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1. John Rolfe In 1612, Rolfe created tobacco.

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1 1. John Rolfe In 1612, Rolfe created tobacco.
John Rolfe began to grow tobacco plants in Jamestown, which was very popular at the time in West Indies. This crop helped the settlement flourish and provided much of the economy of Jamestown from that time. Since tobacco was so profitable, more people began to travel to the New World and start new plantations further in the land. This demand created the “Headright System” which promoted travel in exchange for fifty-acre land grants. He later married Pocahontas which established a alliance between the Jamestown settlers and the Powhatan tribe. Pages 30-32

2 2. John Smith Became leader of Jamestown around 1608
Prior to John Smith’s arrival, Jamestown was is disarray and the settlement was barely surviving. He is contributed to Jamestown survival by creating the “work or get out” policy, raiding local Indian tribes, and forming good relations with the local Powhatan tribe. When he left Jamestown due to injury, the settlement started to struggle stressing how Smith was such a vital leader for Jamestown. Pages 29-32

3 3. Jamestown Founded 1607 Jamestown was the first permanent English settlement in the new colony. The settlement was on the James River close to the Chesapeake Bay. At first, most of the inhabitants were wealthy Englishmen then after John Smith’s leadership called for hard work and dedication. Jamestown’s success was credited to John Rolfe’s tobacco plant which produced an economy for the settlement and influenced more people to travel to the New World and become wealthy off of tobacco and other riches. Pages 29-32

4 4. Plymouth Founded September 1920
The Plymouth Bay Colony is significant because it was the first English colony in the northern part of the New Word. The Pilgrims, type of Puritans, escaped England and settled in Massachusetts to have free religion practice. The northern colonies were primarily focused on religion while the southern colonies focused on economy. Even though the first years were very harsh they survived and created good relations with the Indians that lived in the North at the time. Pages 36-40

5 5. King Phillip’s War War began in 1675
The King Philip’s War was the largest conflict with colonists and Metacomet, or King Philip, and his Wampanoag tribe. This war began because of the expansion of colonists and ended with the destruction of the tribe and the death of Metacomet. The use of firearms and cannons were a great advantage over the Indians. This War would start constant warfare between the colonists and the native tribes. Pages 40-42

6 6. Navigation Acts 1660, 1663, 1673 The English colonies began to trade with other nations like the Dutch and the Caribbean. These laws barred them to only trade with English ships, all goods had to go through taxation in England, and there will be inter-colonial taxes. These laws showed that England was in control and it also started the tensions that led to the Revolutionary War. Pages 54-55

7 7. Glorious Revolution Took place in 1688
James II was overthrown by his daughter Mary and William of Orange. This revolution effected the colonies by the Dominion of New England was destroyed and that the “hands off” policy was placed on the colonies. This policy would change when George I came to power were it would start the Revolutionary War. Pages 54-56

8 #8 Triangular Trade Pages 72-73 17th and 18th centuries
This triangular shaped pattern of trade connected the trading markets of Britain, the American Colonies, and Africa. The main purpose of the Triangular Trade was to ship slaves from Africa to the southern colonies to meet the demands of southern plantation owners for a large labor force to work their plantations. The Colonies exported raw materials to Britain and rice, rum, gold, and other products to Africa This was beneficial to the Colonial American economy, as the more products a country exports, the more money this country makes. With the Colonies’ raw materials, Britain sent manufactured goods back to the Colonies. The Triangular Trade helped fuel the Colonial economy in the 17th and th century.

9 #9 Great Awakening Pages 82-83 Mid 18th Century
The Great Awakening, or the revival or religion in Colonial America, occurred due to the fact that many people felt the urge to break away from their families and start new lives. These people turned toward their attention away from their families and set out to start a relationship with God. The Great Awakening centered around many powerful preachers such as Jonathon Edwards and George Whitefield, who played main roles in this religious revival. The significance of the Great Awakening was that colonists began to become self-reliant, and began to question the authority of the British crown in America.

10 #10 Enlightenment Page 83 Late 17th and 18th centuries
The Enlightenment focused on the celebration of human reason, and many began to believe that not only religious faith, but also rational thought could help progress human society. Enlightenment values encouraged men and women to look toward their own intellect, not only God, for guidance. People began relying upon their intellect for how to live their lives and shape their societies. The powerful figures of Thomas Paine, Benjamin Franklin, and James Madison made their own important contributions to the Enlightenment in Colonial America.

11 #11 French and Indian War Page 92-98 1754-1763
The French and Indian War was fought between the combined French and Indian forces, and Britain over the disputed territory of the Ohio River Valley, an area just west of the Appalachian Mountains. William Pitt played a major role in Britain’s success in this war, as he took over control of the British forces and led them to victory. Major battles included Fort Necessity, Fort Duquesne, Quebec, and Montreal. With the Treaty of Paris, Britain took control of almost all of France’s possessions in North America. This vast increase in international power made Britain the world’s greatest force without question. Due to British bankruptcy, the British began enforcing harsh laws and acts on the colonies. These acts angered the colonists, and this eventually led to the Revolutionary War.

12 #12 Proclamation of 1763 Pages 99-100 (1763)
Following the French and Indian War, the British were bankrupt and greatly weakened, and therefore did not want to go to war again. In order to avoid potential conflicts between colonists and Native Americans, the British passed the Proclamation of This established a line that prohibited colonists from expanding westward into the land that Britain had just won from France. The colonists were outraged at the British as they felt as if their war effort was pointless, and they felt as if they were being suppressed by the British government.

13 #13 Sugar, Stamp, and Currency Taxes
Pages Sugar Act of Raised the duty on sugar. Currency Act of Required colonial assemblies to stoop printing paper money. Stamp Act of Imposed a tax on every printed document in the colonies, including newspapers, almanacs, and pamphlets. The British collected ten times as much revenue in the colonies due to the Stamp Act. These acts greatly angered colonists, and the colonists rebellion against these acts led to increased tensions between the colonies and Britain This tension increases over time, eventually leading to the Revolutionary War.

