2Agenda Introduction Characteristics Of Penguins About Penguin Species Species of Antarctic PenguinHabitat of PenguinsAdaptation of Antarctic PenguinsDietExploitation of Penguin Species
3INTRODUCTIONPENGUINS FORM A DISTINCT GROUP OF HIGHLY SPECIALIZED, SOCIAL, FLIGHTLESS SEA BIRDS, WIDELY DISTRIBUTED THROUGHOUT THE COOLER WATER OF THE SOUTHERN OCEANS. THE GREATEST CONCENTRATION AND LARGEST NO OF SPECIES OCCUR IN THE SUB - ANTARcTIC LIKE NEW ZEALAND AREA AND AROUND FALKLAND PENGUINS ARE ABSENT IN THE NORTHERN Hemisphere
4CHARACTERISTICS OF PENGUINS Penguins are unique birds in that they do not fly.Their wings are adapted as swimming flippers by their wing bones being flattened and rather solidly joined so that they are very useful for swimming (up to 30 miles per hour). Penguins often look like they are flying when viewed under water.
5CHARACTERISTICS OF PENGUINS Most penguins spend the majority of their life at sea and return to land to reproduce.Getting to and from their reproductive areas (called rookeries) on land can be quite a walk but when there is snow to traverse, they often sled downhill to make quick descents.
6CHARACTERISTICS OF PENGUINS On land, penguins walk (often in straight lines) to and from the ocean between their nesting colonies and their feeding grounds in the ocean.These trips can be only a few hundred yards over rocky beaches or they can be miles inland, often over snow and ice. Penguins tend to follow the same paths to and from the ocean to feed and bathe. When there is snow in their path they leave footprints.
7CHARACTERISTICS OF PENGUINS Most penguin species spend the year at sea without staying with their mate.Returning each summer to their original breeding grounds and often to their original mate. The numbers of Antarctic penguins has been increasing over the years, a result perhaps of the decrease (from whaling) in the number of baleen whales visiting Antarctica. Without so many baleen whales (krill eaters) visiting Antarctica the krill population has increased and there is more food than ever before for the antarctic penguins
8PENGUIN SPECIES There are 17 species of penguins on Earth, Six of which can be found in Antarctica - three brush-tailed, (genus Pygoscelis) - the Adelie, chinstrap, and gentoo; one crested (genus Eudyptes) - the macaroni; and two species of Aptenodytes - the king and emperor
9LARGEST & SMALLEST PENGUIN SPECIES The largest living species is the Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri): on average adults are about 1.1 m (3 ft 7 in) tall and weigh 35 kg (75 lb) or more.The smallest penguin species is the Little Blue Penguin (Eudyptula minor), also known as the Fairy Penguin, which stands around 40 cm tall (16 in) and weighs 1 kg (2.2 lb).
10ADELIE PENGUINSThis small penguin (rarely over 11 pounds) nests on rocky areas that are free of snow in the summer. Adults return to the same rookery (nesting area) where they were born and build nests out of pebbles. The giving of pebbles to the female by the male is part of the nesting courtship. Eggs are laid in November and chicks hatch in December. The females lay two eggs and the parents take turns incubating the eggs. When they hatch they are fed by the parents who take turns both feeding and watching the chicks very closely for their first several weeks.
11CHINSTRAP PENGUINSChinstraps get their name from the thin line which circles from behind one eye under the chin to behind the other eye, much like a strap on a helmet. They are the same approximate size as Adélies, 27 inches (68 centimeters) high and weighing pounds (4.5-5 kilos).
12CHINSTRAP PENGUINSOnce the eggs are hatched, feeding duties are shared by the pair. After nine weeks, Chinstrap chicks are ready to leave the colony for the open ocean.
13GENTOO PENGUINSThe colorful orange bill (and white spot on the head) of the gentoo penguin, Pygoscelis papua, sets them apart from other penguin speciesGentoo, meaning "turban", refers to the whitish markings behind the eyes of this species. Gentoos range in size from 27 inches high (68 centimeters) and 12 pounds (5.5 kilos) in the south to 30 inches high (71 centimeters) and 13.5 pounds (6.2 kilos) in the north. The 60 degree parallel marks the general separation point between the Gentoos' north and south ranges.
14GENTOO PENGUINSMost of their colonies run along the Antarctic Peninsula. To ease their burden walking to and from the sea, Gentoos establish a common path for everyone. This continuous use wears down the path and makes it easier to use.Gentoo chicks stay with the parents for about eight weeks.During their 9th and 10th weeks, chick return home at night to be fed.
15MACARONI PENGUINSMacaronis earn their name by the ornate yellow plumage above each eye. They were named after flamboyant dressers in the 18th century who were called "Macaroni Dandies"--just like in the song "Yankee Doodle".Macaronis are similar in size and stature to the Adélies and Chinstrap penguins. On an average, they stand 27.5 inches tall (70 centimeters) and weigh 9 pounds (4.2 kilos). They typically frequent the island around Antarctica and don't venture onto the main continent. Their largest colonies are found in South Georgia and Heard Island.
16EMPEROR PENGUINSThey are the largest of all the penguins and live in the harshest weather on our planet. They have brown eyes , black head, chin and throat and have patches of yellow on their throat and near their ears. They have short wings that help them to dive. They eat fish and crustaceans such as crabs and shrimp. They weigh about 60 to 90 pounds and are about 36 to 44 inches tall.
17ROCKHOPPER PENGUINSRockhoppers are the smallest of the penguins in Antarctica. They measure only 21.5 inches high (55 centimeters) and weigh only 5.5 pounds (2.5 kilos). Similar to Macaronis, Rockhoppers have a feathered crest on top of their heads. Although frequently found among Macaronis, this species is much more aggressive. Their colonies are found among rocky slopes of islands out near the Antarctic Convergence. Two eggs are typically laid, one smaller and one larger.
18HABITAT OF PENGUINSAlthough all penguin species are native to the southern hemisphere, they are not found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica. In fact, only a few species of penguin live so far south. Several species are found in the temperate zone, and one species, the Galápagos Penguin, lives near the equator.
19ADAPTATIONTheir Adaptation to the cold includes oily, unwettable feathers which cover the outer layers of penguins. Underneath is a layer of soft down feathers and under that a thick layer of fat.In addition to their fine attire, penguins are well known for their swimming abilities. Through the use of air sacs to protect their lungs, penguins can stay under water for 15 to 20 minutes and dive as deep as 275 feet (900 meters).Although very near-sighted on land, penguins posses exceptional vision in the water. Their eyes, like the many sea animals, are attuned to the colors of the sea--green, blue-green, and violet.
20DIETIn the water, penguins typically feed on krill and fish. The dietary habits of penguins are relatively easy to monitor. Krill eating penguins excrete pink quano, while those eating fish leave behind white guano. The yolks of penguins eggs often are red denoting the consumption of krill. The yolks of penguins eggs often are red denoting the consumption of krill.
21Exploitation of Penguin Species Millions of Penguins were slaughtered for their fat .Factories turned penguin oil into soaps and fuels .Penguin oil also is used to make medicine.Penguin feathers is used to make clothes , hats , shoes and bags.
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