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©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers 1600–1660 CHAPTER 2 EUROPEAN FOOTHOLDS ON THE FRINGES OF NORTH AMERICA CREATED EQUAL JONES WOOD MAY BORSTELMANN RUIZ
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers “There is under our noses, the great & ample countrey of Virginia.” Richard Hakluyt, England’s leading advocate of overseas expansion, 1599
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers TIMELINE 1601Drought 1602Dutch East India Company founded Champlain devotes himself to exploring the St. Lawrence River region 1603Queen Elizabeth I dies; James I takes crown 1605Oñate and his new “Mexico” province 1606Virginia Company chartered 1607Jamestown founded 1608Champlain establish Quebec 1610 Capital of New Mexico created at Sante Fe John Rolfe comes to Jamestown 1611John Rolfe begins planting Orinoco tobacco King James version of Bible published
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers TIMELINE continued 1612Francisco de Pareja publishes bilingual confessional 1613Bermuda becomes a tobacco colony 1614John Rolfe marries Pocahontas 1620The Mayflower arrives in Cape Cod 1621Dutch West India Company controls New Netherland 1622Opechancanough attacks English at James River 1625Charles I inherits English crown 1627Cardinal Richelieu presses for new French settlements in Canada 1629The Massachusetts Bay Company founded 1630New Amsterdam’s population is Disease kills 10,000 Iroquois in 5 years 1632Dutch seize Brazil 1634Dutch seize Curaçao, Venezuela Calvert founds Maryland
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers TIMELINE continued 1635Jesuits establish a college in Quebec 1637Pequot War 1641Dutch take Malacca from Portuguese 1642Dutch in Tasmania and New Zealand 1643Dutch at the northern coast of Japan 1644Rhode Island granted a charter 1647Indians stage revolt in Apalachee 1649Hurons attacked by Dutch traders Charles I beheaded Act Concerning Religion 1652Dutch establish colony at Cape Town 1656 Indian uprising in Timucua, north central Florida
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers TIMELINE continued 1660English control: Barbardos, Providence Island, Antigua, Jamaica Dutch control: St. Maarten, St. Eustacius, Saba, Curaçao French control: Guadeloupe, Martinique, Grenada, St. Lucia
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers EUROPEAN FOOTHOLDS Overview HSpain’s Ocean-Spanning Reach HFrance and Holland HEnglish Beginnings HThe Puritan Experiment HChesapeake Bay Colonies
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers SPAIN’S OCEAN-SPANNING REACH HVizcaíno in California and Japan HOñate Creates a Spanish Foothold in the Southwest HNew Mexico Survives: New Flocks Among Old Pueblos HConversion and Rebellion in Spanish Florida
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers HThe Spanish Southwest in the early 16th Century
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Vizcaíno in California and Japan HApril 1607 Vizcaíno given charge of creating outpost for Spain in Monterey Bay HVizcaíno goes in search of fabled cities and lands in Japan. He brings back Japanese delegates. Due to the Japanese fear of being Christianized, the relationship never developed fully. HVizcaíno venture to Japan spent the funds meant for Monterey Bay, as well as the daunting cliffs of the west coast which discouraged landing on mainland. The Spanish reconsidered overexpanding their reach.
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Oñate Creates a Spanish Foothold in the Southwest H1598 Oñate established a province in New Mexico HDifficulties: drought, embittered Indians, harsh conditions. Settlers abandon the settlement and return to Mexico HOñate goes west to look for Pacific. In 1605 he mistakes the Gulf of California for the ocean. Food in short supply. HIn 1608 Spain’s threats to withdraw are countered with Franciscan’s appeal for the converts they had found. Many Indians looking for food and protection had converted to Christianity. New Mexico is allowed to remain a Spanish colony.
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers New Mexico Survives: New Flocks Among Old Pueblos H1610 capital of Sante Fe established H Franciscan friars with missions in 35 pueblos HSpanish brought new crops, and livestock to the Pueblos, but also disease. Pueblos population more than halved by 1680.
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Conversion and Rebellion in Spanish Florida H1608: Spain decides to continue colony in Florida to amass more converts. HFranciscans focus on literacy and publish bilingual confessional: Castilian and Timucuan, the native language. HSmallpox claims more victims of Native Americans, than Franciscans’ claim converts. H1647: Indians at Apalachee revolt. Spain reacts and 12 rebel leaders executed. H1656: Indian uprising in north central Florida takes Spanish months to subdue.
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers FRANCE AND HOLLAND: OVERSEAS COMPETITION FOR SPAIN HThe Founding of New France HCompeting for the Beaver Trade HA Dutch Colony on the Hudson River H“All Sorts of Nationalities”: Diverse New Amsterdam
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Founding of New France HThe beaver hat helps expand trading with Canada HThe religious strife ends in France with the Henry IV’s Edict of Nantes, allowing more focus for exploration. HChamplain: explores the St. Lawrence Region from 1602 to HIn 1608 Quebec is established as an outpost for France. H1609: Champlain builds coalition with the Algonquin and Huron Indians against the Iroquois. This relationship benefits both French and Indians. H1627: Cardinal Richelieu tries to build Roman Catholic settlements in Canada. English privateers stymie his plans and take Quebec for several years. After French retain control of Quebec, Richelieu offers French Catholic lords strips of land.
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Competing for the Beaver Trade HThe Mourning Wars/The Beavers HThe Iroquois battle the French and Hurons; trading fur with the Dutch for more arms. HJesuits establish base at St. Marie with Hurons, but disease claims much of the population. HIroquois attack Hurons and Jesuits in March HIroquois then turn attention to St. Lawrence valley, and New France’s survival is threatened.