14 #14 Boston Massacre Pages 90, 103-104 March 5, 1770
Mass opposition to the Townshend Acts began becoming intense throughout America. Due to increased British opposition, King George placed four regiments of regular troops in the city. On March 5, 1770, a mob of dockworkers began throwing rocks and snowballs at British soldiers outside the customs house. In the midst of the mass confusion outside the customs house, several British soldiers fired into the crowd, killing five people. Despite the colonists instigating the soldiers to fire, the murder of these innocent colonists sparked outrage throughout the colonies, and this incident further increased tension between Britain and the colonies. Sam Adams responded by forming the Committee of Correspondence.

15 #15 Lexington and Concord
Pages In the early months of 1775, the people of Massachusetts had been gathering arms and ammunition for minutemen, people who could fight on a minute’s notice in order to prepare for a defensive war against the British. On April 18, 1775, General Thomas Gage, commanding the British forces in Boston, received orders to arrest the rebel leaders Sam Adams and John Hancock. Gage hesitated, but when he heard that the minutemen were storing gunpowder in Concord, he sent a detachment of 1,000 men there. William Dawes and Paul Revere warned the colonists, and when Britain arrived a fight broke out, as the minutemen were waiting for them. Shots were fired and minutemen fell; eight were killed and ten wounded. The British lost almost three times as many men than the Americans, but more importantly it marked the start of a War for American Independence.

16 #16 Declaration of Independence
Pages This was a document that stated the American colonists’ complete break from Britain, decided on by a committee created by the Continental Congress. At the beginning of the summer, the committee began to draft this document, and it was adopted on July 4th of It declared America as a free country and was written by the well-known Americans Thomas Jefferson, Ben Franklin, and John Adams. Contained in the document, it listed the rights of the colonies and the crimes of the British crown. Specifically, it stated “That these United Colonies are, and, of right, ought to be, free and independent states; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved.” As a whole, it destroyed the relationship with Britain and led to conflict, as the British were willing to risk war to recover their colonies.

17 #17 George Washington Pages 117-165
He was a man of military experience who took control of the Continental Army in June of1775. At the beginning, he struggled, losing the battles of Bunker Hill and New York. At that point, he had little troops and support, but after he scored a huge victory at Trenton and Princeton, he convinced troops to re-enlist. A win at Saratoga got the French on their side and he rode all this help and momentum throughout the war, as the Americans won. Following the war, he used his popularity to become President of the United States. He did a very good job as the first President of the United States, as he stabilized America for the future and helped them in various ways. During his presidency, he put down the Whiskey Rebellion, signed both Jay and Pinckney’s Treaty, and created a strong cabinet. To complement these achievements, he had virtually no negatives in the course of his presidency. Feb 22, Dec 14, 1799

18 #18 Thomas Jefferson Pages 116-186
Prior to his presidency, Jefferson strongly advocated the colonists’ revolution. He is notable for being the primary writer of the Declaration of Independence, borrowing heavily from local declarations. After America had become an independent country, he was elected as the second President of the United States. Jefferson, in his presidency, established a National Road in 1806, cut national debt, and completed the Louisiana Purchase, doubling America’s land for a mere three cents per acre. On the negative side, Jefferson passed the Embargo Act in 1807 that abolished trade with England and France, severely hurting the American economy. In addition, he abolished natives from their lands and was in frequent conflict with them. Apr 13, Jul 04, 1826

19 #19 Battle of Bunker Hill Pages 119-120
After the redcoats withdrew from Lexington and Concord, in April of 1775, American forces besieged them in Boston. In the Battle of Bunker Hill on June 17, 1975, the American forces sat atop the hill as the British charged up. Due to limited ammunition, the Americans did not fire until they were positive that they could hit British forces. Even with this strategy, eventually the Americans ran out of ammunition after suffering severe casualties. They withdrew, but not after inflicting even greater losses on the British. The loss at Bunker Hill served as a morale booster for the Americans, as they were convinced they could fight at the same level as the British.

20 #20 Battle of Saratoga Pages 121-122
This was a battle in the Revolutionary War, in which the American forces of Gates and Arnold battled Britain’s Burgoyne. The British planned to have all three generals meet up to fight this battle, but the plan failed, as only Burgoyne’s troops got there successfully. As a result, the Continental Army came out victorious, and Burgoyne surrendered on October 17, As a whole, the Americans won by killing 440, wounding 700, and capturing 6,000. This win was perceived as the turning point of the war, as the victory not only wiped out Burgoyne’s troops but convinced the French that America was strong enough to ally with. Also gaining momentum from the victory, all of these factors ultimately helped to lead to American triumph over Britain in the war

21 #21 Battle of Yorktown Page 125
This was a battle that took place in the Revolutionary War in Yorktown, Virginia. Cornwalis, a British General, took his troops and decided to go to Yorktown, hoping to conduct raids in the interior of Virginia an meet up with fellow General Clinton. But Clinton, fearful that the southern army might be destroyed, ordered him to take up a defensive position at Yorktown. American and French forces quickly descended on Cornwalis’s forces, catching him between the land and sea. After only a few shots of resistance, he surrendered on October 17 of Two days later, as a result of the loss, he surrendered his whole army, ending the Revolutionary War in favor of the Americans.

22 Articles of Confederation #22
Pg. 116, 134 November 1777, passed in 1781 First attempt to create a government in the US Limited the federal government; Increased state government Federal government could declare war, make peace, sign treaties, borrow money, coin money, and deal with Natives It was a weak federal government and needed to be replaced Led to the creation of the Constitution

23 Shays’s Rebellion #23 Pg. 137-139 Summer of 1986- January 1787
1,200 farmers rebelled over large debts and lack of paper money in New England Led by Daniel Shays They attempted to seize weapons from an arsenal in Boston, but were defeated and put down by the state militiamen Added urgency to the movement of producing a new Constitution Also needed an executive to settle disputes throughout the states

24 Alexander Hamilton #24 Pg. 138, 142-143, 147-148, 150-151, 156,181
Dates in office for the United States Successful New York lawyer who became the treasury for the Confederation Federalist Called for a national convention to overhaul the Articles of Confederation Assisted with the creation of the Constitution Became the Secretary of the Treasury Helped strengthen the federal government Created a debt proposal Created the national bank as a place to put federal funds Caused the Whiskey Rebellion and convinced Washington to show the federal government’s strength Set the precedent for the Federalist legislation The face of the $10 bill

