2 EVOLUTION IS CHANGE IN SPECIES OVER TIME Orderly succession of changes.Change of populations of organisms over generations.Fossil record shows a modification process at work.
3 EVIDENCE SUPPORTING THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION: The Fossil recordComparative AnatomyEmbryologyBiochemistryReal life Examples
4 1. The FOSSIL recordTraces of long-dead organisms (10,000 years old at the least 2B fossil).Found in sedimentary rock.Examples: cast, mold, or petrified.Robert Hooke 1668 says they’re not rocks- smarty pants, not just microscope dude.
7 Geologic History of Earth The Fossil Record LAW OF SUPERPOSITIONSuccessive layers of rock or soil were deposited by wind or water.Lowest STRATUM is the oldest.Top STRATUM is the most recent.Relative or absolute age can be determined.Patterns of mass extinctions.5 so far (we are in the 6th)
9 DISCOVERIES FROM THE FOSSIL RECORD Earth’s history is more than 100,000 times longer than recorded human history (4.5 billion NOT 6K years).Pattern: species appear-exist-disappear-new arise etc.Mass extinctions due to drastic environmental change.5 so far and we are currently in the 6th oneBiogeography (studying the global distribution of fossils and living organisms) shows a logical pattern.ie. kangaroos only live (Australia) where kangaroo ancestor fossils are found- Australia.
13 2. COMPARATIVE ANATOMYcompare anatomy of species to infer (figure out) evolutionary relationships.1. Homologous Structures reveal the pattern of divergent evolution.2. Analogous Structures reveal a pattern called convergent evolution.3. Vestigial Structures show divergence from an ancestor.
14 HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES Are similar features that originated in a common ancestor that are adapted and modified for different functions.
15 HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES reveal common ancestry and a pattern of evolution called DIVERGENT EVOLUTION.
16 ANALAGOUS STRUCTURESLook-alike structures in unrelated species form as a response tosimilar “selection pressures” ex. The fat insulated, streamlinedbodies of penguins (bird), sharks (fish) and dolphins (mammal).
19 Similar environments selected for superficially similar adaptations. Analogous structures reveal a pattern of evolution called convergent evolution.Similar environments selected for superficially similar adaptations.Hedgehog, porcupine, echidna all evolved the quills independently.
20 VESTIGIAL STRUCTURESare features that serve no useful purpose but show relationships to ancestors in which the structure WAS useful.
21 examples of vestigial structures: Tailbone in humans no longer useful because we don’t have a tail/muscles attached to it. Shows our primate heritage.Blind mole rat eyes (non functional) covered by layer of skin.Human body hair- goose bumps… (hair fluffs up for insulation or to make the organism look bigger).Penguins and dodo birds have hollow bones (adaptation for flight) even though they don’t fly.
22 3.EMBRYOLGEmbryological developmentreveals evolutionary history
23 Von Baer- correct simple observation Embryos of different vertebrate species could not be as easily distinguished as adults of that species.Earnest Haeckel- WRONG theory “biogenetic law”- “ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny”- development retraces evolutionary history (time machine)- sketches exaggerated/ time machine idea crazy.Genes that are “common” are expressed (turned on) early in development.Genes that differ (mutations that accumulated in the different species) are expressed later.Modern evidence- Hox genes / developmental pathways.
24 From Campbell BiologyClosely related organisms go through similar stages of development.The theory of recapitulation is an overstatement.Although vertebrates share many features of embryonic development- it is not as though a mammal first goes through a ‘fish stage’, then an ‘amphibian stage’, and so on.Ontogeny can provide clues to phylogeny but it is important to remember that all stages of development may become modified over the course of evolution.
25 4. BIOCHEMISTRY COMPARE DNA OR AMINO ACID SEQUENCES MORE SIMILAR = MORE RECENT COMMON ANCESTORDNA mutations occur at a steady rate. The number of differences are used to create a “MOLECULAR CLOCK” to better estimate divergence from common ancestors.
26 COMPARISON OF DNA SEQUENCES CONFIRM THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORIES SUGGESTED BY FOSSILS AND ANATOMY. Ex. chimps and humans share 98-99% DNA
28 … post industrial revolution England changed the moth’s environment … post industrial revolution England changed the moth’s environment. Lichen on tree bark turned black from factory-released soot & smoke.The Peppered Moth
29 Industrial melanismThe “right stuff” (phenotype) used to be the light coloration.The “right stuff” became the dark coloration phenotype.Black moths were hidden from predators.Black colored moths became more abundant in the population = microevolution.
