Presentation on theme: "Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center"— Presentation transcript:
1Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center My backgroundPhD In Nuclear Engineering focused on nuclear graphiteNRC workDr. Cameron Goodwin
2RINSC Reactor Owned by the State 2 MW pool type nuclear reactor Located on the Bay Campus of URIUsed for research, education, and industry servicesUnder utilizedOnly 31 in the country
3RINSC Facilities Six beam tubes for neutron experiments One tangential thru tubeA thermal column for thermal neutron useGamma ray experiment facilitiesTwo pneumatic tube systems for activation analysisA flux trap & adjacent core locations for long irradiations
4Past and Current Uses High Level Gamma Irradiation Neutron Scattering Solar Radiation ExperimentsNeutron ScatteringMaterials StudiesProtein StudiesNeutron Activation AnalysisAtmospheric ChemistryCell Tracking / BioMedBioPalKidney Failure DiagnosticsEducationalURIProvidence CollegeThree Rivers Community CollegeHigh Schools
6What is a SMR? Advanced Reactors Those reactors whose designs are not similar to the LLW designsSMR is a subsetSmall modular reactorLess than 300 MWSMRs are envisioned to require limited on-site preparation and substantially reduce the lengthy construction times that are typical of the larger units.Additional modules can be added incrementally as demand for energy increases.Includes iPWR but is not limited toOther designsHTGRSFRLMRThe term “modular” refers to the ability to fabricate major components of the nuclear steam supply system in a factory environment and ship to the point of use.
8Benefits of SMRsSMRs offer the advantage of lower initial capital investment, scalability, and siting flexibility at locations unable to accommodate more traditional larger reactors.Lower Capital InvestmentScalabilitySiting FlexibilityGain EfficiencyLower Capital Investment: Modular components and factory fabrication can reduce construction costs and duration.Scalability: Can add additional units based on needed powerSiting Flexibility: SMRs can provide power for applications where large plants are not needed or sites lack the infrastructure to support a large unit. This would include smaller electrical markets, isolated areas, smaller grids, sites with limited water and acreage, or unique industrial applications. SMRs are expected to be attractive options for the replacement or repowering of aging fossil plants, or to provide an option for complementing existing industrial processes or power plants with an energy source that does not emit greenhouse gases.Gain Efficiency: SMRs can be coupled with other energy sources, including renewables and fossil energy, to leverage resources and produce higher efficiencies and multiple energy end-products while increasing grid stability and security. Some advanced SMR designs can produce a higher temperature process heat for either electricity generation or industrial applications.
9Benefits Cont’dNonproliferation: SMRs also provide safety and potential nonproliferation benefits to the United States and the wider international community.Most built below grade for safety and security enhancements, addressing vulnerabilities to both sabotage and natural phenomena hazard scenarios.Some designed to operate for extended periods without refueling.International Marketplace: There is both a domestic and international market for SMRs.International Marketplace: There is both a domestic and international market for SMRs, and U.S. industry is well positioned to compete for these markets. DOE hopes that the development of standardized SMR designs will also result in an increased presence of U.S. companies in the global energy market.
12mPower Review DOE FOA Award Awarded to the mPower America team of Babcock & Wilcox, Tennessee Valley Authority, and Bechtel, includes efforts to complete design certifications, site characterization, licensing, first-of-a-kind engineering activities, and the associated NRC review processes.The goal of this program is to support commercial operations of an SMR by 2022; the mPower team has developed a plan that expects to achieve a commercial operation date of October 2021.Key Activities for the mPower America team include:Submit Design Certification application to the NRC by mid-2014 for approval by 2018Perform site characterization at TVA’s Clinch River SiteSubmit a Construction Permit Application to the NRC by mid-2015 for approval by 2018Advance the balance of plant designGrow the U.S. based supply chain by mitigating challenges to domestic market entry and broad commercialization
13mPower and the NRC Pre-application interactions Public meetings monthlyNRC is working on a Design Specific Review Standard (DSRS)Draft is completedFinal will be completed by time of applicationThis process compared the mPower design with the current SRP and allowed the NRC reviewers to note differencesChapter 7 completely revised and restructured;Intended to promote efficient, effective risk-informed reviewsTop-down approach where greater emphasis is placed on design principles – redundancy, independence, diversity and defense-in-depth, predictability and repeatabilityPart 50 – Clinch RiverSRP – Standard Review Plan
14Westinghouse Design Thermal Output 800 MWt Electrical Output > 225 MWePassive Safety Systems No operator intervention requiredfor 7 daysCore Design 17x17 Robust Fuel Assembly8.0 ft / 2.4 m Active Length< 5% Enriched U23589 AssembliesSoluble Boron and 37 Internal CRDMs24 Month Refueling Interval
15Westinghouse SMR Review Competing for 2nd FOANo announcement as of yetReview expected to begin 2nd Qtr 2014No DSRSWestinghouse will be relying on SRPDesign is smaller version of AP1000This could increase length of reviewPre-application interactions have ramped up since Summer 2013
16NuScaleThe NuScale plant uses natural forces to operate and cool the plant. This eliminates the need for many of the large and complex systems required in today’s nuclear plants. This simplicity allows the NuScale Power Module to be factory-built and transported to site. This makes NuScale plants faster to construct, and less expensive to build and operate.Each NuScale Power Module generates 45 megawatts of electrical power. Additional modules can be added, providing scalability as electricity demand grows. This gives customers with smaller power requirements economical, reliable, and carbon-free power in their portfolio. NuScale's 160MW thermal output also makes it a perfect fit for process heat and steam applications, such as refining, desalination, and district heating.
