# Study….Huh? I already perfected Study in High School THE EVIDENCE General Biology students: 29% DWIF The common thread = Fresh from High School Drop Withdraw.

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Study….Huh? I already perfected Study in High School THE EVIDENCE General Biology students: 29% DWIF The common thread = Fresh from High School Drop Withdraw Incomplete Fail Fail = Grade of C- or Lower

It’s All About the Brain Three Pounds of Stuff that Makes Connections With Other Parts of Itself From National Geographic, Feb 2014

From University of California San Francisco

Trying to Map Connections

Your Own Study The Goal? Building Knowledge My Study: Is it efficient ? Does it result in A’s ? Can you remember material from last semester’s courses ? Or does your knowledge EVAPORATE? What’s the deal with “SHALLOW” and “DEEP” Knowledge? GRADES are different than LEARNING

Lets Make Some Connections and Look at Some Evidence HAS ANYONE BOTHERED TO STUDY EFFECTIVE LEARNING? How to get to 100% Learning Curve? Forgetting Curve?

A Study of Studying Has Been Done: The Swahili Experiment Experimental Setup: 4 Groups of Students (Purdue University and Washington University) study 40 Swahili/English word pairs with four rounds of study/testing. Group Study Mode / Test Mode S TStudy all words, Test all words. S N TStudy only pairs missed on previous Test, Test all words. S T N Study all words, Test only missed words on previous test. S N T N Study only pairs missed on previous Test, Test only words missed on the previous Test Tests given after study session interrupted by a short “distracter task” verifying multiplication problems. Ref: Karpicke, J and H.L. Roediger III, 2008. The Critical Importance of Retrieval for Learning. SCIENCE 319:966-968 (Feb 15, 2008)

The Learning Curve 1.Learning enhanced by repeated intervals of studying and testing. 2.No significant difference in Study Modality for learning curve. 3.Four study/test sessions were required to get to 100%

Longer Term Memory Greatly Affected by Study Method Test Results a Week after Study/Testing. 1.Repeated Testing All Words increases Longer Term Learning. 2.Studying missed words works as long as Testing All was used. 3.The difference between short term (shallow) memory and longer term (deep) memory are significant !

Testing is Retrieving Knowledge with the Book Closed 1.Many instructors know that they actually LEARN best from testing and teaching. 2.Testing is really a form of accountability: do you know what you have studied? How much have you successfully recalled to build knowledge? 3.Testing can be accomplished at textbook websites with practice tests (as long as they are done with the book closed), AND end of chapter problem sets, or other serious self tests. 4.Accountable study sets the student up to be a better problem solver. It builds confidence! AND makes LEARNING FUN

Study Takes Time and Energy ENERGY: has anyone studied the brain using energy? Get Ready for Positron Emission Tomography (PET): measurement of energy (ATP) producing metabolism.

Positron Emission Tomography Left panel – CT scan. Middle panel - PET scan dark colors higher glucose use, higher rate of metabolism. Right panel - panel PET scan superimposed on CT scan with false colors (green  red) increasing glucose utilization Brain really lights up in PET ! Normal ? Tumor ? Red then pink, highest rate of metabolism

Brain Uses Energy Learning requires Brain Activity

PET Brain Scans - Rate of Glucose Use Rested Sleep Deprived glucose Cramming Results in a Thoughtless Brain.

Sleep is Also related to Memory Go to the Video: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/sleep.html After the short video…think about your SLEEP and Exam preparation! Can you think about YOUR OWN Learning Curve and Forgetting Curves?

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Bloom’ sTaxonomyLearning SkillQuestion stems… KNOWLEDGEmemorization and recall What is….? Who, what, when, where, how, describe…? COMPREHENSIONunderstandingWhat would happen if…? What does.. illustrate about….? What is analogous to….? APPLICATIONusing knowledgeHow could…be used to…? What is another example of…? ANALYSIStaking apart information How does…affect…? What are differences…similarities…? SYNTHESISreorganizing information What is the solution of…..? Create or design a new….? EVALUATION making judgmentsWhy is….important? What is best for….? Do you agree/disagree that…?

Blooms Old  New College Level Exam Questions

Cone of Learning

What is this List? 1. Being good at a subject is a matter of inborn talent rather than hard work. 2.Learning is fast. 3.Knowledge is composed of independent facts. 4.I’m really good at multi-tasking, especially during classes and studying. 5.I’m good at lots of things, but not math. Adapted from Dr. Stephen Chew, Samford University, Alabama

Beliefs that Make You Stupid 1. Being good at a subject is a matter of inborn talent rather than hard work. 2.Learning is fast. 3.Knowledge is composed of independent facts. 4.I’m really good at multi-tasking, especially during classes and studying. 5.I’m good at lots of things, but not math. Adapted from Dr. Stephen Chew, Samford University, Alabama

What is this List? 1.The intention and desire to learn. 2.Playing close attention to the material as you study. 3.Learning in a way that matches your personal learning style. 4.The time you spend studying. 5.What you think about while studying. Adapted from Dr. Stephen Chew, Samford University, Alabama

What is the Most Important Ingredient for Successful Learning? 1.The intention and desire to learn. 2.Playing close attention to the material as you study. 3.Learning in a way that matches your personal learning style. 4.The time you spend studying. 5.What you think about while studying. Adapted from Dr. Stephen Chew, Samford University, Alabama

Here is a Word List for Analysis (1)Evening(13) Cold (2)Country(14) Love (3)Salt(15) Bargain (4)Easy(16) War (5)Peace(17) Hate (6)Morning(18) Wet (7)Pretty(19) Rich (8)Expensive(20) Nurse (9)Poor(21) Pepper (10) Doctor(22) Hard (11) City(23) Ugly (12) Dry(24) Hot Adapted from Dr. Stephen Chew, Samford University, Alabama

