Presentation on theme: "American Stories: A History of the United States Second Edition Chapter American Stories: A History of the United States, Second Edition Brands Breen Williams."— Presentation transcript:
American Stories: A History of the United States Second Edition Chapter American Stories: A History of the United States, Second Edition Brands Breen Williams Gross The Republican Experiment 1783–1788 6
Liberty Displaying the Arts and Sciences The Library Company of Philadelphia commissioned this painting by Samuel Jennings in 1792. The broken chain at the feet of the goddess Liberty is meant to demonstrate her opposition to slavery. (Source: The Library Company of Philadelphia.)
The Republican Experiment 1783–1788 Defining Republican Culture Stumbling Toward a New National Government Stumbling Toward a New National Government “Have We Fought for This?” Whose Constitution? Struggle for Ratification
A New Political Morality During 1780s individual states intent on local interest rather than national welfare Washington, Madison concluded the U.S. needed a strong central government Their quest for solutions brought forth new and enduring constitution
Republicanism—new core ideology Uncompromising commitment to liberty and equality Evangelical notions of high public morality
Defining Republican Culture (cont’d) Post-Revolutionary divisions Balancing individual liberty with social order Balancing property rights with equality Varying answers resulted in variety of republican governments
Social and Political Reform Cincinnatus Crisis Changes in laws of inheritance to erase feudal elements Property qualifications for voting reduced Capitals moved to enable better representation for frontier settlers Separation of church and state
Questions of Equality in the New Republic In this illustration, which appeared as the frontispiece in the 1792 issue of The Lady’s Magazine and Repository of Entertaining Knowledge, the “Genius of the Ladies Magazine” and the “Genius of Emulation” (holding in her hand a laurel crown) present to Liberty a petition for the rights of women. (Source: The Library Company of Philadelphia.)
African Americans in the New Republic Abolitionist sentiment spread in wake of the Revolution African American intellectual success made it hard to deny their equality
African Americans in the New Republic (cont’d) African American intellectual success made it hard to deny their equality Benjamin Banneker, math and astronomy Phyllis Wheatley, poetry By 1800, slavery legally dying in North Racism and segregation remained Southerners debated abolition
Phillis Wheatley This engraving of Wheatley appeared in her volume of verse, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral (1773), the first book published by an African American.
The Challenge of Women’s Rights Pre-Revolutionary trend ended tyranny in the family Locke, Some Thoughts Concerning Education Women demanded the natural right of equality
The Challenge of Women’s Rights (cont’d) Nurtured proper values through “Republican Motherhood” Women more assertive in divorce, economic life Denied political and legal rights
Abigail Adams Benjamin Blyth painted this portrait of Abigail Adams, wife of the future President John Adams, c. 1766.
The States: Experiments in Republicanism States create constitutions, 1776 Rhode Island, Connecticut already had republican governments Some later rewritten Basic assumptions Constitutions must be written Premised on natural rights Most state constitutions had declarations of rights
War for independence required coordination among states Central government first created to meet wartime need for coordination
Articles of Confederation Plan for central government Severely limited central government’s authority over states No executive, taxing power Amendments required unanimity Expected to handle foreign, Native American relations No western lands
Western Land: Key to the First Constitution Native Americans lost out when British left Maryland’s ratification of Articles delayed for Virginia’s renunciation of western claims
Western Land: Key to the First Constitution (cont’d) 1781—Virginia took lead in ceding western claims to Congress Other states ceded claims to Congress Congress gained ownership of all land west of Appalachians
Northwest Ordinance: The Confederation’s Major Achievement Northwest Ordinance, 1787 Created three to five new territories in Northwest Population of 5,000 may elect Assembly Population of 60,000 may petition for statehood Bill of Rights, slavery outlawed Daniel Boone and Kentucky
Map 6.1 Northwest Territory The U.S. government auctioned off the land in the Northwest Territory, the region defined by the Ohio River, the Great Lakes, and the Mississippi River. Proceeds from the sale of one section in each township were set aside for the construction of public schools.
By 1785, the country seemed adrift Washington: “Was it with these expectations that we launched into a sea of trouble?”
Map 6.2 Western Land Claims ceded by the states after winning the war, the major issue facing the Continental Congress under the Articles of Confederation was mediating conflicting states’ claims to rich western land. By 1802, the states had ceded all rights to the federal government.
The Genius of James Madison Recognition by 1780s of shortcomings in small state republics Ordinary citizens not virtuous enough for a republic Majority did not preserve the property rights of the minority
The Genius of James Madison (cont’d) Stronger central government gained support James Madison persuaded Americans that large republics could be free and democratic Competing factions would neutralize each other Federalist #10
Constitutional Reform May 1786—Annapolis Convention agreed to meet again, write a new constitution Shay’s Rebellion, 1787 Tax revolt of indebted veterans Symbolized breakdown in law and order as perceived by propertied classes Crisis strengthened support for new central government
Shays’s Rebellion This 1787 woodcut portrays Daniel Shays with one of his chief officers, Jacob Shattucks. Shays led farmers in western Massachusetts in revolt against a state government that seemed insensitive to the needs of poor debtors. Their rebellion frightened conservative leaders, who demanded a strong new federal government.
The Philadelphia Convention Convened May 1787 Fifty-five delegates from all states except Rhode Island Delegates possessed wide practical experience Secrecy rule imposed Vote by state, needed only a majority instead of nine states
Inventing a Federal Republic Central government may veto all state acts Bicameral legislature of state representatives One house elected, the other appointed Larger states would have more representatives Chief executive appointed by Congress Small states objected to large-state dominance
Compromise Saves the Convention Each state given two delegates in the Senate—a victory for the small states House of Representatives based on population—a victory for the large states All money bills must originate in the House Three-fifths of the slave population counted toward representation in the House
The Last Details July 26—Committee of Detail formed to prepare rough draft Revisions to executive Electoral College selects president Executive given a veto over legislation Executive may appoint judges Decision that Bill of Rights unnecessary
We the People Convention sought to bypass vested interests of state legislatures Power of ratification to special state conventions Constitution to go into effect on approval by nine state conventions Phrase “We the People” made Constitution a government of the people, not the states
Supporters recognized the Constitution went beyond the Convention’s mandate Document referred to states with no recommendation
Federalists and Antifederalists Federalists supported the Constitution The Federalist Papers Antifederalists opposed the Constitution Suspected the new Constitution favored the rich and powerful Their ideas later reflected in the age of Andrew Jackson
TABLE 6.1 Revolution or Reform? The Articles of Confederation and the Constitution Compared
Adding the Bill of Rights The fruit of anti-Federalist activism Adding Bill of Rights forestalled Second Constitutional Convention Purpose was to protect individual rights from government interference
Adding the Bill of Rights (cont’d) Rights included: Freedom of assembly, speech, religion, the press, and bearing arms Speedy trial by a jury of peers No unreasonable searches First ten amendments added by December 1791
Map 6.3 Ratification of the Constitution Advocates of the new Constitution called themselves Federalists, and those who opposed its ratification were known as Antifederalists.