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APUSH The shift from Authoritarianism to Individualism in the American colonies.

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Presentation on theme: "APUSH The shift from Authoritarianism to Individualism in the American colonies."— Presentation transcript:

1 APUSH The shift from Authoritarianism to Individualism in the American colonies.

2 African American Proverb “At first we had the land the white man had the Bible. Now we have the Bible and they have the land” Respond with references to the Native American - White relations. Pick one  1662 Powhatan uprising  Roger Williams  1637 Pequot War  1675 King Phillips/Metacom War  1676 Bacon’s Rebellion  Iroquois nation “At first we had the land the white man had the Bible. Now we have the Bible and they have the land” Respond with references to the Native American - White relations. Pick one  1662 Powhatan uprising  Roger Williams  1637 Pequot War  1675 King Phillips/Metacom War  1676 Bacon’s Rebellion  Iroquois nation Make sure you have a clear, concise main idea. Make sure you have Specific Factual Information to support your claim

3 The shift from Authoritarianism to Individualism in the American colonies. Remember The Organizing Principal: Between 1607 and 1763, the British North American colonies developed experience in, and the expectation of self-government in the political, religious, economic, and social aspects of life.

4 Religion, Politics, Economics  Martin Luther 1517 Protestant Reformation  John Calvin - predestination - Calvinism  Henry VIII of England - Anglican Church of England  Martin Luther 1517 Protestant Reformation  John Calvin - predestination - Calvinism  Henry VIII of England - Anglican Church of England

5 Beer and the Mayflower  The Mayflower is headed for Virginia…but ends up putting ashore at Plymouth rock.  One Pilgrim’s diary explains why: “We could not take time for further search or consideration, our victuals being much spent, especially our beer.”  Once ashore, they promptly erected a brew- house…. They needed to make a beer run!  The Mayflower is headed for Virginia…but ends up putting ashore at Plymouth rock.  One Pilgrim’s diary explains why: “We could not take time for further search or consideration, our victuals being much spent, especially our beer.”  Once ashore, they promptly erected a brew- house…. They needed to make a beer run!

6 Puritans/Separatists -Plymouth 1621  Va. Company - Mayflower Compact (squatters submitting to will of majority)  Wm Bradford  1691 merge w/ Mass. Bay colony  Va. Company - Mayflower Compact (squatters submitting to will of majority)  Wm Bradford  1691 merge w/ Mass. Bay colony Keeps the rabble from rebelling

7 Covenant Theology “Covenant of Grace”:  between Puritan communities and God. “Social Covenant”:  Between members of Puritan communities with each other.  Required mutual watchfulness.  No toleration of deviance or disorder.  No privacy. “Covenant of Grace”:  between Puritan communities and God. “Social Covenant”:  Between members of Puritan communities with each other.  Required mutual watchfulness.  No toleration of deviance or disorder.  No privacy.

8 Puritans - Mass. Bay Colony 1629  Successful. John Winthrop - City on a Hill - holy society  Covenant w/ God - “freedmen” of congregation - Congregational Church. Larger voting pop. of males than in England. Still not a “democracy”  “visible saints” only eligible for church membership and they = freedmen  Purpose of gov’t was to enforce God’s laws to all ppl  Everyone paid taxes to gov’t supported church  BIBLE COMMONWEALTH  John Cotton - defending duty of gov’t to enforce religious rules  Power of preachers not absolute - hired/fired by congregation  Can’t hold political office (historical fear) separation of church and state  Protestant work ethic  Successful. John Winthrop - City on a Hill - holy society  Covenant w/ God - “freedmen” of congregation - Congregational Church. Larger voting pop. of males than in England. Still not a “democracy”  “visible saints” only eligible for church membership and they = freedmen  Purpose of gov’t was to enforce God’s laws to all ppl  Everyone paid taxes to gov’t supported church  BIBLE COMMONWEALTH  John Cotton - defending duty of gov’t to enforce religious rules  Power of preachers not absolute - hired/fired by congregation  Can’t hold political office (historical fear) separation of church and state  Protestant work ethic We shall be as a city on a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us.

9 Colonizing New England

10 Puritan “Rebels” & Rhode Island  Rhode Island - sewer. No religious compulsory oaths. No compulsory attendance at church, no taxes to support state church - manhood suffrage. - traditional home of the other wise minded. Royal Charter Threatens patriararchal society If holy life no sure sign of salvation then truly saved shouldn’t even bother to obey law of God and man - antinomianism - Religious toleration.. civil gov’t has no authority to regulate religious behavior.

