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Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center

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Presentation on theme: "Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center"— Presentation transcript:

1 Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center
My background PhD In Nuclear Engineering focused on nuclear graphite NRC work Dr. Cameron Goodwin

2 RINSC Reactor Owned by the State 2 MW pool type nuclear reactor
Located on the Bay Campus of URI Used for research, education, and industry services Under utilized Only 31 in the country

3 RINSC Facilities Six beam tubes for neutron experiments
One tangential thru tube A thermal column for thermal neutron use Gamma ray experiment facilities Two pneumatic tube systems for activation analysis A flux trap & adjacent core locations for long irradiations

4 Past and Current Uses High Level Gamma Irradiation Neutron Scattering
Solar Radiation Experiments Neutron Scattering Materials Studies Protein Studies Neutron Activation Analysis Atmospheric Chemistry Cell Tracking / BioMed BioPal Kidney Failure Diagnostics Educational URI Providence College Three Rivers Community College High Schools

5 SMR Licensing Insights

6 What is a SMR? Advanced Reactors
Those reactors whose designs are not similar to the LLW designs SMR is a subset Small modular reactor Less than 300 MW SMRs are envisioned to require limited on-site preparation and substantially reduce the lengthy construction times that are typical of the larger units. Additional modules can be added incrementally as demand for energy increases. Includes iPWR but is not limited to Other designs HTGR SFR LMR The term “modular” refers to the ability to fabricate major components of the nuclear steam supply system in a factory environment and ship to the point of use.


8 Benefits of SMRs SMRs offer the advantage of lower initial capital investment, scalability, and siting flexibility at locations unable to accommodate more traditional larger reactors. Lower Capital Investment Scalability Siting Flexibility Gain Efficiency Lower Capital Investment: Modular components and factory fabrication can reduce construction costs and duration. Scalability: Can add additional units based on needed power Siting Flexibility: SMRs can provide power for applications where large plants are not needed or sites lack the infrastructure to support a large unit. This would include smaller electrical markets, isolated areas, smaller grids, sites with limited water and acreage, or unique industrial applications. SMRs are expected to be attractive options for the replacement or repowering of aging fossil plants, or to provide an option for complementing existing industrial processes or power plants with an energy source that does not emit greenhouse gases. Gain Efficiency: SMRs can be coupled with other energy sources, including renewables and fossil energy, to leverage resources and produce higher efficiencies and multiple energy end-products while increasing grid stability and security. Some advanced SMR designs can produce a higher temperature process heat for either electricity generation or industrial applications.

9 Benefits Cont’d Nonproliferation: SMRs also provide safety and potential nonproliferation benefits to the United States and the wider international community. Most built below grade for safety and security enhancements, addressing vulnerabilities to both sabotage and natural phenomena hazard scenarios. Some designed to operate for extended periods without refueling. International Marketplace: There is both a domestic and international market for SMRs. International Marketplace: There is both a domestic and international market for SMRs, and U.S. industry is well positioned to compete for these markets. DOE hopes that the development of standardized SMR designs will also result in an increased presence of U.S. companies in the global energy market. 

10 iPWR SMR Designs mPower Westinghouse NuScale Holtec

11 mPower Design

12 mPower Review DOE FOA Award
Awarded to the mPower America team of Babcock & Wilcox, Tennessee Valley Authority, and Bechtel, includes efforts to complete design certifications, site characterization, licensing, first-of-a-kind engineering activities, and the associated NRC review processes. The goal of this program is to support commercial operations of an SMR by 2022; the mPower team has developed a plan that expects to achieve a commercial operation date of October 2021. Key Activities for the mPower America team include: Submit Design Certification application to the NRC by mid-2014 for approval by 2018 Perform site characterization at TVA’s Clinch River Site Submit a Construction Permit Application to the NRC by mid-2015 for approval by 2018 Advance the balance of plant design Grow the U.S. based supply chain by mitigating challenges to domestic market entry and broad commercialization

13 mPower and the NRC Pre-application interactions
Public meetings monthly NRC is working on a Design Specific Review Standard (DSRS) Draft is completed Final will be completed by time of application This process compared the mPower design with the current SRP and allowed the NRC reviewers to note differences Chapter 7 completely revised and restructured; Intended to promote efficient, effective risk-informed reviews Top-down approach where greater emphasis is placed on design principles – redundancy, independence, diversity and defense-in-depth, predictability and repeatability Part 50 – Clinch River SRP – Standard Review Plan

14 Westinghouse Design Thermal Output 800 MWt
Electrical Output > 225 MWe Passive Safety Systems No operator intervention required for 7 days Core Design 17x17 Robust Fuel Assembly 8.0 ft / 2.4 m Active Length < 5% Enriched U235 89 Assemblies Soluble Boron and 37 Internal CRDMs 24 Month Refueling Interval