Previous Data Hyde, TS and J.J. Jenkins. 1973. Recall for Words as a Function of Semantic, Graphic and Syntactic Orienting Tasks. J. Verb. Learn. Verb. Behav. 12:471-480

FIU Data…24 Words: Two Study Methods Words One at A Time (5 seconds each): Pleasantness E and G Checking Hyde and Jenkins, 1973 17.3 +/- 3.2 9.2 +/- 3.6 SEA PHAGES-FIU, 2014 17.3 +/- 2.3 8.5 +/- 1.6 24 Words for 5 Minutes, Group Work QBIC SLS 1501-FIU, 2014 19.9 +/- 4.0 17.3 +/- 4.2

Group Work: Unrelated Responses Were the Lowest Scores

Group Work: Associated Words Two of the 24 right = 100%

What is the Most Important Ingredient for Successful Learning? 1.The intention and desire to learn. 2.Playing close attention to the material as you study. 3.Learning in a way that matches your personal learning style. 4.The time you spend studying. 5.What you think about while studying. Adapted from Dr. Stephen Chew, Samford University, Alabama

Link to How to Study Videos Dr. Stephen Chew’s 5 Videos on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RH95h36NChl They are all short, it is good to watch one and think about it before going on the the next one.

QBIC Class Response to Study Techniques Thought Important Chapter 3 Homework Flash (note) cards: 5Group Study: 9Postits: 1 Reading: 1Rewriting notes: 5Summarize notes: 4 Notetaking: 2Ask questions: 2Test knowledge (quiz): 1 Practice Problems: 1Videos: 2Break Study into Blocks: 2 Class Discussion: 5Highlighting: 1Go to Class and Lab: 1

Focused and Diffuse (Creative) Brain Activity The Pin Ball Machine Oakley, B. 2014. A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science (Even If You Flunked Algebra). Tarcher/Penguin. New York

Edison and Dali Museums in Ft. Meyers and St. Petersburg How were these guys PROBLEM SOLVERS = CREATIVE ? Photos: Wikipedia

A Chunk Oakley, B. 2014. A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science (Even If You Flunked Algebra). Tarcher/Penguin. New York

Chunking Information to a Solution Oakley, B. 2014. A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science (Even If You Flunked Algebra). Tarcher/Penguin. New York

Chunks Can Get Better With Repeated Retrieval. Oakley, B. 2014. A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science (Even If You Flunked Algebra). Tarcher/Penguin. New York Getting It Getting it Better Got It, a Fast Working Chunk

Focused Study works for a Short Time Focused study (attention) works for 15 – 30 minutes. Continued work is useless (= cramming). Take breaks, turn off the focused work…go for a short walk, have a snack, take a short nap, etc. Then refreshed, you can get back to efficient study.

Problem Solving = Connecting Focus and Diffuse Thinking…Getting to a Useful Chunk Oakley, B. 2014. A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science (Even If You Flunked Algebra). Tarcher/Penguin. New York

Negative Thoughts  Procrastination Oakley, B. 2014. A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science (Even If You Flunked Algebra). Tarcher/Penguin. New York

Procrastination = The Inner Zombie Adapted from Oakley, B. 2014. A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science (Even If You Flunked Algebra). Tarcher/Penguin. New York This happy zombie playing neural pinball, and your future career………?? GET OVER IT !!…Lets Look at the Evidence Ha, Ha, I studied for hours, Wanna Play…?

How to Study Effectively Karpicke and Blunt. 2011. Retrieval Practice Produces More Learning that Elaborative Studying with Concept Mapping. SCIENCE. 331:772-775

Performance on Two Types of Exams Karpicke and Blunt. 2011. Retrieval Practice Produces More Learning that Elaborative Studying with Concept Mapping. SCIENCE. 331:772-775

Retrieval RULES at First, but Karpicke and Grimaldi. 2012. Retrieval-based learning: A perspective for enhancing meaningful learning. Educ. Psychol. Rev. 24:401-418

Retrieval Really Rules Down the Road: Take The Test 1 Week Later Without Prep Karpicke and Grimaldi. 2012. Retrieval-based learning: A perspective for enhancing meaningful learning. Educ. Psychol. Rev. 24:4014018

So, Now Whatcha Going to Do ? 1.For EACH Course, Find out where practice quizzes, exams, tests are? - in the text? -at the textbook’s website? - on the syllalbus? -or make your own from the textbook’s chapter summaries? 3.Do you do the whole chapter or? 4.What are Lectures there for? To show you what is important and why…which is just a part of each Chapter: it is a big hint on what will be on the course Exam.

Now, How are you going to Study? 1.Check your schedule - Find out WHEN and WHERE you can Study. 2.Pencil in times for Group Study, Individual Study (keep in mind: you take the test, not the group = you are the most important in this equation). 3.ACCOUNTABILITY is only important to YOU: Test all the material by yourself well before the Exam. 4.If you planned your time well and studied early and often with the BOOK CLOSED…you can walk into an exam with a rested with an active and confident brain: your knowledge will produce accurate and thoughtful answers to questions/problems on the exam.

Keep Chunking When Study becomes FUN, the brain is really receptive and this reduces exam anxiety.

Now, How are you going to Study? 1.Check your schedule - Find out WHEN you can Study. 2.Pencil in times for Group Study, Individual Study (keep in mind: you take the test, not the group = you are the most important in this equation). 3.ACCOUNTABILITY is only important to YOU: Test all the material by yourself (textbook web sites have practice exams, take them with the bookclosed). 4.If you planned your time well and studied early and often with the BOOK CLOSED…you can walk into an exam with a rested, active and confident brain: your deeper knowledge will produce accurate and thoughtful answers to questions and problems on the exam.

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