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Survey on e-Auction PresenterNguyen Hoang Anh NordSecMob.

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Presentation on theme: "Survey on e-Auction PresenterNguyen Hoang Anh NordSecMob."— Presentation transcript:

1 Survey on e-Auction PresenterNguyen Hoang Anh NordSecMob

2 2 Outline Introduction to e-Auction  What is auction?  Desired properties for an e-Auction scheme  Basic e-Auction protocol e-Auction scheme  English auction  First-price sealed bid auction  Second-price sealed bid auction (Vickrey auction) Conclusion

3 3 Introduction to e-Auction An auction is a method of trading goods that do not have a fixed price Auction is based on competition and reflects the essential of market  The sellers wish to sell their goods as high as possible, the buyers want to pay as little as necessary Roles: Bidder (buyer) – Seller – Auctioneer (trusted third party)

4 4 Introduction to e-Auction Types of auctions:  English auction  Dutch auction  Sealed-bid auction: First-price, Second-price, (M+1)st- price

5 5 Desired properties Non-repudiation No framing Traceability Public verifiability Unlinkability Robustness Efficiency of bidding

6 6 Desired properties Fairness  All bids should be dealt with in a fair way, e.g., no information about bidding will be disclosed to give any bidder unfair advantage Bidder privacy  No bidder’s identity or trading history will be revealed even after the auction session.  The secrecy of losing bids should be kept. Correctness of system  The winning bid is the highest among bids were placed. The winner is the person who made that bid

7 7 Basic auction protocol Initialization Auctioneer sets the system parameters and publishes them Bidder registration A bidder sends the Auctioneer her/his public key to register Auction preparation The Auctioneer computes the preparation data for each auction. A bidder may download her/his information for bidding Bidding A bidder computes her/his bid information and places her/his bid Opening a winning bid The Auctioneer computes only a winning bid while keeping the other bids secret (not needed in public auction) Winner decision The Auctioneer identifies only a winner while keeping loser’s anonymity

8 8 English auction scheme Proof of knowledge  PK(y = P(  )) is the proof of knowledge between two parties  given the publicly known value y, the Prover knows the value of  such that the predicate P(  ) is true.  Signature based on a Proof of Knowledge (SPK) SPK[(  ): y = g  ] (m)

9 9 English auction scheme 2 Bulletin Board System (BBS)  Bulletin board is a place where people can leave public messages, e.g., to advertise things, announce events, or provide information  Can be read by anybody, but can be written only by an authority => Help reduce communication complexity 2 separate roles  AM: Auction Manager Prepare for auctions Carry out several auctions Manage the current bid value  RM: Registration Manager Manager the participants of auctions Prepare for auctions Identifies a certain bidder at the request of AM

10 10 English auction scheme Alice (y 1, x 1, m 1 ) y 1 = g x1 1.Registration (y 1, V 11 ) V 11 = SPK[(  ): y 1 = g  ] (m R ) Alice : y1 Bob : y2 Carol : y3 : Public keys grgr y3ry1ry2r:y3ry1ry2r: 2. Preparation g rs 1.T 2 = y 2 rs 2.T 3 = y 3 rs 3.T 1 = y 1 rs : 3. g rs 4. T1 = (g rs ) x1 5. Bidding (3, m 1, V 21 ) V 21 = SPK[(  ): T 1 = (g rs )  ] (m R ) Current bid value 6. Winner decision V 31 V 31 =SPK[(  ):T 1 = (y 1 r )  ] (m R ) Kazumasa OMOTE. A study on Electronic Auctions, Winner decision V 31 V 31 =SPK[(  ):T 1 = (y 1 r )  ] (m R )

11 11 English auction scheme Properties  Linkability in an auction (same T i in one auction)  Unlinkability among different auctions (different T i -s for different auctions)  No single authority can break anonymity and secrecy of bids

12 12 First-price sealed-bid auction Desired properties  Secrecy of bidding price => open bids from highest possible price to the winning price, all the lower prices are kept secret  Verifiability => Use public key encryption systems or hash chain technique  Undeniability => The bidder needs to sign for his bid  Anonymity => Bidders register to a registration center and get their keys for signature scheme

13 13 First-price sealed-bid auction Undeniable signature scheme  Signing algorithm  Verification protocol  a signature can only be verified with the help of the signer => Avoid replay attack  Disavowal protocol  allows the signer to prove whether a given signature is a forgery => The signer cannot deny his valid signature

14 14 First-price sealed-bid auction Bidder 1: b1 Bidder 2: b2 Bidder 3: b3 Auctioneer Price list {1, 2,…, n} Sig 1 (b 1 ) Sig 2 (b 2 ) Sig 3 (b 3 ) j = n j = n - 1 j Disavowal My sig was not a valid signature of j My sig was the valid signature of j Winning bid j Winning bidder Bidder 2 Sakurai and Miyazaki. A bulletin-board based digital auction scheme with bidding down strategy. In Proc. International Workshop on Cryptographic Techniques and E-Commerce, 1999 Undeniable signature of bidding price Sig 1 (b1) Sig 2 (b2) Sig 3 (b3)

15 15 First-price sealed-bid auction Sakurai and Miyazaki. A bulletin-board based digital auction scheme with bidding down strategy. In Proc. International Workshop on Cryptographic Techniques and E-Commerce, 1999