11 Connecticut 1630  Dutch and English  Puritans led by Rev. Thomas Hooker  1639 Fundamental Orders  Dutch and English  Puritans led by Rev. Thomas Hooker  1639 Fundamental Orders

12 Puritans vs. Indians  1621 Plymouth befriended by Wampanoag Indians - Squanto & Massasoit  1637 Pequot War English vs. Pequot tribe - Connecticut River  Puritans criticized in Europe - conversion pushed  1675 Metacom aka King Philip War - alliance among diff. tribes. Metacom captured - head displayed. He did slow the western march of settlers but natives no longer posed a threat  1621 Plymouth befriended by Wampanoag Indians - Squanto & Massasoit  1637 Pequot War English vs. Pequot tribe - Connecticut River  Puritans criticized in Europe - conversion pushed  1675 Metacom aka King Philip War - alliance among diff. tribes. Metacom captured - head displayed. He did slow the western march of settlers but natives no longer posed a threat

13 Southern New England Indian Tribes, 1636 A Pequot Village Destroyed, 1637 The Pequot Wars:

14

15 Population Comparisons: New England v. the Chesapeake New England Colonies, 1650

16 Unity?  1643 New England Confederation.  England in civil war  Purpose to band against natives, French, Dutch; also intercolonial runaways  Each member (regardless of size) 2 votes (populous Mass. didn’t like this)  Puritan club  Mass. Bay  Plymouth  Connecticut New Haven  Connecticut valley settlements  No Rhode Island  No Maine settlements  1643 New England Confederation.  England in civil war  Purpose to band against natives, French, Dutch; also intercolonial runaways  Each member (regardless of size) 2 votes (populous Mass. didn’t like this)  Puritan club  Mass. Bay  Plymouth  Connecticut New Haven  Connecticut valley settlements  No Rhode Island  No Maine settlements

17 Unity Gone?  1660 English crown restored under Charles II, James II, Wm and Mary  Colonial defiance  1662 Charles II gave rival Connecticut sea-to- sea charter  1663 Rhode Island sanctioned  1684 Mass Bay Colony’s charter revoked  1660 English crown restored under Charles II, James II, Wm and Mary  Colonial defiance  1662 Charles II gave rival Connecticut sea-to- sea charter  1663 Rhode Island sanctioned  1684 Mass Bay Colony’s charter revoked

18 First American Revolution?  1686 Dominion of New England  Not homegrown NE Confederation - this is royal  All NE plus NY as well as E and W Jersey  England did it to bolster defense ag. Indians  England did it to make efficient administration of Navigation Laws  Colonial rivalries; stitch colonies to motherland; no trade with non-English countries  Smuggling becomes honorable  Autocratic Sir Edmund Andros  Open affiliation with despised Church of England  1686 Dominion of New England  Not homegrown NE Confederation - this is royal  All NE plus NY as well as E and W Jersey  England did it to bolster defense ag. Indians  England did it to make efficient administration of Navigation Laws  Colonial rivalries; stitch colonies to motherland; no trade with non-English countries  Smuggling becomes honorable  Autocratic Sir Edmund Andros  Open affiliation with despised Church of England

19 Dominion of New England  Autocratic Sir Edmund Andros  Curbed town meetings  Restricted court, press, schools  Revoked land titles  No popular assembly - tax w/out representation  Surpress smuggling  Glorious Revolution in England  Wm and Mary  Dominion of New England collapses  Autocratic Sir Edmund Andros  Curbed town meetings  Restricted court, press, schools  Revoked land titles  No popular assembly - tax w/out representation  Surpress smuggling  Glorious Revolution in England  Wm and Mary  Dominion of New England collapses

20 New Mass.?  Glorious Revolution didn’t mean much besides Andros leaving  1691 new royal charter again - new permanent royal gov’t  Loss ancient charter  Now voting not just church members but all male property owners  Glorious Revolution didn’t mean much besides Andros leaving  1691 new royal charter again - new permanent royal gov’t  Loss ancient charter  Now voting not just church members but all male property owners

21 Glorious Revolution  Wm and Mary meant “salutory neglect”  But  More English officials remain due to Charles II)  They were often corrupt and loyal to England  Not locally elected  Wm and Mary meant “salutory neglect”  But  More English officials remain due to Charles II)  They were often corrupt and loyal to England  Not locally elected

22 Settling the Middle [or “Restoration”] Colonies Founded in the 1660s by:  Friends of British King Charles II.  Land speculators.  Middle class farmers & craftsmen. Founded in the 1660s by:  Friends of British King Charles II.  Land speculators.  Middle class farmers & craftsmen.