17NuScale Review Competing for 2nd DOE FOA Application expected 3rd Qtr 2015NRC is currently working on developing Draft DSRSMany public meetings are being held for pre-applicationBiggest hurdle for design is Control Room Staffing
18HoltecA Holtec Inherently-Safe Modular Underground Reactor (HI-SMUR™) Technology-based power generation system is engineered to provide 160MWe of Safe, Secure, Reliable, Clean energy to support the world's growing population and energy needs.
19Holtec Review Applied for 2nd DOE FOA Expected 4th Qtr CY16 Limited pre-application interactions at this time
20NRC’s Advanced Reactor Program Focused on preparing the agency for reviews of applications related to the design, construction and operation of advanced reactorsIdentify and resolve significant policy, technical and licensing issuesDevelop the regulatory framework to support efficient and timely licensing reviewsEngage in research focused on key areas to support licensing reviewsEngage reactor designers, potential applicants, industry and DOE in meaningful pre-application interactionsEstablish an advanced reactors training curriculum for NRC staffRemain cognizant of international developments and programs
21Known SMR Licensing Issues Emergency PlanningSource termSecurityEPZControl Room StaffingControl of multiple unitsReactor Operator RequirementsControl Room Design/LayoutIdentification of shared systemsHow to employ PRAImplementation of control system architecturesLicensing of construction and operation of subsequent modules with operating modulesAnnual FeesModularityPhenomena Identification and Ranking Table
22Pre-Application Licensing Challenges Level of design information available in pre-applicationIdealDesign complete enough to inform all review sectionsRealityVarying levels of design completion for each review sectionPotential efficiency gains in review process by working activities in pre-application phaseReview process aided by improved documentation in applications (e.g., fewer RAIs)More knowledge about the designEarlier engagement of public stakeholders in the review processVendor participation required for successAcceptance Review procedure
23Non-LWR Work Aging workforce at NRC NGNP Review Little to no non-LWR experienceNGNP ReviewADAMS Accession No. ML13002A157Final NRC feedback addressesLicensing basis event selectionNaming conventions for event categoriesFrequency cutoffs for DBE and BDBE regionsProposed process and categorizationMechanistic Source termsDOE/INL’s proposed mechanistic approach is consistent with NRC Commission approved positions
24Non-LWRs Cont’d Review of GIF SFR Design Criteria Generic GDCs Containment functional performanceNRC staff stated that more fuel testing needed to be performedEmergency preparednessThe NRC staff is open to considering alternative treatment of EP for advanced reactorsReview of GIF SFR Design CriteriaGeneric GDCsSince GDCs in Appendix A are specific to light-water reactors (LWRs), this requirement is especially challenging for potential future licensing applicants pursuing advanced (non-LWR) technologies and designs.DOE-NE and NRC agree that consideration should be given to pursuing the following objective:Develop generic GDCs (derived from Appendix A of 10 CFR 50) and develop technology-specific GDCs for at least one reactor type (TBD) to supplement the generic GDCs for compliance with 10 CFR , andThe goals adopted by GIF provided the basis for identifying and selecting six nuclear energy systems for further development. The six selected systems employ a variety of reactor, energy conversion and fuel cycle technologies. Their designs feature thermal and fast neutron spectra, closed and open fuel cycles and a wide range of reactor sizes from very small to very large. Depending on their respective degrees of technical maturity, the Generation IV systems are expected to become available for commercial introduction in the period between 2015 and 2030 or beyond.
25Who to Contact at NRC? SMRs are handled by the Office of New Reactors Division of Advanced Reactors and Regulations – Mike MayfieldSplit into two branchesStu MagruderAnna BradfordElectronic Distribution of SMR DocumentsNonproliferation: SMRs also provide safety and potential nonproliferation benefits to the United States and the wider international community. Most SMRs will be built below grade for safety and security enhancements, addressing vulnerabilities to both sabotage and natural phenomena hazard scenarios. Some SMRs will be designed to operate for extendedperiods without refueling. These SMRs could be fabricated and fueled in a factory, sealed and transported to sites for power generation or process heat, and then returned to the factory for defueling at the end of the life cycle. This approach could help to minimize the transportation and handling of nuclear material.