16 16 First-price sealed-bid auction Drawbacks of the protocol  All bidders have to communicate with the auctioneer in opening phase => Protocol 2

17 17 First-price sealed-bid auction Bidder 1: b1 Bidder 2: b2 Bidder 3: b3 Auctioneer Price list {1, 2,…, n} {(K_1; M_1), (K_2; M_2)…, (K_n; M_n)} Sako. Universally verifiable auction protocol which hides losing bids. In Proc Of SCIS’99, pages E K_b1 (M_b1) E K_b2 (M_b2) E K_b3 (M_b3) j = n Check the equality E K_j (C_bi) = M_j ? - If such C_bi exists: winning bid is j, winning bidder is i - If there is no such C_bi: j = j – 1, repeat above step

18 18 First-price sealed-bid auction Sako. Universally verifiable auction protocol which hides losing bids. In Proc Of SCIS’99, pages 35-39

19 19 First-price sealed-bid auction Advantage  Bidders need not to communicate with the auctioneer in opening phase Disadvantage  Malicious auctioneer can reveal all bidding prices => Use plural auctioneers and distributed decryption technique

20 20 First-price sealed-bid auction Problems with sealed-bid auction methods using public key cryptosystems  Computationally expensive  Require a lot of communication  Limit the number of bidders and the range of bidding prices

21 21 First-price sealed-bid auction Bidder 1: P1 Secret seeds: (S 11, S 21,...,S a1 ) Bidder 2: P2 Secret seeds: (S 21, S 22,…,S a2 ) Bidder 3: P3 Secret seeds: (S 13, S 23,…,S a3 ) Auctioneer 1 Auctioneer a Bidi = {bi, c 1i, c 2i, …, c ai } bi = h(h Pi (S 1i )|h Pi (S 2i ) | … | h Pi (S ai )) cji = h n+1 (S ji ) (Bid1, Sig1(Bid1)) (Bid2, Sig2(Bid2)) (Bid3, Sig3(Bid3)) Publishes (Bid_i,Sig i (Bid_i) S 11 S 12 S 13 S a2 S a1 S a3 h k (S ai ) k = n Check hash chain for all bidders k = k - 1 Publishes h k (Sij) K. Suzuki, K. Kobayashi, and H. Morita. Efficient sealed-bid auction using hash chain. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Information Security and Cryptology, Vol of Lecture Notes In Computer Science, pages 183 – 191, Springer-Verlag. ISBN bi = h(h k (S 1i )|h k (S 2i )|…|h k (S ai )) ???

22 22 First-price sealed-bid auction Secrecy of bidding price  Bids are opened from the highest price to the winning price  Hash chain is distributed to plural auctioneers => losing bid prices are kept secret (besides the case all auctioneers collude) Verifiability  Anyone can verify the correctness of the hash chains which are already published Undeniability  The signer has to sign for his bid Anonymity  Each bidder can use his public key of signature to bid anonymously Efficiency

23 23 Vickrey auction Vickrey auction scheme  The bidder who offers the highest bid price gets the good at the second-highest price Attractive theoretical properties  The dominant strategy for each bidder is to place a bid honestly according to her/his own true value Rarely used in practice  Auctioneer may change the outcome of auctions  Auctioneer may reveal bidders’ private information

24 24 Vickrey auction scheme Homomorphic encryption scheme  E K (m 1 ; r 1 ). E K (m 2 ; r 2 ) = E K (m 1 +m 2 ; r 1 +r 2 ) Range proof: integer commitment scheme, plus range checking  PK(c=E K ( ,  )    [L,H])

25 25 Vickrey auction scheme Notations  S: seller  A: auction authority  B: maximum number of bidders  V: maximum number of different bids  (X 1, …, X B ): vector of bids in a nonincreasing order  In public-key cryptosystem (G,E,D), c = E K (m; r) denote the encryption of m by using a random coin r under they key K.  H: hash function

26 26 Vickrey auction Bidder 1: b1 Bidder 2: b2 Bidder 3: b3 Auctioneer Secret key: sk Seller Auctioneer’s public key: pk Sig 2 (E pk (B b2 )) Sig 1 (E pk (B b1 )) Sig 3 (E pk (B b3 )) E=∏i E pk (B bi ) Decrypt E Learn bid statistic X2X2 X2X2 X2X2 X2X2 My bid was higher than X 2 Helger Lipmaa, N. Asokan, Valtteri Niemi. Secure Vickrey Auctions without threshold trust. Technical Report 2001/095, International Association for Cryptologic Research, November 2001

27 27 Practical e-Auction systems eBay and Amazon Auction use Vickrey model with a proxy bidder facility  The bidder tells the proxy a maximum price that s/he is willing to pay  The proxy keeps this information secret and bids on the bidder’s behalf in the ascending auction.  The highest bidder wins, pays at amount equal to the second highest bidder (plus one increment).  Ebay: fixed ending time. Amazon: auctions end when there have been no new bids for ten minutes.

28 28 Conclusion Three kinds of auction schemes are surveyed  English auction scheme  First-price sealed-bid auction scheme  Second-price sealed-bid auction scheme Desired properties  Bidder privacy  Correctness of system  Efficiency

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