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LHCb Upgrade 09/09/091 Paula Collins (CERN) On behalf of the LHCb collaboration LHCb on the eve of the LHC LHCb upgrade The physics programme NP opportunities.

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Presentation on theme: "LHCb Upgrade 09/09/091 Paula Collins (CERN) On behalf of the LHCb collaboration LHCb on the eve of the LHC LHCb upgrade The physics programme NP opportunities."— Presentation transcript:

1 LHCb Upgrade 09/09/091 Paula Collins (CERN) On behalf of the LHCb collaboration LHCb on the eve of the LHC LHCb upgrade The physics programme NP opportunities at LHCb (10 fb -1 ) and beyond The data taking opportunity Increasing statistics by a factor The hardware challenge Detector modifications needed Schedule and Conclusions LHCb Upgrade – P Collins Beauty 09, Heidelberg

2 LHCb: The Day 1 Experiment Mass resolution: 14 MeV Time resolution: 40 fs IP resolution: /p T  m PID over GeV ~ bb pairs produced per year Trigger goes from 40→1 MHz in hardware, then to 2kHz in software 09/09/092 bb production correlated and sharply peaked forward-backward Single-arm forward spectrometer : mrad σ bb ~ 500 µb in LHCb acceptance Production of B +, B 0, B, b-baryons.., LHCb runs at L = cm -2 s -1 by not focusing the beam as much as ATLAS and CMS maximizes probability of a single interaction per crossing LHCb will go immediately to design luminosity LHCb in numbers LHCb Upgrade – P Collins Beauty 09, Heidelberg

3 Muon HCALECAL RICH2 Tracker Magnet TT RICH1 VELO 3 3 LHCb: in design Outer/Inner Tracker 3 And in reality

4 LHCb 10 fb -1 NP physics highlights 09/09/094 LHCb Upgrade – P Collins Beauty 09, Heidelberg Rare decays: B s  µµ Direct search for NP 3  measurement of SM prediction Mixing phase in B s  J/  (tree) Sensitive to NP in mixing Measure  (  s ) ≈ 0.01 Mixing phase in B s   (penguin) Sensitive to NP in loops Measure phase ≠ 0 (=NP) with  ≈ CKM angle  from  B d  D/DK, B s →D s K, B d - >D  (tree) Determine standard candle against which NP sensitive measurements can be compared measurements to ~ 2° degrees CKM angle  from B d(s) → , KK (penguin), B→hhh  _NP  vs  _SM Sensitive to ≈ 3° degrees CPV in penguins B d   K s :  vs  eff Sensitive to NP in loops Sensitive to ≈ 0.1 Search for RH currents in radiative decays B s    ; Asymmetry FB of B d  K* µµ zero of A FB (s) to 7% D meson physics CPV, D-D mixing, rare decays e.g. D 0 →  Santos Reece, Belyaev Leroy Ricciardi Carson Magnin Leroy

5 Why upgrade? Or, Why Should We Fully Exploit LHCb b production? There are hints of NP being just around the corner. If they are confirmed by LHCb e.g. in B s →J/  then the path forward is clear and the precision measurements must be pursued If ATLAS/CMS discover NP, but the effects are more subtle in the flavour sector then we will need precise measurements to test predictions Pursue channels statistically limited at current experiment e.g. Bs→  Keep pace with theoretical predictions which will improve with time e.g. e.g. indirect precision on         factor 5 better thanks to significant improvements from lattice QCD? arXiv: v33

6 Pushing the Precision Frontier  s =  rad one of the most precisely predicted CPV quantities in the standard model If NP in the B s sector turns out to be large, then LHCb upgrade will be needed If it turns out to be small (as appears to be the case in the B d sector) then precise measurement is needed to match clean prediction 09/09/09 LHCb Upgrade – P Collins Beauty 09, Heidelberg 6 LHCb ( J/   ) Upgrade ( J/   ) SM  0.01~ LHCb numbers are with J/  alone Precision will be even better with other channels e.g. J/  f o (  ) Direct proportionality to η leads to interesting constraint on UT LHCb precision, 10 fb -1

