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The Early Industrial and Transportation Revolution.

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Presentation on theme: "The Early Industrial and Transportation Revolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Early Industrial and Transportation Revolution

2 1.Population growth 1800 = 5.5 million to 33 million by 1861 13 states to 33 states by 1861 Expansion of cities 2.Flow of Immigration – 1830’s to 1860’s Why? Potato famine and European problem Irish German 48er’s Hated by “Nativists” 3. Transformation of American Industry Industrial Revolution – why? American System Sectionalism Industrial pioneers

3 Westward Movement ßAmericans marched quickly toward west ßvery hard w/ disease & loneliness ßFrontier people were individualistic, superstitious & ill-informed ßWestward movement molded environment ßtobacco exhausted land ß“Kentucky blue grass” thrived

4 5.3 million Population Growth from 1620 to 1860

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9 City growth Westward expansion Growth of cities and states by 1850

10 The March of the Millions ßHigh birthrate accounted for population growth ßPopulation doubling every 25 years ßNear 1850s, millions of Irish, German came ßBeginning in 1830, immigration in the US soared

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12 Irish Immigration ßIrish Potato Famine 1845-1849 ßMain ports of entry – New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Boston ßIrish were too poor to move inland and farm so they stayed in the cities ßBoston did not particularly like the Irish – catholic, illiterate, poor ß“No Irish need apply!” ßAncient Order of Hibernians ßBenevolent society to help Irish ßSpawned “Molly Maguires” (miners union) ßGradually improved and became active politically ß NY’s Tammany Hall, Irish political machine

13 German Immigration ßMost Germans came due to crop failures ßGermans better off than Irish, came west, many to Wisconsin ßA few were political refugees from collapse of democratic revolutions in 1848 ßGerman contributions include Kentucky rifle, Christmas tree, kindergarten, and abolitionists ßSome Americans were suspicious because they tried to preserve language, culture and lived in separate communities, and drank beer

14 Sources of Immigration, 1820-40

15 Sources of Immigration, 1840-60

16 Settlements of Immigrants Irish in Northeastern cities: New York and Boston Germans would settle in Midwest

17 Early Nativism ßAmerican “nativists” feared 1840s & 1850s invasion of immigrants ßTook jobs, grew Roman Catholicism ßCatholics built their own schools, were #1 denomination by 1850 ß1849: Nativists form Order of the Star-Spangled Banner, developed into “Know-Nothing” party ßWanted immigration restrictions ßNativists occasionally violent, burned Boston convent (1834) ßPhiladelphia Irish fought back, 13 killed in several days of fighting (1844)

18  A shift from goods made by hand to factory and mass production  Technological innovations brought production from farmhouse to factories  Invented in Britain in 1750; smuggled to U.S.  Beginning of US Factory System  US slow to embrace factory system  Scarce labor  Little capital  Superiority of British factories

19 HPromote nationalism was internal improvements to unite the US. Transportation system of roads, canals, steamships and rivers. 1800 to 1850 roads, canals and rivers first forms of transportation 1860, the railroad is added american system HProvide economic growth Americans buying American goods American self-sufficiency. Protective tariff (allows US factories to grow) 2 nd Bank of the United States H3 Sections working together to build the country Henry Clay, Congressmen from Kentucky John C. Calhoun, US Senator from South Carolina

20 H Population shift because of westward expansion  the West demanded transportation.  The Land Act of 1820, gave the West its wish by authorizing a buyer to purchase 80 acres of land at a minimum of $1.25 an acre in cash H Erie Canal started in 1817 and completed in 1825  NY Governor DeWitt Clinton built the Erie Canal  Connected New York City from Hudson River with the Great Lakes and the West  Clinton’s Big Ditch--------Other canals follow H Navigable rivers and the steamboat  the first steamboat on western waters was in 1811.

21 Erie Canal System

22 Principal Canals in 1840

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24 Highways HBad roads made transportation highly unreliable H The National Road begun in 1811 and completed by 1832  Connected Maryland to Illinois.  Built by US government

25 Cumberland (National Road), 1811

26 Help unite the country as well as improve the economy and the infant industry. Because of the British blockade during the War of 1812, it was essential for internal transportation improvements.

27 The Railroad Revolution,1850s H1850 to 1860, RR proved most significant development toward national economy HAmericans demanded transcontinental railroad to California.  Completed by 1869.