30 Insecticide resistance ex. Raid Bug spray on cockroaches
31 Few insecticide resistant mutants survive and reproduce (preadaptation)
32 population made mostly of “resistant” mutants… spray insecticide
36 PATTERNS OF EVOLUTIONCo-evolution (arms race) organisms “drive” each other’s evolutionPredator-prey, parasites-hosts, plants-pollinatorsConvergent evolution (come together) same environment selects similar phenotypes(analogous structures) Insect & Bird wingsDivergent evolution (go apart) different environments selects different phenotypes(homologous structures) your hand and bat wing
37 Adaptive Radiationdivergent evolution of many species from one common ancestor.Ex. Galapagos finches, mammals5. Parallel EvolutionThe convergent evolution of species adapted tot he same way of life after a divergence occurred.Ex. Marsupial & Placental mammals… ex. sugar glider & flying squirrel.
38 COEVOLUTION is the change of two or more species due to their close interactions.Predator-preyEx. cheetah-gazelleParasites-hostEx. viruses-cellsHerbivore-plantEx. tortoise-cactusPlants-pollinatorsEx.flowers-moths
39 CARRION FLOWER SMELLS LIKE ROTTING MEAT TO ATTRACT IT’S INSECT POLLINATORS- FLIES
40 CONVERGENT EVOLUTIONOccurs when the environment selects similar phenotypes (forms) even though the ancestors are quite different.Bird/fish/mammal all have fat insulated, stream lined bodies with flippers.Analogous Traits
48 “inheritance of acquired characteristics” EVOLUTIONARY THEORY:LAMARCK“inheritance of acquired characteristics”DARWIN“natural selection”
49 LAMARCK’S EXPLANATION Similar species descended from a common ancestor.ACQUIRED TRAITS were passed to offspring.Acquired traits- determined by behavior NOT genetics.Duck’s webbed feet come from “stretching” their toes.Human’s lost tail because they “don’t use it”.Girraffe’s long neck ‘cause they “stretched” to reach leaves.WRONG & EASILY DISPROVEDLAMARCK’S EXPLANATION
50 CHARLES DARWIN“NATURAL SELECTION”Organisms best suited to their environment reproduce more than those who aren’t.Favorable traits increase in populations over time.Differences exist between members of the same species.Competition for resources.
51 DARWIN’S INFLUENCESUNIFORMITARIANISM earth undergoes processes like earthquakes, volcanoes, erosion, sedimentation repeatedly.Modification of environments is slow, but inevitable.Earth is old! 4.5 billion years not 6 thousand.Charles LyellPrinciples of Geology
52 GALAPAGOS ISLANDS are relatively young… formed 5 mya 5 year H.M.S. BEAGLE voyage tothe GALAPAGOS ISLANDSGALAPAGOS ISLANDS are relatively young… formed 5 mya
54 DARWIN’S OBSERVATIONS Earthquake in Chile- land lifted 3 feet around harbor.Marine Fossil Shells in the Andes Mountains (14Kfeet).Galapagos finches (13)Galapagos tortoisesAngrecum Orchid & pollinator with a long tongue.Thousands of species observed and documented.
55 WHAT IS FITNESS??? Having the “right stuff” at the “right time” Favorable traits give the organism who has it an ADAPTIVE ADVANTAGEHIGH REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS!!!Populations adapt to their environment as the proportion of favorable genes increase
56 POPULATION ADAPTED TO HIDE FROM PREDATORSIN THIS CASE, THE RIGHT STUFFIS BEING BROWN.
59 RECAP OF EVENTS1800ish LAMARCK’s Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics1831 BEAGLE VOYAGE1858 DARWIN’s On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection1. Descent with modification2. Modification by natural selection
63 Stabilizing Selection eliminates extreme individuals.A plant that is too short may not be able to compete with other plants for sunlight.However, extremely tall plants may be more susceptible to wind damage.Combined, these two selection pressures act to favor plants of medium height.
65 Directional Selection selects against one extreme.In the familiar example of giraffe necks, there was a selection pressure against short necks, since individuals with short necks could not reach as many leaves on which to feed.As a result, the distribution of neck-length shifted to favor individuals with long necks.
67 Disruptive selection eliminates intermediate individuals. imagine a plant of extremely variable height that is pollinated by three different pollinator insects: one that was attracted to short plants, another that preferred plants of medium height, and a third that visited only the tallest plants.If the pollinator that preferred plants of medium height disappeared from an area, medium height plants would be selected against, and the population would tend toward both short and tall plants, but not plants of medium height.