15 Westinghouse SMR Review
Competing for 2nd FOA No announcement as of yet Review expected to begin 2nd Qtr 2014 No DSRS Westinghouse will be relying on SRP Design is smaller version of AP1000 This could increase length of review Pre-application interactions have ramped up since Summer 2013

16 NuScale The NuScale plant uses natural forces to operate and cool the plant. This eliminates the need for many of the large and complex systems required in today’s nuclear plants. This simplicity allows the NuScale Power Module to be factory-built and transported to site. This makes NuScale plants faster to construct, and less expensive to build and operate. Each NuScale Power Module generates 45 megawatts of electrical power. Additional modules can be added, providing scalability as electricity demand grows. This gives customers with smaller power requirements economical, reliable, and carbon-free power in their portfolio. NuScale's 160MW thermal output also makes it a perfect fit for process heat and steam applications, such as refining, desalination, and district heating.

17 NuScale Review Competing for 2nd DOE FOA
Application expected 3rd Qtr 2015 NRC is currently working on developing Draft DSRS Many public meetings are being held for pre-application Biggest hurdle for design is Control Room Staffing

18 Holtec A Holtec Inherently-Safe Modular Underground Reactor (HI-SMUR™) Technology-based power generation system is engineered to provide 160MWe of Safe, Secure, Reliable, Clean energy to support the world's growing population and energy needs.

19 Holtec Review Applied for 2nd DOE FOA Expected 4th Qtr CY16
Limited pre-application interactions at this time

20 NRC’s Advanced Reactor Program
Focused on preparing the agency for reviews of applications related to the design, construction and operation of advanced reactors Identify and resolve significant policy, technical and licensing issues Develop the regulatory framework to support efficient and timely licensing reviews Engage in research focused on key areas to support licensing reviews Engage reactor designers, potential applicants, industry and DOE in meaningful pre-application interactions Establish an advanced reactors training curriculum for NRC staff Remain cognizant of international developments and programs

21 Known SMR Licensing Issues
Emergency Planning Source term Security EPZ Control Room Staffing Control of multiple units Reactor Operator Requirements Control Room Design/Layout Identification of shared systems How to employ PRA Implementation of control system architectures Licensing of construction and operation of subsequent modules with operating modules Annual Fees Modularity Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table

22 Pre-Application Licensing Challenges
Level of design information available in pre-application Ideal Design complete enough to inform all review sections Reality Varying levels of design completion for each review section Potential efficiency gains in review process by working activities in pre-application phase Review process aided by improved documentation in applications (e.g., fewer RAIs) More knowledge about the design Earlier engagement of public stakeholders in the review process Vendor participation required for success Acceptance Review procedure

23 Non-LWR Work Aging workforce at NRC NGNP Review
Little to no non-LWR experience NGNP Review ADAMS Accession No. ML13002A157 Final NRC feedback addresses Licensing basis event selection Naming conventions for event categories Frequency cutoffs for DBE and BDBE regions Proposed process and categorization Mechanistic Source terms DOE/INL’s proposed mechanistic approach is consistent with NRC Commission approved positions

24 Non-LWRs Cont’d Review of GIF SFR Design Criteria Generic GDCs
Containment functional performance NRC staff stated that more fuel testing needed to be performed Emergency preparedness The NRC staff is open to considering alternative treatment of EP for advanced reactors Review of GIF SFR Design Criteria Generic GDCs Since GDCs in Appendix A are specific to light-water reactors (LWRs), this requirement is especially challenging for potential future licensing applicants pursuing advanced (non-LWR) technologies and designs. DOE-NE and NRC agree that consideration should be given to pursuing the following objective: Develop generic GDCs (derived from Appendix A of 10 CFR 50) and develop technology-specific GDCs for at least one reactor type (TBD) to supplement the generic GDCs for compliance with 10 CFR , and The goals adopted by GIF provided the basis for identifying and selecting six nuclear energy systems for further development. The six selected systems employ a variety of reactor, energy conversion and fuel cycle technologies. Their designs feature thermal and fast neutron spectra, closed and open fuel cycles and a wide range of reactor sizes from very small to very large. Depending on their respective degrees of technical maturity, the Generation IV systems are expected to become available for commercial introduction in the period between 2015 and 2030 or beyond.

25 Who to Contact at NRC? SMRs are handled by the Office of New Reactors
Division of Advanced Reactors and Regulations – Mike Mayfield Split into two branches Stu Magruder Anna Bradford Electronic Distribution of SMR Documents Nonproliferation: SMRs also provide safety and potential nonproliferation benefits to the United States and the wider international community. Most SMRs will be built below grade for safety and security enhancements, addressing vulnerabilities to both sabotage and natural phenomena hazard scenarios. Some SMRs will be designed to operate for extendedperiods without refueling. These SMRs could be fabricated and fueled in a factory, sealed and transported to sites for power generation or process heat, and then returned to the factory for defueling at the end of the life cycle. This approach could help to minimize the transportation and handling of nuclear material.

26 Questions?

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