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Development of Alternatives to the Use of Freshwater Low Value Fish for Aquaculture in the Lower Mekong Basin of Cambodia and Vietnam: Implications for.

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Presentation on theme: "Development of Alternatives to the Use of Freshwater Low Value Fish for Aquaculture in the Lower Mekong Basin of Cambodia and Vietnam: Implications for."— Presentation transcript:

1 Development of Alternatives to the Use of Freshwater Low Value Fish for Aquaculture in the Lower Mekong Basin of Cambodia and Vietnam: Implications for Livelihoods, Production and Markets Lead Institution: University of Connecticut

2 Project Team Robert Pomeroy, University of Connecticut Sylvain De Guise, University of Connecticut Tessa Getchis, University of Connecticut David Bengtson, University of Rhode Island Chong Lee, University of Rhode Island So Nam, Inland Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Phnom Penh, Cambodia (IFRDI) Prum Somany (IFRDI) Hap Navy (IFRDI) Tran Thi Thanh Hien, College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Cantho University, Vietnam (CTU) Le Xuan Sinh (CTU)

3 Development Theme Enhanced Trade Opportunities for Global Fishery Markets

4 Introduction In the Mekong River region, many capture fisheries resources have been largely overexploited and, as a result, development of aquaculture has been encouraged to provide the protein, income, employment and export earnings for some countries. There is increasing demand and trade in the region for low value/trash fish for both aquaculture and animal feeds.

5 Introduction

6 Introduction There is a general concern that the rapid expansion of aquaculture may ultimately be constrained by the dependence on low value/trash fish and fish meal, popularly referred to as the “fish meal trap”. There is also increasing conflict between the use of low value/trash fish for feed and for human consumption.

7 Goal The goal of this project is for sustainable freshwater aquaculture development in the Lower Mekong basin region of Cambodia and Vietnam, taking into consideration the balancing of social, economic and environmental/natural resource needs and implications. The main driver of this project is the continued expansion of aquaculture and its dependency on capture fisheries for low value/trash fish for feed.

8 Investigations This project will address this issue through five investigations to: analyze supply and demand and support policy development addressing aquaculture/capture fisheries interactions; analyze supply and demand and support policy development addressing aquaculture/capture fisheries interactions; assessing the abundance and status of low value/trash fish fisheries and develop management; assessing the abundance and status of low value/trash fish fisheries and develop management; development of alternative feeds and feeding strategies; development of alternative feeds and feeding strategies; outreach and feed technology adoption; and outreach and feed technology adoption; and trade and value-added product development. trade and value-added product development.

9 Investigations The focus of this project is equally on the aquaculture of carnivorous fish and the management of lower value/trash fish. Investigations 1, 2 and 5 address the uses and bioecological characteristics of low value/trash fish. Investigations 3 and 4 address alternative feeds for freshwater aquaculture and feed technology adoption.

10 Investigations Investigation 1 Competition and impacts between use of low value/trash fish for aquaculture feed versus use for human food Topic Area 1: Marketing, Economic Risk Assessment, and Trade This investigation is a study Subcontracting Partner Institution: College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Cantho University, Vietnam (CTU) Host Country PIs: Dr. Le Xuan Sinh, College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, CTU, Vietnam Mrs. Hap Navy, Inland Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Phnom Penh, Cambodia Objective: The objective of the study is to describe and analyze the status and trend of supply and demand of low value/trash fish, and to assess the impacts of utilization of low value/trash fish in aquaculture on food security and livelihoods of households in the lower Mekong basin of Cambodia and Vietnam. A second objective is to support development of a policy framework addressing aquaculture/capture fisheries interactions, the sustainable exploitation and use of low value/trash fish in the lower Mekong basin, and human food security issues.

