Presentation on theme: "The New England Colonies"— Presentation transcript:
1The New England Colonies New HampshireMassachusettsRhode IslandConnecticut
2Geographical, Political, Economic, Religious, and Social Aspects New England ColoniesGeographical, Political, Economic,Religious, and Social Aspects
3New England Colonies “Why is New England, called New England?” NEW territories of England,the “mother country”
4Where is New England?Located in the northeast region of the USA
5New England Colonies, 1650Which colony was founded first?
6New England Geography Rocky Soil Natural Harbors Jagged Coastlines Harsh wintersShort growing season
7Life in the New England colonies was not easy! New England GeographyLife in the New England colonies was not easy!subsistence farming-colonists produced just enoughfood for themselves.Farmers practiced subsistence farming.
8New England Economy Shipbuilding Lumbering 2,500 trees = 1 ship Farming in the New England colonies was a challenge.Due to the lack of good farming soil, fishermen were able to get enough fish to sell and make a living.oak trees made excellent ship hullsHundred-foot-tall white pines were ideal for masts.2,500 trees = 1 ship
9New England Economy Whaling and Fishing Fur Trading Whale oil was used to make commodities such as soap and candles.Fur Trading
10Whale Oil LampWhale oil illuminated the homes and businesses of colonial America
11New England Economy Three types of trade: Trade with other colonies Direct exchange of goods with EuropeTriangular TradeNew England settlers engaged in three types of trade. First was the trade with other colonies. Second was the direct exchange of goods with Europe. The third type was the triangular trade.
12men and women who would work for a specified period of time, usually several years, beforegaining their freedom.
13Dairy cattle, sheep and pigs courtesy of the Columbian Exchange
14New England Economy Colonists made their own clothes and shoes. In the late 1700's shoemakers began to set up shops in villages and passed on their trade through apprentices.
15New England Government Town meetings- the act of a group of individuals gathering together to make decisionsColonial AssembliesMayflower Compact, 1620F.O.C., 1636The Puritan started this form of a representative government.opportunity for discussion of public problemsNew England Meeting house
16New England Society White Protestant society Puritans Pilgrims (separatists)
17Massachusetts Recap Colony: Plymouth Founder: William Bradford Year: 1620Reason: Religious freedom for SeparatistsPlymouth Colony Seal
18Separatists(Pilgrims) wanting to break free from the Anglican Church or the Church of England.Separatists (Pilgrims) leaving Holland, we read this description: "Fugitives for Conscience Sake - Leaving the Flemish Coast for America."
19Mayflower Compact, 1620The first step towards self-government in America.
20Embarkation of the Pilgrims The prominence of women and children suggests the importance of the family in the community.Painting by Robert W. Weir (1844)
21Massachusetts Bay Colony ”city upon a hill"Colony: Massachusetts BayFounder: John WinthropYear: 1630Reason: Religious freedom for Puritans In 1628, Puritans formed the Massachusetts Bay Company
22What is a Puritan?They wanted to change the Church of England. They did not want to separate from the Church like the Pilgrims. The Puritans wanted to make the Church of England more "pure."
23Puritan Values Puritans were demanding of their followers Strong work ethicDetermination in the face of challenges
24Rhode Island, 1636 Founder: Roger Williams Founding Year: 1636 Reason for Founding: Religious freedomSome people in Massachusetts disliked Puritan leaders’ beliefs. Therefore, those people either moved out of Massachusetts by themselves or were banished.
25“The Constitution State” Connecticut, 1639“The Constitution State”Thomas HookerMost settlers were PuritansOne of the most important migrations from the mother colony was led by the great Thomas Hooker to Hartford, Connecticut.Connecticut is considered the borderline from New England colonies and the Middle Colonies.A group of individuals led by Thomas Hooker left the Massachusetts Bay Colony due to dissatisfaction with harsh rules and settled in the Connecticut River Valley. In 1639, three settlements joined to form a unified government creating a document called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, the first written constitution in America. King Charles II officially united Connecticut as a single colony in 1662.
26“Journeying through the Wilderness from Plymouth to Hartford, in 1636” - Frederic Edwin Church
27Fundamental Orders of Connecticut 1639The first written constitution in America.Focuses on 5 main ideas towards the people of ConnecticutThe first main point included that people would be able to choose they're leader in government.The second point expresses the idea of no taxes unless there are people to represent against and for these taxes in government.The third idea sets the limits of how many representatives can be in the government, which is based on the population.The fourth idea gives the right to vote for all people who take oaths to be faithful to Connecticut.The final idea is that any new towns that are made in the colony of Connecticut could be joined together to make one giant government.
