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Where is the Love? An investigation into the ‘professionalising’ of youth work using an incarnational model. Peter Hart 1 st Year PhD Candidate School.

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Presentation on theme: "Where is the Love? An investigation into the ‘professionalising’ of youth work using an incarnational model. Peter Hart 1 st Year PhD Candidate School."— Presentation transcript:

1 Where is the Love? An investigation into the ‘professionalising’ of youth work using an incarnational model. Peter Hart 1 st Year PhD Candidate School of Applied Social Sciences Durham

2 ∂ Youth/adult relationships. Adult relationships – professional boundaries – incarnational method - methodology

3 ∂ Do adolescents need adults? Adult relationships – professional boundaries – incarnational method - methodology Cognitive development (e.g. Piaget) Moral development (e.g. Kohlberg, Aristotle) Faith development (e.g. Fowler) Identity development (e.g. Marcia) Social development (e.g. attachment theory) Wellbeing

4 ∂ Youth Work Core Values of Youth Work: Informal Education/Critical dialogue Voluntary participation (i.e. not compulsory or contract based) Equality of opportunity Respect and participation (See Jeffs and Smith (2010), Sapin (2007), and Roberts (2009)) Adult relationships – professional boundaries – incarnational method - methodology

5 ∂ Adults and Adolescents. Divided spaces. Fewer adult ‘role models’? Increased segregation of adults and young people. Increased distrust/fear between adults and young people Increase in boundaries and specific predetermined targets in occupations working with young people. Adult relationships – professional boundaries – incarnational method - methodology

6 ∂ Ethics in youth work Kantian ethics Morally right actions are rational in a similar way to scientific principles. “Which rule should I follow to act ethically?” Utilitarianism Morally wright actions provide the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people. “How do I make best use of limited resources?” Adult relationships – professional boundaries – incarnational method

7 ∂ Beck’s ‘Risk Society’ Object at risk Young person Object of risk Youth worker’s judgement Separated by: Policies and procedures as dictated by management. Adult relationships – professional boundaries – incarnational method - methodology

8 ∂ Boundaries Taken from Adult relationships – professional boundaries – incarnational method - methodology

9 ∂ The Incarnational Method “The Word became flesh and blood, and moved into the neighbourhood.” (John 1:14, The Message) Adult relationships – professional boundaries – incarnational method - methodology

10 ∂ The Incarnational Method “The Word became flesh and blood, and moved into the neighbourhood.” (John 1:14, The Message) Adult relationships – professional boundaries – incarnational method - methodology The incarnation as a strategy of influence - “By following the example of Jesus I aim to build a relationship that will effect the life of the young person” The incarnation as a theological reality- “I am searching for the incarnate Jesus in the relationship with the young person, and this causes me to share in their joys and sufferings” See Root (2007)

11 ∂ Research Aim to explore good ethical practice in the developing and maintaining of the youth work relationship from the perspectives of youth workers and young people, which takes into account what may be different and unique about Christian and secular centre-based youth work. Adult relationships – professional boundaries – incarnational method - methodology

12 ∂ Research questions 1.What are the purposes of the youth work relationship, as perceived by organisation management, youth workers, and young people? 2.What is perceived as sound ethical practice when building and maintaining the youth work relationship? 3.How does organisational policy affect the youth work relationship? 4.How do youth workers reconcile any differences between personal values/beliefs and organisation policy, with regard to the youth work relationship? 5.Are there any commonalities, and common differences, between Christian-based and secular-based youth workers, with regard to their perceptions of good practice in the building and maintaining of the youth work relationship? Can good practice from each sector inform each other? Adult relationships – professional boundaries – incarnational method - methodology

13 ∂ Methodology?

14 ∂ Methodology Observe Organisation Interview chair of management committee/CEO/senior youth worker Interview youth workers Focus group with young people Adult relationships – professional boundaries – incarnational method - methodology x4

15 ∂ Qualitative Comparative Analysis ConditionPresent? Practice? Vocation? Bureaucracy? Incarnational model? Good relationship with young people? Adult relationships – professional boundaries – incarnational method - methodology

16 ∂ Selected References Adams, S. (1998) 'The Process of Change through Relationships Between Adults and Young People' in Ward, P., ed. Relational Youthwork, Oxford: Lynx communications. Ahmed, S., Banks, S. and Duce, C. (2007) Walking alongside young people: Challenges and opportunities for faith communities, Durham: Durham University. Banks, S. (2004) Ethics, accountability and the social professions, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Banks, S. (2010) Ethical issues in youth work, 2nd ed. ed., London: Routledge. Batsleer, J. and Davies, B. (2010) What is youth work?, Exeter: Learning Matters. Bauman, Z. (1995) Life in fragments : essays in postmodern morality, Oxford: Blackwll. Bauman, Z. (2000) Community : seeking safety in an insecure world, Polity. Beck, U. (1992) Risk society : towards a new modernity, Theory, culture & society., London: Sage. Brierley, D. (2003) Joined Up, Carlisle: Authentic. Cieslik, M. and Pollock, G. (2002) Young people in risk society : the restructuring of youth identities and transitions in late modernity, Aldershot: Ashgate. Coleman, J. C. P. D. (2010) Nature of adolescence, 4th ed. ed., London: Routledge. Douglas, M. (1992) Risk and blame : essays in cultural theory, London: Routledge. Fowler, J. W. (1981) Stages of faith : the psychology of human development and the quest for meaning, 1st ed. ed., San Francisco: Harper & Row. Freire, P. (1985) Pedagogy of the oppressed, Reissued. ed., Harmondsworth: Penguin. Holland, P. (2004) Picturing childhood : the myth of the child in popular imagery, London: I. B. Tauris. Jaffe, M. L. (1998) Adolescence, New York ; Chichester: Wiley.

17 ∂ Jeffs, T. and Smith, M. J. (2005) Informal education : conversation, democracy and learning, 3rd ed. ed., Nottingham: Educational Heretics Press. Jeffs, T. and Smith, M. J. (2010) Youth work practice, Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Kohlberg, L. (1969) The relations between moral judgement and moral action : a developmental view, [S.l.]: [s.n.]. Layard, R. and Dunn, J. (2009) A good childhood : searching for values in a competitive age, London: Penguin. Mizen, P. (2004) The changing state of youth, Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Nash (2011) Youth Ministry, London: SPCK. Pidgeon, N. F., Kasperson, R. E. and Slovic, P. (2003) The social amplification of risk, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Postman, N. (1994) The disappearance of childhood, New York: Vintage Books. Quartz, a. (2003) Branded, London: Arrow. Ragin, C. C. and Rihoux, B. t. (2009) Configurational comparative methods : qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) and related techniques, London: SAGE. Robbins, D. (2004) This Way to Youth Ministry, Grand Rapids: Zondervan. Roberts, J. M. (2009) Youth work ethics, Exeter: Learning Matters. Sapin, K. (2009) Essential Skills for Youth Work Practice, London: SAGE. Sercombe, H. (2010) Youth work ethics, London: SAGE. Ward, P. (1997) Youthwork and the mission of God : frameworks for relational outreach, London: S.P.C.K. Yaconelli, M. (2006) Contemplative youth ministry : practising the presence of Jesus with young people, London: SPCK. Yaconelli, M. (2007) Growing souls : experiments in contemplative youth ministry, London: SPCK.

18 Peter Hart 1 st Year PhD Candidate School of Applied Social Sciences Durham


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