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Verbal Repertoire  Languages  Dialects Regional Social  Styles Formal Informal  Registers Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "Verbal Repertoire  Languages  Dialects Regional Social  Styles Formal Informal  Registers Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Verbal Repertoire  Languages  Dialects Regional Social  Styles Formal Informal  Registers Trudgill, Peter Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, p /18

2 Context of Situation 1. 1.I’m going to give you a prescription for the pain. 2. Cream together butter, sugar and beaten yolks until smooth. 3. New Tubifast. The tubular dressing retention bandage. No sticking. No tying. No pinning. 4. Beauty of Velvet at truly Budget Prices. In 16 colours. Send now for full details and actual fabric samples. Montgomery, Martin An Introduction to Language and Society, second edition. London: Routledge, p /18

3 Context-Constrained Language Use  Where talk takes place(Physical setting)  When talk takes place(Occasion; Event)  Who you talk to(Interlocutors)  What you talk about(Register; Topic)  How used(Medium)  Level of formality(Style) 3/18

4 Guess the Context 吾 欲 之 北 京。 What does it mean? Who said it? To whom? Where? When? How? (written/spoken) 4/18

5 Register / Jargon 三 百 六 十 行, 行 行 有 行 話。 5/18

6 Second Person Singular Personal Pronouns FamiliarPolite Frenchtuvous ItaliantuLei Spanishtú / vosotrosusted / ustedes Germandu / ihrSie Dutchjiju Swedishduni NorwegianduDe Greekesiesis Russiantyvy Trudgill, Peter Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, p /18

7 Korean Suffixes Marked for Status Intimate:-na Familiar:-e Plain:-ta Polite:-e yo Deferential:-supnita Authoritative:-so Trudgill, Peter Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, p /18

8 Written vs. Spoken Language Written Language IF FORMAL: 1. Longer more complex sentences. Variety of sentence types 2. Carefully selected vocabulary. Don’t repeat; Usage rules 3. Standard forms 4. Correct spellings 8/18

9 Written vs. Spoken Language Written Language IF FORMAL: 5. Adherence to particular grammar rules Agreement Prepositions not at end of sentence Not splitting infinitives 6. Coherence and Cohesion 7. Limited (if any) feedback 9/18

10 Written vs. Spoken Language Spoken Language IF FORMAL, then all of the above IF CASUAL, few of the above 10/18

11 Formal / Informal Sentence Pairs I require your attendance to be punctual. I want you to come on time. Father was somewhat fatigued after his lengthy journey. Dad was pretty tired after his long trip. A not inconsiderable amount of time was expended on the task. The job took a long time. Trudgill, Peter Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, p /18

12 Labov's Elicitation of Four Levels of Formality Most Formal WLSWord list style RPSReading passage style FSFormal Speech CSCasual Speech Least Formal Trudgill, Peter Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, pp /18

13 Labov’s Study of Non- Prevocalic /r/ in New York City See graph in textbook. WLSWord List StyleRPSReading Passage Style FSFormal SpeechCSCasual Speech Trudgill, Peter Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, third edition. London: Penguin Books, p /18

14 Switching from Scots Dialect to Standard Scots English I’ve kenned yon man eight years. I’ve known that man eight years. Trudgill, Peter Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, pp /18

15 Diglossia “Diglossia is a particular kind of language standardization where two distinct varieties of a language exist side by side throughout the speech community (not just in the case of a particular group of speakers, such as working- class Scots), and where each of the two varieties is assigned a definite social function.” Trudgill, Peter Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, p /18

16 Diglossia Contexts for Variety Selection High VarietyLow Variety SermonsConversation with family and friends Formal lettersRadio serials Political speechesPolitical and academic discussions University lecturesPolitical cartoons News broadcasts‘Folk’ literature Newspaper editorials ‘High’ poetry ` Trudgill, Peter Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, p /18

17 Direct Address Forms: With Dispensation Dixon, Franklin W The Melted Coins. New York: Grosset & Dunlap Publishers, p. 15. (Previously 1944) Situation 1: Teenager Frank Hardy addresses older Rod Jimerson politely. Jimerson gives Frank permission to call him by his first name. Jimerson: "No, I wouldn't say that. There's a lot to tell, but I've got to get back to work." He glanced at his watch and added, "Where are you fellows staying? Maybe I could meet you tonight." Frank: "Okay," Frank said, and gave the Indian their address. "I know you're not getting paid to bat the breeze, Mr. Jimerson." Jimerson: "Rod." Frank: "Good enough, Rod." Frank shook his hand. "Suppose we meet at the motel at nine." Jimerson: "Suits me." 17/18

18 Indirect Address Forms: Without Dispensation Situation 2: The setting is 1951 New England. Margie Hartwell, a young teenage girl, addresses an older woman by her first name. Her visitor was now standing in full view. "Yes?" Fredericka said coldly. "Oh," said the girl, looking up. "You must be Fredericka Wing.“ "I am. And who, if I may ask, are you?" In spite of herself, Fredericka was annoyed at the use of her first name by the stranger, and her annoyance was not relieved by the sight of the unprepossessing girl who stared back at her. Young, certainly not more than sixteen, sullen, untidy, her too-full face blotched with patches of crimson acne. 18/18 Norton, Andre and Grace Allen Hogarth Sneeze on Sunday. New York: TOR: A Tom Doherty Associates Book, p. 15.


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