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The New England Colonies

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Presentation on theme: "The New England Colonies"— Presentation transcript:

1 The New England Colonies
New Hampshire Massachusetts Rhode Island Connecticut

2 Geographical, Political, Economic, Religious, and Social Aspects
New England Colonies Geographical, Political, Economic, Religious, and Social Aspects

3 New England Colonies “Why is New England, called New England?”
NEW territories of England, the “mother country”

4 Where is New England? Located in the northeast region of the USA

5 New England Colonies, 1650 Which colony was founded first?

6 New England Geography Rocky Soil Natural Harbors Jagged Coastlines
Harsh winters Short growing season

7 Life in the New England colonies was not easy!
New England Geography Life in the New England colonies was not easy! subsistence farming- colonists produced just enough food for themselves. Farmers practiced subsistence farming.

8 New England Economy Shipbuilding Lumbering 2,500 trees = 1 ship
Farming in the New England colonies was a challenge. Due to the lack of good farming soil, fishermen were able to get enough fish to sell and make a living. oak trees made excellent ship hulls Hundred-foot-tall white pines were ideal for masts. 2,500 trees = 1 ship

9 New England Economy Whaling and Fishing Fur Trading
Whale oil was used to make commodities such as soap and candles. Fur Trading

10 Whale Oil Lamp Whale oil illuminated the homes and businesses of colonial America

11 New England Economy Three types of trade: Trade with other colonies
Direct exchange of goods with Europe Triangular Trade New England settlers engaged in three types of trade. First was the trade with other colonies. Second was the direct exchange of goods with Europe. The third type was the triangular trade.

12 men and women who would work for a specified
period of time, usually several years, before gaining their freedom.

13 Dairy cattle, sheep and pigs
courtesy of the Columbian Exchange

14 New England Economy Colonists made their own clothes and shoes.
In the late 1700's shoemakers began to set up shops in villages and passed on their trade through apprentices.

15 New England Government
Town meetings- the act of a group of individuals gathering together to make decisions Colonial Assemblies Mayflower Compact, 1620 F.O.C., 1636 The Puritan started this form of a representative government. opportunity for discussion of public problems New England Meeting house

16 New England Society White Protestant society Puritans
Pilgrims (separatists)

17 Massachusetts Recap Colony: Plymouth Founder: William Bradford
Year: 1620 Reason: Religious freedom for Separatists Plymouth Colony Seal

18 Separatists (Pilgrims) wanting to break free from the Anglican Church or the Church of England. Separatists (Pilgrims) leaving Holland, we read this description:  "Fugitives for Conscience Sake - Leaving the Flemish Coast for America."

19 Mayflower Compact, 1620 The first step towards self-government in America.

20 Embarkation of the Pilgrims
The prominence of women and children suggests the importance of the family in the community. Painting by Robert W. Weir (1844)

21 Massachusetts Bay Colony
”city upon a hill" Colony: Massachusetts Bay Founder: John Winthrop Year: 1630 Reason: Religious freedom for Puritans  In 1628, Puritans formed the Massachusetts Bay Company

22 What is a Puritan? They wanted to change the Church of England. They did not want to separate from the Church like the Pilgrims. The Puritans wanted to make the Church of England more "pure."

23 Puritan Values Puritans were demanding of their followers
Strong work ethic Determination in the face of challenges

24 Rhode Island, 1636 Founder: Roger Williams Founding Year: 1636
Reason for Founding: Religious freedom Some people in Massachusetts disliked Puritan leaders’ beliefs. Therefore, those people either moved out of Massachusetts by themselves or were banished.

25 “The Constitution State”
Connecticut, 1639 “The Constitution State” Thomas Hooker Most settlers were Puritans One of the most important migrations from the mother colony was led by the great Thomas Hooker to Hartford, Connecticut. Connecticut is considered the borderline from New England colonies and the Middle Colonies. A group of individuals led by Thomas Hooker left the Massachusetts Bay Colony due to dissatisfaction with harsh rules and settled in the Connecticut River Valley. In 1639, three settlements joined to form a unified government creating a document called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, the first written constitution in America. King Charles II officially united Connecticut as a single colony in 1662.

26 “Journeying through the Wilderness from Plymouth to Hartford, in 1636” - Frederic Edwin Church

27 Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
1639 The first written constitution in America. Focuses on 5 main ideas towards the people of Connecticut The first main point included that people would be able to choose they're leader in government. The second point expresses the idea of no taxes unless there are people to represent against and for these taxes in government. The third idea sets the limits of how many representatives can be in the government, which is based on the population. The fourth idea gives the right to vote for all people who take oaths to be faithful to Connecticut. The final idea is that any new towns that are made in the colony of Connecticut could be joined together to make one giant government.