7 b→s penguins, a very promising place for NP to lurk B s 0 →  dominated by penguins: NP can enter in mixing box and/or in penguins CP violating asymmetry is zero, due to cancellation of mixing and decay phases 09/09/097 LHCb Upgrade – P Collins Beauty 09, Heidelberg Can be complemented by B 0 →  K s 0 and family: At the upgrade we expect events and a precision of 0.02 At upgrade 0.6M events and error of 0.01 Intriguing pattern emerging, but existing precision poor LHCb and upgrade will clarify this picture

8 B s →  and B d →  – an exciting future 09/09/09 LHCb Upgrade – P Collins Beauty 09, Heidelberg 8 SM prediction is precise, and small! This can be reached with 10fb -1 at LHCb. If NP gives significant enhancements then will be seen sooner! However: Certain models, e.g. MCPVMFV, can give enhancements but can also suppress the branching ration < SM depending on phases Need more statistics than available at baseline LHCb 10fb -1 to approach SM 10% precision Rate of (B d /B s )→  tightly constrained and can distinguish SM and MFV ( Buras: hep-ph/ ). Might B d →  be visible at upgraded LHCb??? Blanke et al, JHEP 0610:003, 2006

9 B → K 0* l + l - Powerful NP laboratory Host of interesting observables. Angular distributions e.g. forward-backward asymmetry of the angle between lepton and B in the dilepton rest frame Position of zero asymmetry crossing point will be measured by LHCb as well as needed, but many other theoretically clean observables will only come into play with > 10 fb M yield at upgrade 100 fb-1 09/09/09 LHCb Upgrade – P Collins Beauty 09, Heidelberg 9 With larger statistics, study of further observables (transverse asymmetries: A T (2), A T (3), A T (4) ) sensitive to NP Egede, JHEP11 (2008) 32

10 LHCb 10 fb -1 NP physics highlights 09/09/0910 LHCb Upgrade – P Collins Beauty 09, Heidelberg Rare decays: B s  µµ Direct search for NP 3  measurement of SM prediction Mixing phase in B s  J/  (tree) Sensitive to NP in mixing Measure  (2  s ) ≈ 0.01 Mixing phase in B s   (penguin) Sensitive to NP in loops Measure 2  s eff ≠ 0 (=NP) with  ≈ 0.03 CKM angle  from  B d  D/DK, B s →D s K, B d - >D  (tree) standard candle against which NP sensitive measurements can be compared measurements to ~ 2° degrees CKM angle  from B d(s) → , KK (penguin), B→hhh  _NP  vs  _SM Sensitive to ≈ 3° degrees CPV in penguins B d   K s :  vs  eff Sensitive to NP in loops Sensitive to ≈ 0.1 Search for RH currents in radiative decays B s    ; Asymmetry FB of B d  K* µµ (zero of A FB (s) to 7%) D meson physics CP, D-D mixing Santos Reece, Belyaev Leroy Ricciardi Carson Magnin Leroy

11 LHCb 10 fb -1 NP physics highlights 09/09/0911 LHCb Upgrade – P Collins Beauty 09, Heidelberg Rare decays: B s  µµ Direct search for NP 3  measurement of SM prediction Mixing phase in B s  J/  (tree) Sensitive to NP in mixing Measure  (  s ) ≈ 0.01 Mixing phase in B s   (penguin) Sensitive to NP in loops Measure phase ≠ 0 (=NP) with  ≈ 0.03 CKM angle  from  B d  D/DK, B s →D s K, B d - >D  (tree) standard candle against which NP sensitive measurements can be compared measurements to ~ 2° degrees CKM angle  from B d(s) → , KK (penguin), B→hhh  _NP  vs  _SM Sensitive to ≈ 3° degrees CPV in penguins B d   K s :  vs  eff Sensitive to NP in loops Sensitive to ≈ 0.1 Search for RH currents in radiative decays B s    ; Asymmetry FB of B d  K* µµ (zero of A FB (s) to 7%) D meson physics CP, D-D mixing, rare decays Santos Reece, Belyaev Leroy Ricciardi Carson Magnin Leroy Measure BR to ~5-10%, search for B d  µµ Improve by factor 3: Level of indirect prediction Measure to  ≈0.01, pin down NP sub-degree precision Improve by factor 4-5 Comparison at 0.03 o level New observables to improve NP sensitivty Measure and characterise CPV