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29 Pioneer Railroad Promoters H1800 to 1850: Roads, canals, navigable rivers with steamboats were the main modes of transportation. H1850 to 1860, RR proved most significant development toward national economy HCompetition between Railroads and Canals HObstacles  opposition from canal backers  danger of fire  poor brakes  difference in track gauge meant changing trains

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31 Map rr

32 Effects of the Transportation Revolution H1860-61, Pony Express connected East- West HTelegraph instantly sent messages across US HAttraction of many large capital investments and encouraged risk taking in the US economy HPeople moved faster and country expanded  Unifying spirit among fellow country men  A need for a transcontinental railroad that connected east to west

33 Built first textile mill in 1793 in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Born in England on June 9, 1768 and worked in British factories. Slater came to US to make his fortune in the textile industry. Slatersville Mill was the largest and most modern industrial cotton mill of its day "Father of the American Factory System." Samuel Slater was the "Father of the American Factory System."

34 The Lowell Mills HAmericans beat the British at their own game, made better factories HFrancis C Lowell (a British “traitor”) came over here to build British factories met up with Boston mechanic, Paul Moody  Together they improved the mill and invented a power loom that revolutionized textile manufacturing

35 Women & the Economy H1850: 10% of white women working for pay outside home  Vast majority of working women were single  Left paying jobs upon marriage H“Cult of domesticity”  Cultural idea that glorifies homemaker HEmpowers married women  Increased power & independence of women in home led to decline in family size

36 Workers & Wage Slaves HWith industrial revolution, large impersonal factories surrounded by slums full of “wage slaves” developed HLong hours, low wages, unsanitary conditions, lack of heat, etc.  Labor unions illegal H1820: 1/2 of industrial workers were children under 10

37 Workers & Wage Slaves H1820s & 1830s: right to vote for laborers  Loyalty to Democratic party led to improved conditions  Fought for 10-hour day, higher wages, better conditions H1830s & 1840s: Dozens of strikes for higher wages or 10-hour day  1837 depression hurt union membership HCommonwealth v. Hunt  Supreme Court ruled unions not illegal conspiracies as long as they were peaceful

38 1830s, Industrialization grew throughout the North… Southern cotton shipped to Northern textile mills was a good working relationship.

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41 Resourcefulness & Experimentation  Americans were willing to try anything.  They were first copiers, then innovators.  Americans were willing to try anything.  They were first copiers, then innovators. 1800  41 patents were approved. 1860  4,357 “ “ “ 1800  41 patents were approved. 1860  4,357 “ “ “

42 Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine HCotton gin invented in 1793  50 times more effective than hand picking HRaising cotton more profitable  South needs slavery more than ever for “King Cotton” HNew England factories flourish with Southern cotton

43 H 1807, Fulton's Clermont, was the first commercially successful and reliable steamboat. Steam boat would revolutionize water travel. H The steamboat was often the only mechanical means of river travel and freight transportation from 1808 through 1930. H 1807, Fulton's Clermont, was the first commercially successful and reliable steamboat. Steam boat would revolutionize water travel. H The steamboat was often the only mechanical means of river travel and freight transportation from 1808 through 1930.

44 Economy Leader __________ Role of Government NORTHEAST Business and ManufacturingBusiness and Manufacturing Daniel Webster ____________Daniel Webster ____________ Wanted TariffsWanted Tariffs Backed internal improvementsBacked internal improvements Wanted end to cheap public landWanted end to cheap public land Increasingly nationalisticIncreasingly nationalistic Against Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must abolish it.Against Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must abolish it.

45 SOUTH Cotton growingCotton growing John C. CalhounJohn C. Calhoun_____________ Opposed tariffs and government spending on American SystemOpposed tariffs and government spending on American System Increasingly supportive of states’ rightsIncreasingly supportive of states’ rights Pro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S. Govt. to try and abolish it.Pro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S. Govt. to try and abolish it. Economy Leader __________ Role of Government

46 WEST Frontier agricultureFrontier agriculture Henry ClayHenry Clay_____________ Supported internal improvementsSupported internal improvements Wanted cheap landWanted cheap land Loyal to the U.S. Govt.Loyal to the U.S. Govt. Against slavery but some supported letting the people decide the slavery issueAgainst slavery but some supported letting the people decide the slavery issue Economy Leader __________ Role of Government


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