11 Accomplishments to Date #1 Collection of secondary data and information Collection of secondary data and information Collection of primary data from 5 target groups: fishers, traders, users, Snakehead fish farmers, KIP, and also group discussion. Collection of primary data from 5 target groups: fishers, traders, users, Snakehead fish farmers, KIP, and also group discussion. Vietnam: Surveys are conducted in 8 provinces, of which An Giang, Dong Thap, and Can Tho are major provinces, 50% of field work has been done. Vietnam: Surveys are conducted in 8 provinces, of which An Giang, Dong Thap, and Can Tho are major provinces, 50% of field work has been done. Cambodia: 4 provinces in Cambodia (Kandal, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang & Siem Reap) will be surveyed. Cambodia: 4 provinces in Cambodia (Kandal, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang & Siem Reap) will be surveyed. Integration of questionnaires with Investigations 2 & 4. Integration of questionnaires with Investigations 2 & 4. Two trips of project leader & 3 trips of foreign partners (US & Cambodian PIs) to Vietnam. Two trips of project leader & 3 trips of foreign partners (US & Cambodian PIs) to Vietnam. Two BSc students finished their study and graduated. Two BSc students finished their study and graduated. Two master students and 9 BSc students are supported for their thesis by participating in the surveys. Two master students and 9 BSc students are supported for their thesis by participating in the surveys.

12 Investigations Investigation 2 Title: Assessment of diversity and bio-ecological characteristics of low value/trash fish species Topic Area 2: Mitigating Negative Environmental Impacts This is a study type of investigation Subcontracting Partner Institution: Inland Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Phnom Penh, Cambodia Host Country PIs: Dr. So Nam, Inland Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Phnom Penh, Cambodia Dr. Le Xuan Sinh, College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Cantho University, Vietnam Objectives: The overall objective of this study is to investigate the environmental impacts of aquaculture development in the Lower Mekong Basin of Cambodia and Vietnam as the biodiversity “hotspot” areas, and to research into potential negative impacts of aquaculture operations on wild fish species diversity and their stocks (i.e. populations).

13 Accomplishments to Date #2 Questionnaires development, testing and revisions Questionnaires development, testing and revisions The field data and information were collected by using four questionnaires in Cambodia and two questionnaires in Vietnam Full field interviews and research Full field interviews and research Seven full surveys were conducted in seven provinces in Cambodia (Kandal, Prey Veng, Phnom Penh, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Battambang and Siem Reap), and surveys are being conducted in three provinces in Vietnam (Cantho, Dong Thap and An Giang) Fish identification and catch composition analysis Fish identification and catch composition analysis Analysis of small-sized fish caught by stationary trawl-net or bag-net (i.e. dai in Khmer) in Tonle Sap River, Cambodia. M.Sc. and B.Sc. Student supervision M.Sc. and B.Sc. Student supervision 1 M.Sc. and 3 B.Sc. students have graduated with the support of AquaFish CRSP

14 Investigations Investigation 3 Title: Alternative Feeds for Freshwater Aquaculture Species Topic Area 3: Sustainable Feed Technology Investigation is a study Lead PI: Dr. David Bengtson, Professor and Chair, Department of Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Rhode Island Subcontracting Partner Institution: College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Cantho University, Vietnam Host Country PI: Dr. Tran Thi Thanh Hien, Vice-Dean, College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Cantho University Objective: The objective of the study is the development of cost-effective alternative feeds for carnivorous freshwater species to replace or reduce the dependence on low value/trash fish.

15 Accomplishments to Date #3 Breeding and nursing of snake head (Channa striata) and from fry to fingerling stage for the experiments Breeding and nursing of snake head (Channa striata) and from fry to fingerling stage for the experiments Collected low value/trash fish samples and classify main species at An Giang province Collected low value/trash fish samples and classify main species at An Giang province Experiment on replacement of FM protein with SBM and supplementary phytase and taurine in diets “to evaluate replacement level of fish meal by soybean meal in diets for snake head (Channa striata) Experiment on replacement of FM protein with SBM and supplementary phytase and taurine in diets “to evaluate replacement level of fish meal by soybean meal in diets for snake head (Channa striata) Carrying out using rice bran experiment in diets for snake head (Channa striata) Carrying out using rice bran experiment in diets for snake head (Channa striata) Carrying out weaning pellet for Channa micropeltes Carrying out weaning pellet for Channa micropeltes Students continued their study (BS and MSC levels) Students continued their study (BS and MSC levels)