23 More Like Later America Than Other Regions! Economic diversity. Large cities à more cosmopolitan culture. Some slavery [6%-12% of the population]. Ethnic and religious diversity. Religious toleration. “Bread Colonies.”

24 New Netherland - New York  Dutch East India company in East Asia  Henry Hudson  Dutch West India company in New Netherland  New Amsterdam was company town  Don’t care for religious, political tolerance  Strongly aristocratic  Dutch East India company in East Asia  Henry Hudson  Dutch West India company in New Netherland  New Amsterdam was company town  Don’t care for religious, political tolerance  Strongly aristocratic

25 New Netherland and Neighbors  Hostile natives  Hostile New England esp Connecticut  New Sweden on Delaware River trespassed on New Netherland land  1655 Dutch wiped out New Sweden led by Peter Stuyvesant  1664 Stuyvesant surrender to Duke of York  New Amsterdam becomes New York  Hostile natives  Hostile New England esp Connecticut  New Sweden on Delaware River trespassed on New Netherland land  1655 Dutch wiped out New Sweden led by Peter Stuyvesant  1664 Stuyvesant surrender to Duke of York  New Amsterdam becomes New York

26 Pennsylvania  Dissenters - Quakers (Religious Society of Friends) - dissent against religious and civil authority  Use “thees and thous” rather than titles  All children of God  Abhorred strife  Dissenters - Quakers (Religious Society of Friends) - dissent against religious and civil authority  Use “thees and thous” rather than titles  All children of God  Abhorred strife The “Holy Experiment”

27 Pennsylvania  1681 William Penn granted immense territory by King  Best advertised colony  Liberal land policy  Traded and treated Indians fairly.  Liberal regime  Representative assembly elected by landowners  No tax supported state church drained coffers  Freedom of worship was guaranteed to all (except Jews/Catholics)  1681 William Penn granted immense territory by King  Best advertised colony  Liberal land policy  Traded and treated Indians fairly.  Liberal regime  Representative assembly elected by landowners  No tax supported state church drained coffers  Freedom of worship was guaranteed to all (except Jews/Catholics)

28 Pennsylvania  No provision for military defense  No restrictions on immigrations  Did have “blue laws”  Rich ethnic mix  Fast growing colony  LEGACY: new commonwealth. Based on civil and religious liberty. Based on freedom fo conscience and worship  No provision for military defense  No restrictions on immigrations  Did have “blue laws”  Rich ethnic mix  Fast growing colony  LEGACY: new commonwealth. Based on civil and religious liberty. Based on freedom fo conscience and worship

29 Ethnic Groups

30 Crisis Iroquois Lands & European Trade Centers King Philip’s War, 1675 – 1676)

31 From Authoritarianism to Individualism  Great Awakening  Enlightenment Powerpoint show  Great Awakening  Enlightenment Powerpoint show

32 From Authoritarianism to Individualism  Puritan Farmer from Massachusetts in 1640  Baptist seaman in Rhode Island in 1740  Scholar of the Enlightenment at he College of William and Mary in Virginia in Compose paragraphs that characterize the thinking of your character on each of the points listed below:  His concept of God  The individual’s reason for existence  The individual’s relationship to God  The need for education  The individual’s role in government  The individual’s responsibility for improving society  Puritan Farmer from Massachusetts in 1640  Baptist seaman in Rhode Island in 1740  Scholar of the Enlightenment at he College of William and Mary in Virginia in Compose paragraphs that characterize the thinking of your character on each of the points listed below:  His concept of God  The individual’s reason for existence  The individual’s relationship to God  The need for education  The individual’s role in government  The individual’s responsibility for improving society

33 Sequential Worksheet

34 Homework  Carefully write out the question on the SFI worksheet provided.  Complete the SFI for Friday “To what extent did the 3 regions of colonial America develop separate societies in the years prior to the American Revolution?”  Carefully write out the question on the SFI worksheet provided.  Complete the SFI for Friday “To what extent did the 3 regions of colonial America develop separate societies in the years prior to the American Revolution?”


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