25 James Madison #25 Pg. 83, 138, , 150, 153, , 177, 185, Dates in office for the United States Federalist, Republican following the Constitution Argued against the national bank Helped push the Bill of Rights Created the “Virginia Plan”, Created the idea of a two house legislature Lower house representation based on population Upper house voted on by lower house Sparked the New Jersey Plan Sparked Great Compromise Became the 4th President of the United States He is one of the faces on the Dollar Coin

26 Checks and Balances #26 Pg. 145-148 1787
Created branches of equal power in the federal government Legislative, Executive, Judicial Separation of power Checks on power James Madison helped create the checks and balances Part of the Constitution of 1787 Prevents a single group rising to dominate the country Protects the United States from a monarch or dictator Protects the government from the tyranny of the people Still used in the federal government today

27 Bill of Rights #27 Pg. 150-151 September 25, 1789
First ten amendments of the Constitution Protects the inalienable rights that each man possesses Ex. Freedom of speech, religion, press, immunity from arbitrary arrest, trial by jury States the rights in the United States that can not be violated Placed limitations on the new government Pushed the states to ratify the Constitution Supported by the Antifederalists

28 Whiskey Rebellion # 28 Pg. 154-155 1794
Farmers in western Pennsylvania refused to pay new whiskey excise tax They terrorized tax collectors in the region George Washington called out three state militias to Pennsylvania Collapsed the rebellion Alexander Hamilton wanted Washington to put down rebellion as the executive Showed the federal government’s strength and power

29 29. Alien and Sedition Acts
The Alien and Sedition acts were passed in The Alien acts were created to make it more difficult to for foreigners to become United States citizens. This gave the President more leverage against these aliens. The Sedition acts on the other hand were made to allow the government to keep a closer watch on Americans, so that it would be easier to discover who was plotting against the government. This allowed the government to shut down even the slightest speculation of sabotage against the U.S. The republicans believed that this was a federalist plan to end their power. Page: 158

30 30. Election of 1800 The two candidates running for president in the election of 1800 were Thomas Jefferson, Republican, and John Adams, Federalist. The federalists stated that if Jefferson came to power he would bring with him terror. On the other hand, Republicans believed that if Adams were to win the presidency then he would become a tyrant and then proclaim himself king. Aaron Burr then stepped into the election, and with him much controversy followed. This controversy ended with Congress choosing who will be president, and it was decided that Burr was too untrustworthy, and it would be Jefferson who would win the election. Pages:

31 31. Marbury V. Madison The case of Marbury V. Madison occurred in Before Jefferson became president, John Adams passed the Judiciary Act of This increased the amount of Federal Judges greatly, and Adams proceeded to fill these new positions with Federalists Judges so that they would be able to overpower Jefferson. This was also known as the “Midnight appointments,” where the famed John Marshall was also appointed to Chief Justice of Supreme court. When William Marbury’s appointment letter was not delivered by John Marshall, Marbury went to Madison, secretary of state, asking for his letter to be delivered, which Madison refused to do. Madison would later win this case because the court has no power of the secretary of state and what they do or do not do. However, although Marshall took the short time loss for the supreme court, he established judicial review, which would prove vital in the long run. Judicial review stated that the court had the final say in what a given law is stating. Pages:

32 32. Louisiana Purchase The Louisiana purchase was made on April 30th Thomas Jefferson was president during the purchase of this land which doubled the size of the United States. The U.S. bought this land from the French for the very low price of 15 million dollars because the French, specifically Napoleon, were desperate for money because of the war they were fighting in Europe. After buying this, the U.S. was free to travel the Mississippi and the port of New Orleans as they pleased. Some say that this was one of the best moves of Jefferson's presidency, however there were some draw backs. The federalists stated that this move was unconstitutional and that Jefferson was misusing his power as presidency. Pages:

33 33. Lewis and Clark Lewis and Clark were sent on an expedition by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, shortly after the purchase was made. They made friends with a Native American woman known as Sacagawea and she helped them greatly on their venture. After they explored the newly purchased land, people began to move west so they themselves could too explore the land. This would soon give rise to the westward expansion. This was important because it showed that the U.S. had full intention of claiming all the land from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Also, because this exploration was made, ideas such as manifest destiny began to come into existence, and the U.S. began to greatly expand. Pages:

34 34. War of 1812 The War of 1812 lasted from 1812 to At the time, Spain and Britain were allies, and Spain had control of the majority of Florida. The U.S. had great desire for this Spanish land, so they decided that the best way to get into a conflict with Spain was to declare war on their ally, Britain. For the first part of the war Britain was preoccupied with Napoleon and his growing empire, however when the Russians handed him an awful defeat, the British could now focus on the war with the United States. The U.S. would proceed to win this conflict. This war yielded many gains for the U.S. The national anthem was written on September 13th by Francis Scott key as he watched the Battle of Fort McHenry. Also, Florida was annexed from the Spanish. Lastly, this victory showed that the U.S. could defeat the British repeatedly, and that the U.S. was here to stay. Pages:

35 35. Battle of New Orleans The Battle of New Orleans took place January 8th This was a battle between a couple thousand veteran British troops, and a miscellaneous group of American soldiers, headed by Andrew Jackson. This was the final British offensive of the War, even though the war had technically ended weeks prior to this battle. The British casualty number was around a total of 2,600 men, while the U.S. was 21 men. This battle was very important because it showed the the United States could continue and would continue to not only fight the British, but defeat the British, as long as they had to. Page: 189

36 “Era of Good Feelings” #36 (1812-1824)
After the War of 1812, nationalism began expanding throughout the country. The rising nationalism was reflected through the expansion of the economy, the growth of white settlement and trade in the West, and the creation of new states. The era was also reflected through James Monroe’s goodwill tour following his election as president, during which the name of the era was coined by the Columbian Centinel in Boston. The nationalism was expanded following the Adams-Onís, which ceded all of Florida to the U.S. Pgs:

