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Presentation on theme: "1970-1990."— Presentation transcript:


2 Imperial Presidency Authors of Founding Fathers tied to balance power in govt Since 1930s, Presidential power increased greatly Unlike Congress, President can act quickly and decisively Radio and TV allowed presidents to more easily appeal to the people Started to listen to personal advisors more than Cabinet members Congress had to approve Growth of Presidential power sometimes called Imperial Presidency Expansion of Presidential power reached peak under Richard Nixon

3 Nixon Presidency 1969-1974 Imperial Presidency
Nixon did not consult Congress on bombing of Cambodia and Laos or the mining of N. Vietnam’s harbor Used public funds to remodel private homes Used CIA and FBI to collect information on political enemies Congress voted for programs he didn’t like, Nixon refused to spend the funds

4 Nixon Presidency 1969-1974 Domestic Policy
A Republican, Nixon wanted a more conservative direction Believed federal social programs inefficient and better dealt w/ at local level Eliminated several Great Society programs and gave funds to state and local govts to decide how to use

5 Nixon Presidency 1969-1974 Domestic Policy Sough an end to the draft
Create series of strong anti-crime laws Advanced a broad environmental program Promised to appoint Conservative Supreme Court Justices

6 Nixon Presidency 1969-1974 Domestic Policy First Amendment Rights
Tinker v. Des Moines (1969) Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972) SC struck down law that required Amish children to go to school past 8th grade Violated freedom of religion Inflation Rising prices, new trade deficit, rising unemployment Nixon cut spending on social programs, imposed first peacetime wage and price controls All proved unsuccessful

7 Nixon Presidency 1969-1974 Domestic Policy
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) EPA set air and water pollution standards for cities, engages in monitoring and enforcement activities Construction projects must pass through detailed environmental impact reviews Private citizens can file lawsuits against polluters under EPA

8 Nixon Presidency 1969-1974 Domestic Policy
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Endangered Species Act (1973) Required Fish and Wildlife Service to list species of plants and animals that are threatened w/ extinction and take further steps to protect them

9 Nixon Presidency 1969-1974 Domestic Policy Equal Rights Amendment
1923 – Alice Paul (founder of National Woman’s Party) proposed “Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the US or any state on account of sex” 50 years introduced to Congress but failed to pass

10 Nixon Presidency 1969-1974 Domestic Policy Equal Rights Amendment
1972 – amendment finally approved by Congress 7 year ratification deadline by the States Deadline extended to but still 3 states shot Reintroduced to Congress every session since

11 Nixon Presidency 1969-1974 Domestic Policy Equal Rights Amendment
Critic of Women’s Liberation Movement Phyllis Schlafly Book attacked liberal Republicans and was used by Goldwater supporters in election Campaigned against ERA Believed it would reduce rights of wives an harm family life Claimed it would deprive women the “right” to be “supported and protected” by men

12 Nixon Presidency 1969-1974 Foreign Policy
Believed President’s most important role was directing foreign policy Assisted by foreign policy expert Henry Kissinger

13 Nixon Presidency 1969-1974 Foreign Policy
Reopening relations with China, 1972 Since 1949, US refused to establish diplomatic relations with Communist govt US had vetoed Communist China entering UN Nixon strong anti- Communist, but restored diplomatic relations with Communist China 1972 – first President to visit mainland China Nixon’s greatest foreign policy achievement

14 Nixon Presidency 1969-1974 Foreign Policy
Détente with Soviet Union, 1972 Pursued detent – relaxing of tensions Nixon introduced to relation with USSR Wanted to stop buildup of nuclear weapons Nixon became first President to visit Moscow Signed SALT with Soviet leaders, limited development of defensive missile systems Agreed to sell American grain to USSR to help with food shortages 1973 – US and USSR pressured Israel and Arab states to conclude in cease-fire

15 Nixon Presidency 1969-1974 Foreign Policy
Vice President Ford takes office In re-election, Nixon promised a return to “law and order” Soon, learned Nixon’s govt was corrupt 1973 – Nixon’s VP Spiro Agnew resigned when discovered he took bribes as Governor of Maryland Under 25th amendment, Nixon appointed Gerald Ford as new VP

16 Watergate Crisis 1972 – group of former CIA agents working for Nixon re-election Caught in Democratic Party headquarters at Watergate complex in Washington, D.C. President Nixon tried to cover up investigation saying it involved national security 2 investigative reporters first to report possible links between White House and break-in Senate created committee to investigate Attorney General appointed Special Prosecutor to examine possible wrong doing