16 Investigations Investigation 4 Title: Feed Technology Adoption and Policy Development for Fisheries Management Topic Area 4: Technology Adoption and Policy Development This is an activity type of investigation (b) Lead PI: Tessa Getchis, Connecticut Sea Grant, University of Connecticut-Avery Point, Groton, CT USA. Sub-contracting Partner Institution: Inland Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Phnom Penh, Cambodia Host Country PIs: Dr. Prum Somany, Inland Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Phnom Penh, Cambodia Dr. Le Xuan Sinh, College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Cantho University, Vietnam Objective: The overall objective of this activity is to develop appropriate feed technology and provide technology related information to end-users of aquaculture and aquatic resources to change their use patterns.

17 Accomplishments to Date #4 Reviewed related literature: on fish processing technologies and existing practical aquaculture technologies Reviewed related literature: on fish processing technologies and existing practical aquaculture technologies Train team members: to build capacity on questionnaire formulation, data collection methodology, data analysis, and basic photography. Train team members: to build capacity on questionnaire formulation, data collection methodology, data analysis, and basic photography. Revised Questionnaire: pre-testing the questionnaires and integration with the questionnaires of investigation # 2 (in Cambodia and Vietnam and #5 (in Cambodia only). Revised Questionnaire: pre-testing the questionnaires and integration with the questionnaires of investigation # 2 (in Cambodia and Vietnam and #5 (in Cambodia only). Data Collection: During December 2008 – February 2009 in seven project sites Kandal Province, Municipal Phnom Penh, Prey Veng Province, Kampong Cham Province, Kampong Chhnang Province, Battambang Province, and Siem Reap Province. Trip to Vietnam: travel with Dr. So Nam to Can Tho University in January to cooperate with the Vietnamese counterpart to make preliminary assessment of the project sites and to develop and pre-test questionnaires in Vietnamese language. Trip to Vietnam: travel with Dr. So Nam to Can Tho University in January to cooperate with the Vietnamese counterpart to make preliminary assessment of the project sites and to develop and pre-test questionnaires in Vietnamese language.

18 Investigations Investigation 5 Title: Maximizing the utilization of low value or small size fish for human consumption through appropriate value added product development Topic Area: Food safety and value-added product development This investigation is a study. Lead PI: Dr. Robert Pomeroy, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics/CT Sea Grant, University of Connecticut- Avery Point, Groton, CT, USA Subcontracting Partner Institution: Inland Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Phnom Penh, Cambodia Host Country PI: Dr. So Nam, Inland Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Phnom Penh, Cambodia Objective: The overall objective of this study is to ensure high quality, safe and nutritious low value or small-size fish processed products for local consumers and the competitive international markets.

19 Literature reviews Literature reviews All relevant literature regarding fish processing and marking were reviewed Questionnaires development, testing and revisions The field data and information on SSF processing technologies, BMPs, and marketing and trade were collected by using 6 questionnaires Full field interviews and research Full field interviews and research Five full surveys were conducted in five provinces Kandal, Prey Veng, Phnom Penh, Battambang and Siem Reap B.Sc. And M.Sc. students research thesis supervision B.Sc. And M.Sc. students research thesis supervision 2 M.Sc. students are following M.Sc. Program and conducting their thesis research, and 1 B.Sc. has got her B.Sc. degree under the support of AquaFish CRSP. Accomplishments to Date #5

20 Funding for this research was provided by the C OLLABORATIVE R ESEARCH S UPPORT P ROGRAM The AquaFish CRSP is funded in part by United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Cooperative Agreement No. EPP-A and by US and Host Country partners. The contents of this presentation do not necessarily represent an official position or policy of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Mention of trade names or commercial products in this presentation does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use on the part of USAID or the AquaFish Collaborative Research Support Program. The accuracy, reliability, and originality of the work presented are the responsibility of the individual authors.


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