37 Missouri Compromise #37 (1819)
Missouri applied for admission to the Union in 1819, and slavery was already well established in the area. However, admitting a single state to the Union as either slave or free would upset the delicate political balance of slave and free states. Before Missouri, states always joined the Union in pairs: one free and one slave. At the same time, Maine wanted to join the Union as a free state, so Henry Clay proposed to combine both proposals into a single bill with Maine free and Missouri slave. The bill also stated that a line of 36o 30’ would govern all states who apply for statehood later if they were slave or free. States north of the line would be free, and states south would be slave. The Missouri Compromise Line showed the sectionalism between the North and the South. Pgs:

38 John Marshall #38 ( ) John Marshall was chief justice of the Supreme Court from 1801 to His decisions on various cases helped shape the power of the whole government. His decision on the case Marbury v. Madison gave the Supreme Court the power of judiciary reviews and gave the Court more power than it had ever had before. In Dartmouth College v. Woodward, he expanded the meaning of the contract clause of the Constitution. In McCulloch v. Maryland, Marshall confirmed the implied powers of the federal government over state government. In Gibbons v. Ogden, the Court strengthened Congress’s power to regulate interstate commerce. Pgs: ,

39 Monroe Doctrine #39 (1823) As the Latin-American colonies revolted against Spain, the U.S. proclaimed neutrality, but openly traded with the revolutionaries. In 1822, president Monroe established diplomatic relations with La Plata, Chile, Peru, Columbia, and Mexico. In 1823, Monroe announced the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the American continents were off-limits to European nations for colonization. Any attack or breech of this agreement would be considered an attack on the U.S. The Monroe doctrine had few immediate effects, but it expressed the growing expression of nationalism in the U.S. in the 1820s and declared the U.S. as the dominant power in the Western Hemisphere. Pgs: 209

40 Corrupt Bargain #40 (1824) The Corrupt Bargain refers to the election of The four main contenders running for president were Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, and William Crawford. Jackson received more popular and electoral votes than any other candidate but not a majority. According to the 12th Amendment, the House of Representatives has to decide the winner of the election if no candidate receives a majority. Crawford was seriously ill, Clay was out of the race, but he had considerable pull in the House. Clay backed Quincy Adams, and Jackson lost, angering Jackson and causing him to refer to the decision as corrupt. Pgs: 210

41 Election of 1828 #41 (1828) By the time of the Election of 1828, the two parties were split between the National Republicans, who supported Quincy Adams and wanted to continue the economic nationalism of the preceding years, and the Democratic Republicans, who supported Jackson and opposed the economic aristocracy. During the campaigning, the Jacksonians belittled Adams and called him wasteful and extravagant. The Adams campaigners called Jackson a murderer and his wife a bigamist. At the end, Jackson’s victory was decisive, but sectional. Pgs: 211

42 John C. Calhoun #42 ( ) At first, Calhoun supported the tariff of 1816, but by the late 1820s, he began to blame the tariff for causing the unproductivity of South Carolina’s economy. Some South Carolinians began to think of seceding. To settle the people of his home state, Calhoun developed the theory of nullification. Calhoun believed the states should decide on the constitutionality of federal laws. He proposed the nullification doctrine with the idea of using it to nullify the 1828 tariff. His idea quickly gained support in South Carolina, but it led to the Nullification Crisis in 1832. Pgs:

43 #43 Nullification Crisis
Page South Carolinians responded angrily to a congressional tariff bill that offered them no relief from the tariff of abominations of SC wanted nullification of the tariffs, but Jackson proposed a force bill to use military if it were nullified. Henry Clay made a compromise so the tariff would be lowered gradually. This showed SC’s determination to secede and lack of unity from the North. President Jackson started to use military force to get what he wanted as well, and this crisis taught that no state could defy the federal government alone.

44 #44 Trail of Tears Page A voyage in which the Cherokee Natives were forced to take part in to go to a reservation in “Indian Territory” what is now Oklahoma. 17,000 were forced to go, and about a quarter perished on the trip there. It was all apart of the Native Removal and westward expansion. This event showed Jackson’s cruelty towards Indians, and it showed the whites’ greed for land. Whites no longer had a solid opportunity to change their ways to compromise with Indians to trade and learn as friendly allies.

45 #45 Nativism Page Whites viewed immigration with alarm because they were racially inferior and they corrupted politics by selling votes, they were stealing jobs, and religious differences. These “Native” whites formed the Native American Party later called the “Know Nothings” due to secret policy. Although these white Natives felt strongly about it, there was nothing they could do about the movement anyway. Diversity would then become a part of what America is made of.

46 #46 Telegraph Page Samuel Morse set out to find a way to send communication signals along an electric cable and developed Morse Code. Telegraph cables were installed along railroad lines, and communications were developed across the nation. The telegraph became a dramatic advancement over traditional methods and a symbol of national progress and technological expertise.

47 #47 Railroad Pages s Railroads started out with a small role in the 1820s and 30s, but eventually the groundwork was laid out, and railroads became the primary transportation system in the US. They also became critical sites od development for innovations in technology and corporate organization. Many entrepreneurs contributed to the development of this including tracks, steam powered locomotive inventions, and the idea to carry passengers for travel. The railroads had a major impact on American economy, society, and culture. As they provided as a source of travel and shipment to boost the economy, it also acted as a breeding ground for more technological advancements.

48 #48 Cotton Kingdom Page 269 mid-1800s
As tobacco was the leading crop in the agricultural South, it became very inconvenient because of its rapid exhaustion of the soil. Farmers were looking for other crops to profit off of and they found short staple cotton. It could grow in a variety of climates and in a variety of soils. Although the short staple was harder to process than the long staple, the cotton gin allowed this to not be a big issue. The use of growing cotton also prompted more slavery in the fields to produce and harvest more cotton rather than diminish slavery because of the cotton gin. Cotton allowed the southern economy to flourish.

49 #49 Romanticism Pages 288-294 1820s-1840s
Cultural leaders were striving for a kind of liberation. In the spirit of romanticism, there was liberation in literature, in philosophy, in art, and in politics and economics because Americans desired a liberation of the human spirit. Edgar Allen Poe wrote of darkness and death which was unique compared to other writers of the time. Transcendentalists dominated the romantic impulse with the idea that there was a fine line between reason and understanding. Writers of this sort like Emerson and Thoreau would write of self fulfillment in the natural world, and they claimed that one only needed the true necessities to live a full life, not any material wants. These writings and ideas began to dominate people minds and would lead to ideas of Utopia and beliefs such as Mormonism.

