to Stockholders CASH FLOW IDENTITY 1. Operating Cash Flow (OCF) 2. Capital Spending 3. Change in Net Working Capital (NWC)
U.S. CORPORATION 2008 AND 2009 Balance Sheets ($ in millions) s Equity Liabilities and Owner’ Assets 2008 2009 2008 2009 Current liabilitiesCurrent Assets 266232Accounts payable160104 Cash 123196Notes payable668455 Accounts receivable 389428total555553Inventory 1.4031.112Total Fixed Assets 454408Long-term debt1.7091.644Net plant and equipment Owner’s equity 640600Common stocks and paid-in surplus 16291320Retained earnings 22691920Total 31122756Total liabilities and owner’s equity 31122756Total Assets
Capital Spending 1709 Ending Net Fixed Assets 1644- Beginning net fixed assets 65+ Depreciation 130Net Capital Spending Capital Spending = Ending net fixed assets - Beginning net fixed assets + Dep If the firm didn’t purchase any new fixed assets Capital Spending = Beginning net fixed assets - Dep
Change in Net Working Capital 1014Ending NWC 684- Beginning NWC 330Change in NWC Change in NWC = Ending NWC – Beginning NWC
Cash Flow From Assets U.S CORPORATION 2009 Cash Flow From Assets 547Operating Cash Flow 130- Net capital spending 330- Change in NWC 87Cash Flow From Assets Cash Flow From Assets = OCF– Net Capital Spending – Changes in NWC
Free Cash Flow Another name for cash flow from assets “Free” …… ??
Ex 8 Page 41 So Long, Inc., has sales of 27500 $, costs of 13.280 $, depreciation expense of 2.300 $, and interest expense of1.150 $. If the tax rate is 35 percent, what is the operating cash flow, or OCF?
Earnhardt Driving School’s 2008ba;ance sheet showed net fixed assets of 3.4 $ million, and the 2009 balance sheet showed net fixed assets of 4.2 $ million. The company’s 2009 income statement showed a depreciation expense of 385.000 $. What was net capital spending for 2009? Ex 9 Page 41
The 2008 balance sheet of Saddle Creek, Inc., showed current assets of 2.100 $ and current liabilities of 1.380 $. The 2009 balance sheet showed current assets of 2.250$ and current liabilities of 1.710 $. What was the company’s 2009 change in net working capital, or NWC? Ex 10 Page 42
Cash Flow to Creditors & Stockholders It is the net payment to creditors and owners during the year Cash to creditors = Interest paid – Net new borrowing U.S CORPORATION 2009 Cash Flow to Creditors 70Interest paid 46- Net new borrowing 24Cash to creditors
U.S COROPORATION 2009 Cash Flow to Stockholders 103Dividend paid 40- Net new equity raised 63Cash flow to stockholders Cash flow to stockholders= dividend paid – New equity raised Cash Flow to Creditors & Stockholders
Ex 11 Page 42 The 2008 Balance sheet of Maria’s Tennis shop Inc,. Showed long-term debt of 2.6 million. And the 2009 Balance sheet Showed long-term debt of 2.9 million. The 2009 Income statement showed an interest expense of 170.000. what was the firm’s cash flow to creditors?
Ex 12 Page 42 The 2008 Balance sheet of Maria’s Tennis shop Inc,. Showed 740.000 in the common stock account and 5.2 million in the additional paid-in surplus accounts. The 2009 balance sheet showed 815,000 and 5.5 million in the same two accounts, respectively. If the company paid out 490,000 in cash dividends during 2009, what was the cash flow to stockholders for the year?
Example: Balance Sheet and Income Statement Information Current Accounts 2007: CA = 3625; CL = 1787 2006: CA = 3596; CL = 2140 Fixed Assets and Depreciation 2007: NFA = 2194; 2006: NFA = 2261 Depreciation Expense = 500 Long-term Debt and Equity 2007: LTD = 538; Common stock & APIC = 462 2006: LTD = 581; Common stock & APIC = 372 Income Statement EBIT = 1014; Taxes = 368 Interest Expense = 93; Dividends = 285
EX 26 Page 44 calculate : CFFA, CF to creditors, and CF to stock holders
Review What is the difference between book value and market value? Which should we use for decision-making purposes? What is the difference between accounting income and cash flow? Which do we need to use when making decisions? What is the difference between average and marginal tax rates? Which should we use when making financial decisions? How do we determine a firm ’ s cash flows? What are the equations and where do we find the information?