29The Bigger Ideas Each settlement is for a specific belief. There is a large variety of beliefs in New England colonies.
30Checking for Understanding What was the motivation, or reason, behind the development of the New England, colonies?Profit and TradeReligious FreedomTo find a Northwest PassageNone of the aboveConnecticut and Rhode IslandB Religious Freedom
31True or FalseDisagreements over religious beliefs led to the formation of a number of new colonies.True
32True or FalseRoger Williams founded the colony of ConnecticutFalse
33True or FalseThe Protestant work ethic was important in all New England colonies.True
34True or FalseThe economy of the American colonies depended on the geography of the region.True
35The Middle Colonies Delaware New Jersey Pennsylvania New York Also known as the Mid-Atlantic ColoniesDelawareNew JerseyPennsylvaniaNew York
36Mid-Atlantic Geography RiversFertile SoilAtlantic CoastLonger growing season
37Mid-Atlantic Economy Industry Diversified- Iron Ore Colonial Nails having a varietyIndustryIronworksShipbuildingIron OreColonial NailsThe mountains of the west provided iron ore for iron workers.The Brits were buying both bar iron and pig iron from the colonies, manufacturing it into finished goods and selling those back to the colonies.
39Mid-Atlantic EconomyNew York City and Philadelphia became important ports for trading.
40Mid-Atlantic Society Ethnic- Diverse- Ethnically and religiously diverseEthnic-large groups of people classed accordingto common racial, national, religious,linguistic, or cultural backgroundDiverse-made up of distinct characteristics,qualities, or elementsDiversity helped promote tolerance.
41Mid-Atlantic Society People from: Sweden England the Netherlands FranceGermany
42Religious Tolerance Mid-Atlantic Society Religious Groups Puritans QuakersAnglicansBaptistsCatholicsJewsReligious Tolerance
43Who were the Quakers? Quakers- Protestant branch in England The Quakers could not worship in England because they did not follow the Church of England.
44Many Quakers were sent to jail for not going to the Church of England. William Penn, the founder
45Quaker Beliefs Wouldn’t swear or take oaths No clergy Men and Women are equalPacifistsTreated Indians fairlyAgainst slavery
46Middle Colonies Government Proprietary colony-owned and controlled byone or more personsReligious Freedom and ToleranceFreedom of the PressStrong Courts
47New York Founder: Year: Reason for establishment: Founded by the Dutch West India Company and was known as “New Netherland.” It was renamed in 1664 when the English took control. (Peter Minuit)Area was great for shipbuilding and iron works.Also, a good place to grow grain, rice, indigo, and wheat and to raise cattle.Named for the “Duke of York.”Officially became a state on July 26, 1788.
49PennsylvaniaFounder: William PennYear:Reason for establishment:
50William Penn Member of the Quakers Founded Pennsylvania William Penn lived in England. He was a member of a religious group called the Quakers.
51Delaware Founder: Year: Reason for establishment: Originally settled by the Swedes, but taken over by the Dutch in 1655.Then England took control in Finally, in 1682, the land was granted to William Penn. (Peter Minuit)Great area for fishing and lumbering.Named for the Delaware tribe and an early governor of Virginia, “Lord de la Warr.”Officially became a state on December 7, 1787.Delaware-purchased by the Penns and ruled by PA. Separate assembly granted to DL in 1702.
52New Jersey Founder: Year: Reason for establishment: Originally settled by the Dutch, but in 1644 it was taken over by England.Great place for ironworking and lumbering.Named for the “Isle of Jersey in England.”Officially became a state on December 18, 1787.
53The Bigger IdeasGeography played a role in the success of the Middle Colonies.Fertile soil for harvestsMountains for iron-oreForests for shipbuildingNatural harbors were perfect sites for cities
54The Bigger Ideas Diversity helped promote tolerance. Religious toleranceCultural tolerance
55How did people from the Middle Colonies use their natural resources?
56How was farming in the Middle Colonies different from farming in New England? The soil of the Middle Colonies was better than the soil of New England.Also the climate was milder, and the growing season was longerThe Middle Colonies started to produce cash crops to sell.
58Name examples of cities that have a natural harbor? What geographic features in the Middle Colonies made good locations for cities?Natural harbors along the coastName examples of cities that have a natural harbor?New York City