50 50. Transcendentalism 1830s-1850s
A philosophical movement began in Concord Mass. by Ralph Waldo Emerson. Focused on a return to nature while trying to transcend the limits of the intellect and allow the emotions to create an original relation to the universe. Among the first Americans to anticipate the 20th century environmental movement. Key Writings: Nature by Ralph Waldo Emerson (1836), Walden by Henry Davis Thoreau (1854), and Resistance to Civil Government by Henry Davis Thoreau (1849). Read more on pages

51 51. “Civil Disobedience” 1849 A philosophical concept derived from Henry David Thoreau’s 1849 essay entitled Resistance to Civil Government. The philosophy centers around the idea tat when a government force a law upon the populous and violates one’s morality, the one who has been violated can choose not to follow that law. An example of civil disobedience would be the northern resistance to the fugitive slave acts in 1850. Read more on page 292

52 52. William Lloyd Garrison 1805-1879
A proponent of the abolitionist movement who used his newspaper, the liberator to encourage abolitionism. Rejected the gradualism of abolitionism and requested immediate action. Hoped to focus more on the conditions of the oppressed blacks than the white owners. Founded the New England Antislavery Society in 1832 and the American Antislavery Society in 1833 The abolitionism movement was dying out leading up to the 1830s, but this man’s contributions that allowed the movement to thrive once more.

53 53. Rise of Feminism 1840-present
The rise began in 1840 after women were denied entry to the antislavery convention in London. This helped females realize that in order to help with other movements, they would have to organize a movement of their own in order to be recognized Movement leaders met in 1848 to discuss the issue of women’s rights The Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions was established which stated that men and women were created equal. Feminists often helped out other movements such as abolitionism. This would either hurt or help their efforts depending on the case. Read more on pages

54 54. Abolitionism 1800s-1865 Abolitionism was the movement to end slavery By the mid 1830s the movement was divided into radicals and moderates. Moderates believed in using peaceful methods to ban slavery. Radicals attacked the government and often resorted to violent means. The Abolitionist movement yielded the Liberty party in 1840. This movement helped spur the civil war and the passing of the 13th amendment. Read more on pages

55 55. Fredrick Douglas unknown-1895
Born a slave in Maryland. Escaped to Massachusetts in 1838. Became a prominent speaker for the abolitionist movement. Spent 2 years lecturing in England. Demanded full social and economic equality. Founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star, and wrote an autobiography that exposed many to the horrors of slavery. Read more on pages

56 56. Underground Railroad 1850-1860 (height)
A system of escape routes organized by runaway slaves and sympathetic whites to allow runaway slaves to make it north or to Canada Travel was often hazardous due to white patrols Patrols of white men cracking down on travel permits carried by blacks. Their main jobs where to stop runaway slaves. The railroad had huge efficiency and allowed large numbers of black slaves to run away Read more on page 282

57 57. Harriet Beecher Stowe TB: Middle of pages 301 and 329
Important women’s rights reformer in the mid 1800s Resented social and legal restrictions on women Author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin Attacked southern society Outraged the southerners but became extremely popular in the North Helps abolitionist movement Swayed opinion of those who didn’t care about slavery and increased sectionalism

58 58. Manifest Destiny TB: Bottom of pg. 311
Idea was spread throughout the nation by 1840 via the “penny press” It was America’s destiny to expand fully all the way to the West coast It was America’s God given duty Envisioned vast new “Empire of Liberty” Canada Mexico Caribbean Pacific Islands Began with Texas and Oregon Opposed by Henry Clay and others who said expansion would reopen painful issue of slavery They couldn’t override the extreme enthusiasm people had over expansion

59 59. Texan Revolution TB Pg: 312
American settlers declared their independence from Mexico in and sporadic fighting began between the Americans and Mexicans in Texas Mexican forces led by General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Americans lost battles of Alamo and Goliad Won final battle at San Jacinto Sam Houston was new President of Texas and offered to join the Union Annexation blocked by President Jackson

60 60. The Mexican-American War
TB Pg: Disputed Border US said Rio Grande Mexico said Nueces River US General Zachary Taylor stationed on Rio Grande to antagonize Mexico Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and attacked a unit of American soldiers American bloodshed on American soil!! The U.S. declared war on Mexico May 13, 1846 Victory didn’t come as easy as planned, Mexico wasn’t giving up Taylor took Monterrey in September but let the Mexicans evacuate General Winfield Scott never lost a battle from Tampico until he finally captured Mexico City Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war February 2, 1848 Mexico ceded California and Mexico to the US Mexico recognized the Rio Grande border US paid $15 million in return

61 61. California Gold Rush TB Pg: 322-323
The gold was discovered in January 1948 and the gold rush peaked in 1949 Hundreds of thousands of people fled to California frantically searching for gold California migrants called 49ers Society created was very fluid and volatile due to absence of women and children(95% white men) Resulted in a work shortage in California because everyone was leaving to go find gold The shops made the real money while it was extremely rare for the 49ers to strike it rich Indians were used like slaves by the 49ers which created a hostile relationship with the natives

62 62. The Compromise of 1850 TB Pg: 323-325
Henry Clay presented the legislation to the Senate on January 29, 1850 Solved issue of whether or not slavery would be allowed in new lands Northern Advantages California admitted as a free state Abolition of slave trade in Washington D.C. Southern Advantages No restrictions on slavery in the remaining lands received from Mexico Fugitive Slave Act strengthened It was a victory of self interest but a triumph of statesmanship

63 63. Kansas-Nebraska Act TB Pg: 326-328
Stephen A. Douglas wanted the Transcontinental Railroad to pass through the North in Chicago for selfish interests Large Native American population there became a concern Douglas introduced a bill in January to open a large territory named Nebraska New free state was opposed by the South(sectionalism) Kansas Nebraska Act solved the issue Became law May 1854 Repealed the Missouri Compromise and divided the land into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska Each region could choose whether to allow slavery or not Kansas more likely to become a slave state Divided and destroyed the Whig party Spurred creation of Republican party- those who were opposed to the Kansas-Nebraska Act Led to “Bleeding Kansas” when people travelled from other states and interfered with the vote on whether or not to allow slavery.