17 Watergate Crisis Watergate Tapes
At Senate hearings, Presidential aide stated Nixon participated in the cover-up Revealed Nixon had secretly recorded all of own Whitehouse conversations Senate Committed asked to listen, Nixon refused citing executive privilege Congress had no authority to question members of the executive branch about communications advising the President without Presidential approval

18 Watergate Crisis Watergate Tapes
United States v. Nixon (1974) – Nixon further contended if obeyed the district court to turn over tapes, it would lead to judicial control of the Presidency SC ruled Nixon must turn over tapes No one is above the law

19 Watergate Crisis When tapes made public, revealed Nixon had lied about not being in the cover-up. House of Representatives moved to impeach Nixon Fearing removal from office, Nixon became first President to resign

20 Ford Presidency 1974-1977 Gerald Ford became President
Not elected, been appointed by Nixon First act of Ford’s was the pardon Nixon of all crimes Not very popular…

21 Ford Presidency 1974-1977 Ford’s main woes were economic
Economics believed inflation accompanied economic growth and full employment, not recession Americans suffered from stagflation – high unemployment with inflation

22 Ford Presidency Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) formed in 1960 OPEC mostly Arab countries 1973 countries used oil as political weapon by imposing oil embargo on US and W. Europe for siding with Israel in 1973 war Overnight, oil prices shot up Even with war over, OPEC push oil prices higher to enrich own economies Higher cost impacted US economy – everything from heating to food to electricity to gasoline

23 Ford Presidency 1974-1977 Helsinki Accords
Ford continued détente with USSR 1975 – US, Canada, USSR, and most of Europe signed international agreement recognizing post WWII borders and promising respect for human rights

24 Carter Presidency Many people blamed Republicans for Watergate Jimmy Carter, former Governor of Georgia, was nominated for Democrats He was elected as an “outsider” who promised to “clean up” Washington

25 Carter Presidency 1977-1981 Carter’s main problem was economy
Inflation more than 10%, interest rates rose 20%, and unemployment high

26 Carter Domestic Policy
To deal with economy: Energy crisis Created Department of Energy Increased oil in nation’s “Strategic Petroleum Reserve” Wanted special tax on large cars and power to ration gas, but Congress said no

27 Carter Domestic Policy
Stagflation Cut federal spending but inflation stayed high until 2 years later Environment Provided funds to clean up toxic dump sites Following accident at Three Mile Island nuclear reactor in 1979, created Nuclear Regulatory Commission to develop stricter standards for peaceful use of nuclear energy

28 Carter Domestic Policy
Diversity Appointed women and minority to govt posts Sponsored bill requiring public schools to provide instructions to students in their native language while trying to learn English

29 Carter Domestic Policy
Carter pushed Community Reinvestment Act (1977) Required banks to stop “redlining” Banks have to make credit available to poor communities

30 Carter Foreign Policy Wanted US to set a moral example to other nations Condemned apartheid in S. Africa, pressured USSR to allow Jews to emigrate, and cut dictatorships that violated human rights

31 Carter Foreign Policy Panama Canal Treaty, 1977
Gave control of Canal Zone, except for canal itself, to Panama. Agreed to turn over canal by the end of the century

32 Carter Foreign Policy Camp David Accords, 1977
Egypt and Israel had fought each other in series of wars since 1948 1977 – Carter invites Anwar Sadat, President of Egypt, and Menachem Begin, Prime Minster of Israel, to Camp David retreat in Maryland Israel agreed to return Sinai Peninsula to Egypt Egypt offered peace treaty and establishment of normal diplomatic relations w/ Israel Sadat and Begin awarded Nobel Peace Prize Many Arab leaders denounced agreement Sadat assassinated by Muslim Fundamentalists

33 Carter Foreign Policy US-Soviet Relations
Initially continued détente w/ USSR USSR invaded Afghanistan 1979 Brought temporary end to détente Halted grain sales to Soviets, boycotted Olympics in Moscow, proposed ratification of new arms agreement SALT II

34 Carter Foreign Policy Iranian Revolution and Hostage Crisis
Shah of Iran an ally of US but also dictator 1978 – widespread demonstrations broke out Shah fled and Ayatollah Khomeini and other religious leaders took over Fundamentalist Shiite Muslims hostile to western influence

35 Carter Foreign Policy Iranian Revolution and Hostage Crisis
Oct 1979, Shah entered US for medical treatment 2 weeks later angry Iranian students seized staff of US embassy in Tehran, Iran Hostages blindfolded, tied up, accused of working for CIA Embassy staff held hostage for more than a year

36 Carter Foreign Policy Iranian Revolution and Hostage Crisis
US imposed economic sanctions on Iran Other countries supported US US’s image suffered because of inability to free hostages Any attempt to free them failed Negotiations finally led to release on the day Carter left office