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers A Dutch Colony on the Hudson River H1621: The Dutch West Indies Company claims New Netherland HPeter Minuit purchases Manhattan Island from local Indians to consolidate the Dutch settlement and granting land to patroons along the Hudson River
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers “All Sorts of Nationalities”: Diverse New Amsterdam HPeter Stuyvesant rules New Netherland until HStuyvesant tries to stifle Quakers, but Flushing Long Island makes stand: “Whether Presbyterian, Independent, Baptist or Quaker, let every man stand and fall to his own.” HDiverse New Amsterdam: HAfrican slaves, half-free, and some free. Jewish community. Huguenots, Swedes, Finns, English.
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers HEuropean and Native American Contact in the Northeast
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers ENGLISH BEGINNINGS ON THE ATLANTIC COAST HThe Virginia Company and Jamestown H“Starving Time” and the Lure of Tobacco HLaunching the Plymouth Colony
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Virginia Company and Jamestown H1599: “Great and ample” Virginia. The English claimed from current Vermont to Carolina’s Outer Banks. H1606: James I charters the Virginia Company. HLondon merchants to colonize Chesapeake Bay region. HJamestown H1607: 105 English men arrive to find 13,000 Powhatans. HThe first winter, with harsh conditions, kill half of the settlers HJohn Smith governs briefly HShares sold: 100 acres when investment matured in HWest Country English to colonize the northern area of the coast HThe failed Sagadahoc settlement
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers “Starving Time” and the Lure of Tobacco H1609: 500 settlers (men and women) arrive in Chesapeake. By 1610, only 60 remain after the “starving time” HAn infusion of new settlers convinces the remaining 60 to try again HJohn Rolfe plants Orinoco tobacco in 1611, and by 1612 the production began to soar H2000 pounds in 1615 H40,000 in 1620 H1,500,000 pounds in 1626 HThe need for labor to work the corps infuses Jamestown’s population with apprentices, servants, London street children and slaves
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Launching the Plymouth Colony HThe Virginia Company awards patents to private groups. HSeptember, 1620, English Separatists from Dutch city of Leiden embark on the Mayflower HNovember they disembark around Cape Cod and begin to establish the Plymouth Plantation HAlthough confronted with hardships, they maintain peaceful relations with the Massasoit Indians and enjoy a thanksgiving feast together.
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers THE PURITAN EXPERIMENT HFormation of the Massachusetts Bay Company H“We Shall Be As a City Upon a Hill” HDissenters: Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson HExpansion and Violence: The Pequot War
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Formation of the Massachusetts Bay Company H1626: Law that prohibits preaching or writing on controversial religious topics is introduced and aimed at the Puritan movement HThe marriage of Charles I to a Catholic and the persecution at the hand of the Archbishop of Canterbury spurs the Puritans along with some entrepreneurs to obtain a chapter and form the Massachusetts Bay Company.
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers “We Shall Be As a City Upon a Hill” HThe Arbella and 17 other ships in 1630 brings John Winthrop and 1000 English people to New England. HWinthrops’ “A Model of Christian Charity” lays out the values that will enable the Puritans to set an example for the rest of the world to follow. HBoston is established and Winthrop chosen as Governor HThe influx of English to the New World: H1634: 4000 English come to New World H1642: 20,000 English come to New World HEnglish outposts in Hartford and Springfield
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Dissenters: Roger Williams HA Separatist in Boston, Williams believed: HIn separation of church and state to protect the church HLand patents from the king had no validity HSettlers should purchase land from Native Americans HWilliams is banished, and builds a refuge for dissenters he calls Providence HHe is granted a charter in 1644 for his colony, Rhode Island
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Dissenters: Anne Hutchinson HHutchinson is prompted by her “divine revelation to follow her minister, John Cotton, to New England. HIn Boston, Hutchinson holds weekly religious discussion meetings. She stresses direct communication with God as the avenue to personal forgiveness. HLabeled an Antinomian (“against law”), the movement grows and they displace Winthrop from the governorship in HThe Puritans establish Harvard College to educate ministers, and eventually tried Hutchinson and banished her. HIn exile Hutchinson moves to Rhode Island and then to a settlement along the Hudson. She and her family are killed by Indians in 1643.
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Expansion and Violence: The Pequot War HThe Puritans expand into New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut displacing and crowding the Native American population HEnglish recruit the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes to wage war against the Pequots. H400 Pequots massacred at Mystic, CT HThe following years, Native Americans negotiate away land and are “saved” by the English Protestants.
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers THE CHESAPEAKE BAY COLONIES HThe Demise of the Virginia Company HMaryland: The Catholic Refuge
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Demise of the Virginia Company HOpechancanough leads the Pamunkey tribe in an assault on a beleaguered Jamestown March, settlers are lost. HThe conflict leads to 10 years of war H1624: King James annuls the Virginia Company’s charter H1646: Opechancanough captured and shot HPamunkeys and Powhatans submit to English and pay a yearly fee to live on their land. H1660: 25,000 colonists live hear Chesapeake Bay
©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Maryland: The Catholic Refuge HCalvert settles Maryland with a grant from Charles I for 10 million acres. HBoth Catholic and Protestants. 1649, Maryland’s assembly passes an Act Concerning Religion guaranteeing toleration for all who believed in Jesus Christ. H1650, Puritans take control and repeal the act, but by 1660, the Stuart monarchy brings back proprietary rule.
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