64 #64 Transcontinental Railroad (p. 326-327, 341, 406)
1853- Location of RR became an issue between North and South North favored Chicago, South favored St. Louis, Memphis, or New Orleans Led to Gadsden Purchase to buy Arizona and New Mexico for potential Southern RR in 1853 Starting 1865, over 12,000 Chinese immigrants found work building transcontinental RR Made up 90% of Central Pacific’s labor force Completed 1869 Union Pacific Railroad Company built westward from Omaha Central Pacific built eastward from CA Met at Promontory Point, Utah Allowed transportation from East to West coasts Travel times shortened More effective communication

65 #65 Election of 1860 (p. 333-335) Democratic party divided
Southerners wanted endorsement of slavery Westerners supported popular sovereignty Convention in Charlestown, South Carolina, was inconclusive Westerners met again in Baltimore, nominated Stephen Douglas Southerners met again in Richmond, nominated John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln Growing reputation for Lincoln-Douglas Debates Firm but moderate position on slavery Relative obscurity Lincoln wins election with majority of electoral votes, but only two-thirds popular vote South sees that their position in the Union is hopeless and break away to form the Confederate States in February, 1861 ,d.b2k&psig=AFQjCNGIMkB3ktmK8OBt3f5ZiNTR0Tn4lA&ust=

66 #66 Confederacy (p ) After Lincoln’s election in 1860, Southern states begin to secede North Carolina being the first, on Dec. 20, 1860 Confederate States of America established Feb. 1861 Failure of Crittenden Compromise Fort Sumter Seized by Confederacy April 14, 1861 Beginning of Civil War Jefferson Davis named president at Montgomery convention No official parties, but still politically divided States’ rights enthusiasts obstructed power of the Confederate govt. Money shortage led to disastrous inflation Manpower shortage led to Conscription Act April 1862 General Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, April 9, 1865

67 #67 Emancipation Proclamation (p. 344)
Signed by Abraham Lincoln Jan. 1, 1863 Declared the slaves inside the Confederacy as free But not slaves within the Union, nor slaves in Confederate states under Union control Established that the Civil War was being fought not only to preserve the Union, but to eliminate slavery. As Union armies occupied much of the South, the proclamation became a practical reality and led to the freeing of thousands of slaves. Thirteenth Amendment passed 1865 Abolished slavery throughout the U.S.

68 #68 Robert E. Lee (p ) Lee opposed the South’s secession and was ambivalent about slavery, but could not break with his region Left U.S. army to lead Confederates in 1861 1862: Jefferson Davis names Robert E. Lee as principal military adviser Lee replaced “Stonewall” Jackson in Battle of Seven Pines 1862 Launched new offensive called Battle of Seven Days, but failed to cut off McClellan Lost at Antietam 1862, but was allowed to retreat, a huge mistake for McClellan Fought alongside Jackson at Chancellorsville Confederate victory, Hooker barely escaped, but Jackson fatally wounded Surrendered Vicksburg, withdrew from Gettysburg in 1863 Turning point in war for the North Fought against Grant throughout Grant’s Northern Campaign Surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House, April 9, 1865 ,d.b2k&psig=AFQjCNF_eIfd-B1qviIfAvWVCc0NKhs_nQ&ust=

69 #69 Ulysses S. Grant (p. 350-387) Victory at Battle of Shiloh 1862
Fought Gen. Beauregard and Gen. Johnston Attacked Vicksburg 1863 1864: Lincoln appoints General Grant to command war effort Grant’s Northern Campaign 1864 Marched toward Richmond, constantly being repulsed by Lee Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House 1865 Won 1868 Election Ran as Republican against Horatio Seymour No pol. Experience Popular for his role in Civil War Used Spoils System Corrupt administration Grant Scandals Whiskey Ring Panic of 1873 Grant insisted on gold-backed currency, issued Greenbacks Secretary of State William H. Seward purchases Alaska 1867 “Seward’s Folly” ,d.b2k&psig=AFQjCNEueTT3t4-4-ojMOGDZ4aEaqeLMNw&ust=

70 #70 “States’ Rights” Arguments (p. 346)
In Dredd Scott v. Sandford Case, 1857, Supreme Court sided with States’ Rights enthusiasts Said Congress could not regulate slavery in the territories When the Confederacy was established in 1861, States’ Rights had become almost a cult among white southerners Virtually all Confederate efforts to exert national authority were resisted States’ Rights enthusiasts obstructed conscription and restricted Jefferson Davis’ ability to impose martial law and suspend Habeas Corpus Some Generals kept their troops separate from Confederate forces ,d.b2k&psig=AFQjCNFWLw-LCyHWLGreun2WL7zr_cC3HQ&ust=

71 71. The Anaconda Plan Pg. 352,363 The Anaconda plan was the North’s civil war strategy to cut the South in half and “suffocate” them into submission. A vital part of the plan was a strong naval blockade against the South. The plan heavily restricted the flow of supplies in the South and it made it very difficult for the South to continue fighting. The blockade also cut off any possible aid from Europe. The plan did not take full effect until later in the war and the North won total control of the Mississippi river after the Battle of Vicksburg. The plan cut off the South’s supplies and communications which hindered them from winning the war.

72 72. The Battle of Antietam September 17 1862 Pg. 361
The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest battle of the war, and is the bloodiest day in American history. General McClellan's 87,000 man army met General Lee’s 50,000 man army. There were staggering casualties on both sides. The Union won the battle, but instead of giving a final push and chasing Lee’s army McClellan let his army escape into Virginia. The Union could have destroyed most of Lee’s army and ended the war. This resulted in President Lincoln removing McClellan from command. After the battle, Lincoln walked down the battle field and saw the casualties and realized that if this war was not fought over slavery then another tragedy like this could happen again.

73 73. The Battle of Vicksburg July 4 1863 Pg. 361
The Battle of Vicksburg was a decisive battle in the war. Ulysses S. Grant led his forces to Vicksburg where he started a large siege. Grant forced the city into submission by controlling the supplies that went into the city. The starving city eventually surrendered, along with surrendering total control of the Mississippi river. The North has now split the south and cut off Louisiana, Texas and Arkansas from the rest of the Confederacy. The North’s Anaconda Plan had now taken full effect and the South supply lines and communications had been disrupted. This Battle was pivotal in the down fall of the confederacy.