12 To extend the physics programme, why not just turn up L ? LHC is (will be) capable of delivering to LHCb ~50% of the L delivered to the GPDs – would be more than good enough! Baseline scenario: increase our luminosity from to 2x10 33 cm -2 s -1 Crossings with ≥ 1 interaction 10 MHz → 30 MHz Average number of interactions per crossing 1.2 → 4.8 Spillover: increases linearly with L Compatible with SLHC I high x I low scenario 09/09/09 BUT, it’s all about the trigger! Level-0: Largest E T hadron, e(  ) and  1MHz read-out rate is currently the bottle neck in the system  channels: yield proportional to L Hadronic channels: If we increase L we have to increase our E T cut and there is no net efficiency gain! Our current 2.5 us latency is inadequate for a trigger decision of this complexity LHCb Upgrade – P Collins Beauty 09, Heidelberg

13 LHCb upgrade strategy = Move to a full software trigger 09/09/0913 The consequence: Read out all sub-systems at 40 MHz Replace all FE-electronics; all silicon modules, RICH-HPDs, FE boards of Calorimeter, Outer Tracker FE LHCb Upgrade – P Collins Beauty 09, Heidelberg Trigger uses ALL event information, reconstructs all primary vertices, and can cut on p T for high i.p. Preliminary studies show that the hadron efficiency will improve by ~2, and yield will be proportional to L Increase in statistics x20 for hadronic channels and x10 for leptonic channels This gives the additional flexibility to adapt to the physics landscape in the next decade The idea The consequence Aim to operate at L = Perform entire trigger on CPU farm with input rate 30 MHz Goal is to double trigger efficiency for hadronic channels and make the yield scale with luminosity All subsystems must be fully read out at 40 MHz Replace most FE electronics, silicon modules, RICH HPDs, FE boards of calorimeter and outer tracker Case study: B s   (after HTL1) L = 2x10 32 cm -2 s -1 E T > 3.5 GeV   ≈ 22% Min.Bias retention 10 kHz L = cm -2 s -1 E T > 2 GeV   ≈ 45% Min.Bias retention 28 kHz

14 LHCb Upgrade TimeLine First upgrade workshop Jan ‘07 Edinburgh EOI submitted April ‘08 Upgrade task force formed TDR planned for 2010 Plan to: Accumulate LHCb in 5 years Install substantial upgrade in (in synch with machine shut downs and long GPD interventions) 09/09/09 LHCb Upgrade – P Collins Beauty 09, Heidelberg 14

15 Detector Upgrade Radiation: Current detector designed to withstand 20 fb -1 Affects mainly large  (trackers, inner part of calorimeter) Running experience needed Note that VELO in any case will be replaced 09/09/09 LHCb Upgrade – P Collins Beauty 09, Heidelberg 15 Tracking and Occupancy: Si can be operated without spillover: giving occupancy increase of ~2 Outer tracker straws: occupancy too high: Increase area coverage of IT and use faster gas Move to scintillating fibres Material Budget an important issue (occupancy, momentum resolution) B yield from tracking efficiency (no spillover) Luminosity (10 32 cm -2 s-1)

16 Upgrade Upgrading the VELO to 40 MHz implies complete replacement of all modules and FE electronics. Two major challenges Data rate of ~1300 GBit/s Radiation levels and hence thermal management of modules Important to maintain current performance by keeping material low Small modules with low power Thinning of sensor and electronics Use of CVD diamond planes for cooling and/or sensor Removal/rework of RF foil 09/09/09 LHCb Upgrade – P Collins Beauty 09, Heidelberg Dose after 100 fb -1 n eq cm -2 x TID (MRad) tip of current VELO Radius (cm)

17 LHCb upgrade Strip solution Small inner radius Thin sensors Diamond cooling plane New electronics needed Occupancy 1-2% Pixel Solution Low occupancy helps for PR and timing TIMEPIX (55x55 mm) is a promising candidate for FE electronics square pixel and buttable design allows single layer construction Modification needed to architecture Testbeams this summer show excellent performances 09/09/09 LHCb Upgrade – P Collins Beauty 09, Heidelberg 17 Estimated track contribution to residual 2.5  m Timepix: 55  m pitch PRELIMINARY Candidate module designs strip pixel Track angle (degrees)

