2Philosophical Views Liberal Moderate Conservative Mark Sagoff William BaxterNorman BowieW. Michael HoffmanConservativeGretchen Morgenson & Gale Eisenstodt
3Mark SagoffInstrumental value, value something has towards fulfilling some goal. Analogous to extrinsic value.Discusses, Zuckerman’s Dilemma,What is this?
4William Baxter In his essay, “People or Penguins” Baxter argues that people have intrinsic value, but that penguins do not.In Baxter’s words, “ Every human being should be regarded as an end rather than as a means to be used for the betterment of another.”This means that people have intrinsic value and should not be used.
6Intrinsic ValueIntrinsic value is value that a thing has in and of its self.Often valuable as an ends.Examples:Happiness, Love, Honor, Family, Heath, and Freedom
7Extrinsic ValueSomething has extrinsic if it is valuable as a means to acquiring or attaining something we value in virtue of itself.For example money has little or no intrinsic value, it’s just bits of paper or metal, but it has great extrinsic value in that it can used to acquire other items which we do value.
8Penguins have valuePenguins have value, if people find then valuable. If they make us happy or we enjoy watching them march across Antarctica.
9Norman BowieBusiness should not interfere in political regulation of environmental policy.
10Business Should not Interfere Business argues that it has no special obligation to the environment because it is willing to follow consumer’s preference on this issue.Because of external factors consumers cannot express their preferences in the marketTherefore they must express them in the political arenaBusiness intervention interferes with the express of those preferencesSince 4 follows from 1, business should not interfere in the political process.
11W. Michael HoffmanExtremes in weather show that there are serious ramification to environmental policy.He argues against Norman Bowie saying that business, the government and consumers should work together to resolve environmental issues.
12Gretchen Morgenson & Gale Eisenstodt Government regulation is not the answer to environmental ethics.A free market approach is the solution.
13WhalesWhales are highly evolved animals with all the sensitivities that that statement implies.They have a complex social life. They call to one another across the vast expanses of the oceans.They are the largest animals that have ever existed, far larger than any dinosaur.
14Synthetic vs. NaturalThere is nothing in the body of a whale, which is of use to us, for which we cannot find equivalents elsewhere.
15What value do whale’s have today? Instrumental?AestheticMoral?
21More than 110 glaciers have disappeared from Montana’s Glacier National Park over the past 150 years, and researchers estimate that the park’s remaining 37 glaciers may be gone in another 25 years.Half a world away on the African equator, Hemingway’s snows of Kilimanjaro are steadily melting and could completely disappear in the next 20 years.In the Alps, Andes and Rockies, glaciers are retreating and disappearing every year.
23Acid RainThe term "acid rain" is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. The more accurate term is "acid precipitation."Distilled water, which contains no carbon dioxide, has a neutral pH of 7. Liquids with a pH less than 7 are acid, and those with a pH greater than 7 are alkaline (or basic)."Clean" or unpolluted rain has a slightly acidic pH of 5.6, because carbon dioxide and water in the air react together to form carbonic acid, a weak acid.
24Acid in DCAround Washington, D.C. the average rain pH is between 4.2 and 4.4.The extra acidity in rain comes from the reaction of air pollutants, primarily sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, with water in the air to form strong acids (like sulfuric and nitric acid). The main sources of these pollutants are vehicles and industrial and power-generating plants. In Washington, the main local sources are cars, trucks, and buses.