74 74. The Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3 1863 Pg. 363
The Battle of Gettysburg was the northernmost battle of the war and Lee’s second attempt to attack on Union soil. The Union army defeated Lee’s after Pickett's charge. General Pickett led 15,000 men across a mile of open land under heavy Union artillery fire. Lee had lost one third of his army and was forced to retreat again. After Gettysburg, Lee will no longer have enough strength to attack Northern soil again. The Confederate loss at Gettysburg made foreign countries shy away from aiding the South. Without foreign help the South will lose the war.

75 75. Sherman’s March to the Sea 1864-1865 Pg. 365
In the West, General William Tecumseh Sherman led his army from Georgia to North Carolina, and along the way he burned a 60 mile path of destruction. He burned towns, crops and destroyed railroads. Sherman wanted to break the will of the South to stop them from fighting. Sherman's army lived off the land and destroyed anything they did not use. He burned from Atlanta to Georgia and left a wake of destruction that would have to be rebuilt after the war.

76 76. Appomattox Courthouse April 9 1865 Pg. 367
Robert E. Lee had only a small army left and was unable to link up with General Johnston. To save the rest of his men from further destruction he met Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse. Lee surrendered to Grant and the war was over. Jefferson Davis, the Confederate President, was caught days later and Johnston surrendered to Sherman. The surrender brought the bloody war to an end. The Confederate States of America lost to the Union.

77 77. Radical Republicans 1886 Pg. 376
Following the Civil War Southern reconstruction plans were heavily disputed. The Radical Republicans wanted to punish the South before readmitting them into the Union. They also wanted to disenfranchise leading southern supporters and take away wealthy southern whites lands and give to the new freedmen, the former slaves who were freed under Emancipation Proclamation. Radicals wanted to punish the South which meant that Union troops had to be kept in the South and they no longer had a ‘Home-rule” they so desperately desired.

78 78. 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments (pgs. 304-378)
Officially made slavery illegal Granted Congress the power to enforce abolition 14th Amendment – 1866 Proposed by the Joint Committee on Reconstruction Offered 1st constitutional definition of American citizenship Everyone born in the U.S. or naturalized was a citizen Imposed penalties on states that denied suffrage to any adult male citizens Prohibited officials who aided the CSA from holding state or federal office unless pardoned by Congress 15th Amendment – 1870 Forbade state and federal governments to deny suffrage because of race Required by Congress to be ratified in order for states to qualify for readmission into the Union Significance? Critical in ending slavery and improving former-slaves’ lives

79 79. Sharecropping (Pg. 382-383) During Reconstruction Significance
Many blacks did not own their own land Most worked as tenants for white landlords They worked their own plots of land and paid either a fixed rent or a share of their crops Positives? Blacks enjoyed physical independence from their landlords Tenants had a sense of working “their” land Negatives? In some cases, the tenants would end up in debt because of their inability to pay rent or provide a share of their crops Significance Blacks lost their sense of freedom Many didn’t have the capability or money to live on their own Forced to depend on whites, making them feel inferior

80 80. Ku Klux Klan (Pg. 388) Undermining Reconstruction - 1870
White supremacists who used violence and terrorism to frighten or physically handicap blacks from voting Led by Nathan Bedford Forest 1st grand wizard Survived with the help of corrupt law enforcement officials Repressed with the Enforcement Acts of 1870 and 1871 Klan violence declined by 1872 Significance Killed people and destroyed businesses Forced the government to get involved Controlled Southern lifestyle for decades

81 81. Compromise of 1877 (Pgs. 388-391) Election of 1876
Outcome of election hinged on disputed returns from Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina Allies of Republican representative, Rutherford B. Hayes, met with Southern democrats Wanted to negotiate acceptance of Hayes’ election Democrats agreed not to block Hayes’ victory if the Republicans withdrew all federal troops from the South Hayes became president Significance Officially marked the end of the Reconstruction Era

82 82. Booker T. Washington (Pg. 395)
Biography Born into slavery Washington made something of himself by getting an education at Virginia’s Hampton Institute Washington founded Tuskegee Institute in Alabama; he was also the president Message He consistently urged other blacks to use his story and follow the same road of self-improvement He wanted blacks to attend school, learn skills, and establish a solid footing in the trades Industrial education should be their goal He wanted them to refine their speech, improve their dress, and improve personal hygiene (basically adopting the standards of white middle class) This would win respect from the whites 1985 – Atlanta Compromise Encouraged blacks not to challenge segregation and discouraged proactive behavior

83 83. Jim Crow (Pg. 395-398) Jim Crow Laws Segregation Significance
Laws that restricted the franchise and segregated schools Segregation Blacks and whites couldn’t: Ride together in the same train car Sit in the same waiting rooms Use the same washrooms Eat in the same restaurants Sit in the same theaters Blacks didn’t have access to: Many public parks Beaches Picnic areas Many hospitals Significance Drastically reduced the power of rights given to blacks Rendered any progress from the 14th and 15th amendments obsolete

84 84. Sand Creek Massacre (Pg. 418)
November 29, 1864 700-man force of Colorado Territory militia led by Colonel J. M. Chivington Attacked and destroyed a Cheyenne and Arapaho village 133 Indians were murdered 105 were women and children Indian leader, Black Kettle, escaped, but four years later he was caught and killed by Colonel George A. Custer Significance The attack led to treaties that ceded Indian lands to America This was a horrific event that was often ignored by historians, schools, and textbooks

85 85. Battle of Little Big Horn
Pgs Because of the increased white settlement in Native territory, A group of 2,500 Sioux warriors gathered under the leaders Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull. George A. Custer and his men were then surprised and ambushed in 1876, and the Sioux killed every man. Soon after the battle however, the Sioux leadership collapsed, and the Natives were forced to accept defeat and life on reservations.

86 86. Dawes Act Pg. 421 In an attempt to assimilate Native Americans into white society in 1887, the Dawes Act required Natives to become landowners and farmers, and abandon their society and culture. The government believed they were helping the "vanishing race", and enrolled Indian children into schools in order to convert them to Christianity and install white cultures and beliefs. The Natives were forced to leave their land, to prevent them from selling it to speculators.