18 2x10 32 cm -2 s -1 OT Occupancy 75 ns gate 50 ns gate LHCb upgrade High Luminosity will produce high occupancy and ghosts in the tracking system particularly in the Outer Tracker where a gas technique is used (drift time in straw tubes) and signal is collected in ns The area coverage of the Inner Tracker has to be increased, along with new sensors, new FE chip Full silicon tracker in front of magnet must be rebuilt Finer pitch? More layers? Material budget is an important issue Critical for momentum resolution and PR Also: Radiation/cooling 09/09/09 LHCb Upgrade – P Collins Beauty 09, Heidelberg 18 OT+IT

19 19 A fiber tracker with mixed fiber dimensions (250 mm for inner part, mm for outer) to be readout with SiPM and/or conventional MaPMT Simplified services configuration: no cables, no cooling, frames thinning, FEE outside  gives less X/X 0 Good timing performances Increased granularity in x – spatial resolution enough 32 channels Si PM: 0.25 x 1 mm 2 OTIT Preliminary: 80  m residuals Lausanne Problems to be addressed: - SiPM readout and its optimisation - radiation hardness - mechanics Alternative Solutions

20 Particle ID in the RICH system Need to replace front end electronics AND photon detectors to cope with 40 MHz readout Baseline approach; keep current geometrical layout RICH1 (aerogel+C 4 F 10 ) + RICH2 (CF 4 ) OR, replace aerogel with new TOF system (TORCH) located after RICH2 Photon sensors together with their new (independent) chip are the critical item: could be MaPMT 0.3M channels R&D needed (x talk, spillover, B field, lens...) or upgraded HPDs study ion feedback rate many new components: production time an issue or MCPs B tolerance, timing, new idea... Next generation MaPMTs Example PID over full momentum range with TORCH

21 New concept for RICH: the TORCH Time of flight detector based on a quartz plate, for the identification of p<10 GeV hadrons (replacing aerogel) reconstruct photon flight time and direction in specially designed standoff box Clock arrival time to ~20 ps Deduce photon emission time → track ToF R&D on hardware needed: Microchannel plate PM with multianode readout MCP-PM achieved in testbeam ps time resolution with p.e. mechanics, electronics (Timepix?), aging etc. possible synergy with PANDA and VELO E.Ramberg /TIPP09

22 HLT seeds already provided at 40 MHz Modifications to electronics needed: Upgraded FE boards Lower PM gain (÷5) and increase preamp sensitivity and lower noise accordingly No showstopper foreseen Radiation tolerance currently an open issue Affects inner part of ECAL (would need replacement) Tested up to 2.5 Mrad (1 upgrade year) R&D underway to collect more comprehensive data Pile-up (~4 at upgrade) will affect resolution: watch carefully for low p T,  physics 22 Energy Resolution  varying 2x10 32 cm -2 s -1 Calorimeters September 2009: calorimeter modules placed in LHC tunnel to accumulate dose 2x10 33 cm -2 s -1

23 23 FEE readout already at 40 MHz Two main concerns: dead time due to high rate in inner regions aging due to radiation in inner regions An evaluation of these effects will come from first data R z R z Possibility of replacement of the inner parts with large area GEM (70x30 cm 2 ) or with MWPC, in any case with new, smaller pad readout M1, due to background and to upgraded L0, will be removed A transition to a fully 3D muon projective readout (and not based on strips crossing) could reduce the fake associations (detailed studies to be performed) Muon System Maximum rates per channel at Accumulated chage (C/cm) on wires for 100 fb -1

24 Outlook LHCb commissioning is well underway On course to accumulate 10 fb -1 in ~ 5 years Upgrade strategy SLHC independent: Goal: 100 fb -1 in 5 years at L =2x10 33 X20 statistics in hadron channels X10 statistics in leptonic channels Maintain tracking and PID performance Upgrade TDR out in /09/09 LHCb Upgrade – P Collins Beauty 09, Heidelberg 24

25 Homing in on  09/09/09 LHCb Upgrade – P Collins Beauty 09, Heidelberg 25 Here D final state is common to D and Dbar, many possibilities. Want to exploit As many modes as possible but each decay brings its own strong phase Difference which needs to be known Precision of 3-3 deg with 10 fb-1?  Interferences between the b  c and b  u tree transition for B -  (D°/D°)K - γ  Example : Dalitz analysis of D°/D°  K s ππ to extract (r B,δ B,γ) B-B- B+B+ Amplitude fit, model error 7 o Binned fit, CLEO-c error 2 o Binned fit, CLEO-c error 5 o


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