28 Population of the New England Colonies

29 The Bigger Ideas Each settlement is for a specific belief.
There is a large variety of beliefs in New England colonies.

30 Checking for Understanding
What was the motivation, or reason, behind the development of the New England, colonies? Profit and Trade Religious Freedom To find a Northwest Passage None of the above Connecticut and Rhode Island B Religious Freedom

31 True or False Disagreements over religious beliefs led to the formation of a number of new colonies. True

32 True or False Roger Williams founded the colony of Connecticut False

33 True or False The Protestant work ethic was important in all New England colonies. True

34 True or False The economy of the American colonies depended on the geography of the region. True

35 The Middle Colonies Delaware New Jersey Pennsylvania New York
Also known as the Mid-Atlantic Colonies Delaware New Jersey Pennsylvania New York

36 Mid-Atlantic Geography
Rivers Fertile Soil Atlantic Coast Longer growing season

37 Mid-Atlantic Economy Industry Diversified- Iron Ore Colonial Nails
having a variety Industry Ironworks Shipbuilding Iron Ore Colonial Nails The mountains of the west provided iron ore for iron workers. The Brits were buying both bar iron and pig iron from the colonies, manufacturing it into finished goods and selling those back to the colonies.

38 Mid-Atlantic Economy Bread Basket Colonies Rye Wheat Oats Barley

39 Mid-Atlantic Economy New York City and Philadelphia became important ports for trading.

40 Mid-Atlantic Society Ethnic- Diverse-
Ethnically and religiously diverse Ethnic- large groups of people classed according to common racial, national, religious, linguistic, or cultural background Diverse- made up of distinct characteristics, qualities, or elements Diversity helped promote tolerance.

41 Mid-Atlantic Society People from: Sweden England the Netherlands
France Germany

42 Religious Tolerance Mid-Atlantic Society Religious Groups Puritans
Quakers Anglicans Baptists Catholics Jews Religious Tolerance

43 Who were the Quakers? Quakers- Protestant branch in England
The Quakers could not worship in England because they did not follow the Church of England.

44 Many Quakers were sent to jail for not going to the Church of England.
William Penn, the founder

45 Quaker Beliefs Wouldn’t swear or take oaths No clergy
Men and Women are equal Pacifists Treated Indians fairly Against slavery

46 Middle Colonies Government
Proprietary colony- owned and controlled by one or more persons Religious Freedom and Tolerance Freedom of the Press Strong Courts

47 New York Founder: Year: Reason for establishment:
Founded by the Dutch West India Company and was known as “New Netherland.” It was renamed in 1664 when the English took control. (Peter Minuit) Area was great for shipbuilding and iron works. Also, a good place to grow grain, rice, indigo, and wheat and to raise cattle. Named for the “Duke of York.” Officially became a state on July 26, 1788.


49 Pennsylvania Founder: William Penn Year: Reason for establishment:

50 William Penn Member of the Quakers Founded Pennsylvania
William Penn lived in England. He was a member of a religious group called the Quakers.

51 Delaware Founder: Year: Reason for establishment:
Originally settled by the Swedes, but taken over by the Dutch in 1655. Then England took control in Finally, in 1682, the land was granted to William Penn. (Peter Minuit) Great area for fishing and lumbering. Named for the Delaware tribe and an early governor of Virginia, “Lord de la Warr.” Officially became a state on December 7, 1787. Delaware-purchased by the Penns and ruled by PA. Separate assembly granted to DL in 1702.

52 New Jersey Founder: Year: Reason for establishment:
Originally settled by the Dutch, but in 1644 it was taken over by England. Great place for ironworking and lumbering. Named for the “Isle of Jersey in England.” Officially became a state on December 18, 1787.

53 The Bigger Ideas Geography played a role in the success of the Middle Colonies. Fertile soil for harvests Mountains for iron-ore Forests for shipbuilding Natural harbors were perfect sites for cities

54 The Bigger Ideas Diversity helped promote tolerance.
Religious tolerance Cultural tolerance

55 How did people from the Middle Colonies use their natural resources?

56 How was farming in the Middle Colonies different from farming in New England?
The soil of the Middle Colonies was better than the soil of New England. Also the climate was milder, and the growing season was longer The Middle Colonies started to produce cash crops to sell.

57 Who settled in the Middle Colonies?

58 Name examples of cities that have a natural harbor?
What geographic features in the Middle Colonies made good locations for cities? Natural harbors along the coast Name examples of cities that have a natural harbor? New York City

59 In what ways did Quakers promote tolerance?

60 The Southern Colonies Virginia Maryland North Carolina South Carolina

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