87 87. Gospel of Wealth Pgs Written by Andrew Carnegie in 1901, it expressed his beliefs that people with great wealth and power had great responsibility to use their riches to advance social progress. Carnegie believed that wealthy people should give back to the community, and he was known to devote his life to charity.

88 88. John D. Rockefeller Pgs. 435-436
Began an oil empire in Cleveland known as Standard Oil in Rockefeller expanded horizontally, taking out his competition. Once he started to make his own barrel factories he began to expand vertically. Rockefeller dominated the petroleum industry and was the face of monopoly. Rockefeller and many other businessmen believed that a market with extreme competition and no type of vertical or horizontal integration was doomed and unstable.

89 89. Andrew Carnegie Pg 435 As a Scottish immigrant, Carnegie worked his way from nothing, to be an extremely wealthy tycoon. In 1873, Carnegie opened his own steel company and quickly dominated the industry. Carnegie wrote about his ideals and beliefs that wealthy people had to give back to the community in the Gospel of Wealth. After selling his company for $450 million dollars to J.P. Morgan in 1901, he became the richest man in the world.

90 90. J.P. Morgan Pg J.P. Morgan bought Carnegie Steel in 1901, who then merged it with other U.S. Steel corporations to create the giant United States Steel Corporation. This corporation controlled almost 2/3 of the nation's steel production. Morgan was also known for his "trust" technique. In this, stockholders transferred their stocks to a small group of trustees in exchange for shares in the trust itself. Owners of the trust did nothing but earn profit, and it was a great businesses to gain wealth.

91 91. Social Darwinism Pg 437 Charles Darwin's laws of evolution and natural selection of species was applied to human society. Wealthy tycoons believed that they had gained their wealth and power through hard work and thrift. They believed they deserved their success and those who did not achieve wealth, failed through their own laziness and carelessness. Social Darwinism argues only the survival of the fittest in the marketplace.

92 #92 “Boss” Tweed William M. Tweed, also know as “Boss” Tweed, was the most corrupt city boss. Tweed was the boss of New York City’s Tammany Hall throughout the 1860s and 1870s. Political bosses helped their constituents through graft and corruption in order to work their way up the political ranks. Boss Tweed was able to this in New York throughout the 1860s and 1870s until his extravagant use of public funds and kickbacks landed him in jail in 1872. Pgs

93 #93 Populists The Populist Party, also known as the People’s Party, was established in July of In the election of 1892, the potential power of the new movement came to the forefront as James B. Weaver of Iowa pulled more than 1 million votes. Nearly 1,500 Populist candidates were elected into state legislatures while three governors, five senators, and ten congressmen were also elected. The populist party was very appealing to small farmers but that was about it. In the Ocala Demands of 1890, the Populists laid out their ideals of government owned warehouses for farmers to develop their crops. Finally, the Populists called for the abolition of National Banks. Pgs

94 #94 William McKinley William McKinley was elected president in the Election of 1896 as he defeated Democratic opponent William Jennings Bryan, signaling the end of the People’s Party. McKinley passed the Gold Standard Act of 1900 which confirmed the nation’s commitment to the gold standard. McKinley led America through the Imperialistic Age. In the Dupuy de Lôme Letter, McKinley was criticized as a weak man and, “a bidder for the admiration of the crowd.” Many Republicans shared these same beliefs, including future president Theodore Roosevelt. McKinley led the US through the Spanish-American War in 1898, and helped the US conquer the Philippines. In 1898, McKinley issued the Open Door Notes, stating that the US wanted access to China. McKinley was reelected in the Election of 1900. Pgs

95 #95 U.S.S. Maine The explosion of the U.S.S Maine in the Havana Harbor in February of 1898 resulted in the deaths of more than 260 people. With excitement over the Dupuy de Lôme Letter still high, many Americans assumed that the Spanish had sunk the ship although that was not the case. Congress appropriated $50 million for military preparations following the explosion. This was one of the key contributing factors to the Spanish-American War as the media portrayed the incident as one caused by the Spanish. Pgs

96 #96 Rough Riders The Rough Riders was a cavalry unit that was nominally led by General Leonard Wood, but its real leader was Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, who resigned from the Navy Department to get into the war. Roosevelt emerged as a war hero after he led the charge up Kettle Hill directly into the face of Spanish arms. While Roosevelt made it out unscathed, many of his men were either wounded or killed. Roosevelt remembered this as “the great day of my life.” Pg. 508

97 #97 The Spanish-American War
The Spanish-American War, fought in 1898, was a war between Spain and America after a number of conflicts between the two. The war was stirred by the Cuban Revolt, the Dupuy de Lôme Letter, the explosion of the U.S.S. Maine, and yellow journalism. The war was called “a splendid little war” by Secretary of State John Hay. The war was a relatively easy one for the Americans despite a shortage of rifles and ammunitions, heavy uniforms that didn’t fit the hot Cuban weather well, and food that was almost indigestible. The U.S. army had little experience, but that didn’t slow them down as they seemingly cruised to an easy victory. Pgs

98 #98 Occupation of the Philippines
Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt was a proponent of war and urged Commodore George Dewey attack Spanish forces as the Pacific squadron was strengthened. Dewey did just that and in May of 1898 the Spanish fleet was depleted at Manila Bay. Dewey emerged as the first hero of the war and he was promoted to admiral. Several months later with the arrival of the American expeditionary force, the Spanish surrendered at the city of Manila. Pgs

99 Imperialism (Pages 499-501) The New Manifest Destiny
New markets abroad A more aggressive foreign policy Fear the Europe would leave America out of Imperialism Alfred Thayer Mahan The Influence of Sea Power upon History Countries with the best Sea Power were the great countries in history By 1900 the US’s naval power was third in the world Hawaii The US’s first conquest 1893 America takes control of Hawaii 1899 Congress annexes Hawaii

100 The Platt Amendment (Page 511)
Passed in 1901 by Congress The US pressured Cuba into adding it into their new constitution Gave Cuba very little political power It prevented Cuba from making treaties with other nations Gave the US the right to intervene in Cuban government to preserve basic freedoms Required Cuba to allow US naval bases on its land

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