Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 American Life in the Seventeenth Century The Unhealthy Chesapeake Area Harsh Wilderness Lifestyle Many diseases Life expectancy for many was."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 4 American Life in the Seventeenth Century The Unhealthy Chesapeake Area Harsh Wilderness Lifestyle Many diseases Life expectancy for many was 50 Chesapeake area had a 6-1 ration of males to females Many children born out of wedlock Virginia most populated colony Elisha Woodbury’s Grave…typhoid fever victim in 1750
The Tobacco Economy Much tobacco cultivation in Chesapeake Bay area Much early tobacco cultivated by indentured servants Earned freedom dues at en of indenture Indentured servant contract
The Head right System Under this system, if an aristocrat sponsored an indentured servant’s passage to America, the aristocrat earned the right to purchase 50 acres. This system created large plantations and less available land for the poorer colonial immigrants Head right historical marker and records
Frustrated Freemen and Bacon’s Rebellion From 1675 to 1676, Nathaniel Bacon led a group of indentured laborers—both black and white—who were frustrated with their economic plight, in a series of raids against nearby Indians to confiscate their land. The rebels soon turned their anger against wealthy Virginia planters, who quickly recognized the potential for widespread unrest. Shortly after Bacon died in 1676, the revolt collapsed. Recognizing the need for a permanent indentured labor force, Virginia's planters and colonial leaders strengthened a system of African slavery that survived for nearly two hundred more years. Then, in the middle of the rebellion, Bacon suddenly died of disease, and Berkeley went on to crush the uprising. Still Bacon’s legacy lived on, in America would the poor take action? see American Anthropological Association / Race Project
Result of Bacon’s Rebellion Bacon's Epitaph, made by his Man" is called the first American poem, and eulogizes Nathaniel Bacon, leader of Bacon's Rebellion in 1675-76. Some historians interpret the rebellion as a proto-democratic movement against Governor Berkeley's autocratic regime. Others see it as merely a pretext to seize Indian land. Image rights owned by the Virginia Historical Society. Do not use without permission.
Chattel Colonial Slavery Roughly a half million slaves were brought to America. Ten Million to the “New World”. Most slaves were from West Africa. By 1750 African Slaves are very populous in the Southern colonies. Slave Codes created hereditary slavery (matriarchal). Some slaves purchased their freedom and became slaveholders themselves.
The Triangular Trade A ship would leave New England with rum and go to the Gold Coast of Africa and trade it for African Slaves. Then travel on the middle passage to the West Indies where slaves would be exchanged for molasses, which in turn would be sold /traded in New England to make the rum. On the Middle Passage the death rate was very high.
Africans in America The “Deep South” where rice was cultivated was extremely harsh for slaves Slavery existed in all colonies at one point Slave communities existed at slave quarters Some slaves became skilled artisans but most were relegated to working on plantations by way of task or gang system
Early slave revolts Slave protests took many forms. These included outright rebellion or subtle attempts to harm masters. For example, working slower, getting sick, or sabotaging food. Outright revolts occurred. Examples would be in 1712 in New York City, or at the Stono River rebellion in 1739 in South Carolina.
Punishments for slaves were harsh and cruel For disobeying one’s master slaves were whipped, hung, skinned or cat hauled. Slave families were often disbanded by sale. Rape occurred often from white masters.
Early Abolitionist Abolitionism means the abolishment of slavery. Early on, many individuals advocated abolitionism. Abolitionist literature included some former slave “autobiography”. Charles Ball The Life of a Former Slave
Southern Society Socioeconomic class society Highest class was planter class (First Families of Virginia). This class often owned 100 or more slaves and dominated the House of Burgesses. Plantation House
Southern society Large planter class was followed by small farmers, merchants, and skilled artisans. Next came indentured servants, “po white trash”, free slaves, slaves and finally Native Americans.
The New England Family In contrast to the southern situation, New England had strong family ties. Women had many children. However, there was a high infant mortality rate. New England husbands maintained much control over their wives and children. Strict laws.
Life in the New England Towns A town consisted of a meetinghouse surrounded by houses, village green and cemetery. Towns of fifty families had a “Little Red Schoolhouse”. Towns with 100 families required a secondary school.
New England Towns Early Colleges Harvard was established to train ministers in 1636. William and Mary was established in 1693 in Virginia. Brown, and later Pembroke for women, was established in Rhode Island. Harvard’s oldest building is Massachusett’s Hall
The Half Way Covenant and “jeremiads” Half -Way Covenant As Puritans began to worry about their children being loyal to faith ministers announced that all people could come to church even if they were not “visible saints”. Did this approach “delude” religion and hinder the “Old Deluder” law? The “jeremiad” In “jeremiad” sermons earnest preachers scolded their congregations about their waning piety and waning faith. May have paved the way for Great Awakening ministers in colonial America
Salem Witch Trials In the early 1690s, a group of Salem girls claimed to have been bewitched by certain older women. A hysterical witch-hunt followed that led to the execution of 20 people and two dogs. (Similar events had been occurring in Europe). After a year and a half the hysteria died down.
New England way of life Less ethnically mixed than other colonies. Rivers were short and rapid. This will lead to Rhode Island being the birthplace of Industrial Revolution. The rocky soil led to small farms rather than large plantations (why slavery not instituted). Also led to the rock walls of New England. Stone wall near Coventry High School And Blackstone River Canal historic area
Early settlers’ Days and ways Sun up to sun down work. Unless an event was “worth a candle”. Not a lot of extravagant living. Fishing, whaling, ship building, furniture maker were the big industries. Goddard Townshed family furniture of Newport
Gold Mines of New England Cod fish New Bedford whaling
Rhode Island Slave Trade The Dewolf Family of Bristol Rhode Island