37 New Conservatism 1980s saw resurgence of conservatism
Reagan and Bush decided to cut down the size of the federal govt, reducing taxes and federal regulations on business while increasing private competition Favored strong military establishments

38 Roots of New Conservatism
Similar ideas as Margaret Thatcher of England Combat unions Reduce taxes Cut govt spending Reduce govt regulations Reagan received support from number of leading American conservative groups; NRA (National Rifle Association) Became political after Gun Control Act of 1968 NRA endorsed Ronald Reagan, first time in US history Other conservative groups: Moral Majority Mainly Fundamentalist Christians Jerry Falwell and others were socially conservative and anti- Communist Opposed Equal Rights Amendment Helped get Reagan elected Dissolved in 1989, “our mission is accomplished” Heritage Foundation “think-tank” in Washington, DC Seeks to promote principles of free- enterprise, limited govt, individual freedoms, values, and strong national defense Non-profit lobbying group that attempts to influence legislation

39 Reagan Presidency Popular Hollywood actor after WWII, Reagan president of actors’ union before politics Originally a Democrat, grew more conservative because fed govt too powerful and intrusive Governor of California, took tough stand against student protests of 1960s Lost race Republican nomination in 1968 and 1976 but won in 1980 Texas Congressman George H.W. Bush running mate Swept into office over Jimmy Carter

40 Domestic Policy Confident, optimistic outlook
Felt individuals and businesses better able to solve economic problems than govt Reversed trend of increased federal control started in Progressive Era

41 Domestic Policy Reaganomics Stagflation still problem
Solve problem with “supply- side economics” Reduce taxes on businesses and regulations, easier to produce more goods Larger supply of goods would drive down prices and stop inflation More employment 1983 – economy starting to come out of recession Encouraged greater business activity New oil supplies from Alaska and North Sea stabilized oil prices

42 Reaganomics Tax cuts and domestic spending Increased military spending
Cut taxes on businesses and wealthy Groups would invest into productivity and employment, resulting in benefits “trickling down” to other groups Reduced spending in welfare to finance Increased military spending Financed through borrowing Increased spending stimulated entire economy, creating demand for many goods and services Deregulation Eliminated many fed regulations making easier for new companies to compete Ordered many regulatory agencies to cut back rule making to allow businesses greater freedom Relaxed enforcement of anti- trust laws and allowed more business mergers Other factors World oil prices stabilized New employment in compute programming and health care Took steps against unions to allow more flexible work practices Fired air traffic controllers on strike

43 Domestic Policy Federal deficit and national debt
Federal deficit – amount of money fed govt spends beyond what it collects in taxes Reagan promised govt spending limited to taxes raised Military spending caused deficit to increase and national debt more than doubled

44 Domestic Policy Trade Imbalance Immigration Policy
Americans bought more goods and services abroad than sold Imbalance led to loss of millions of jobs, closing of steel mills and auto plants, and drop in disposable income of many Americans Immigration Policy Deal with problem of illegal immigrants, Mazzoli- Simpson Act (1986) Legalized illegal aliens who lived continuously in US since 1981

45 Domestic Policy Sandra Day O’Connor
1981 – Regan nominated her as first women on US Supreme Court Born in El, Paso, Texas, studied in California before moving to Arizona Conservative who preferred “judicial restraint” Emerged in 1990s as swing vote between conservative and liberal votes on Court

46 Reagan Foreign Policy Wanted to rebuild American confidence after Vietnam, Watergate, and Iran Hostage Crisis US world’s principle defender of freedom and democracy

47 Foreign Policy Reagan Doctrine
1983 – Reagan sent US Marines to Caribbean island of Grenada after Communists took over to protect Americans on island and prevent Cuba from exporting Communism Showed Reagan willing to use force against Communism 1985 – introduced Reagan Doctrine US not simply contain Communism Attempt to “roll-back” Communism by aiding “freedom fighters” in Afghanistan, Angola, Nicaragua, and Cambodia

48 Foreign Policy Peace Through Strength
Best way to prevent war was to think US had means and will to stop aggression Sharply increased military spending Proposed research into anti-ballistic defense system, the Strategic Defense Initiative (also called Star Wars) Disturbed Soviet leaders who feared own expense of developing a similar weapon system

49 Foreign Policy Threat of Terrorism
1982 – Israeli force invaded Lebanon setting off civil war between Christians and Palestinian refugees Lebanon requests multinational force of US Marines and French paratroopers to restore order 1983 – suicide bomber attacked American and French barracks in Beirut, capital of Lebanon 241 US Marines and 58 French paratroopers killed President Reagan withdrew American forces from Lebanon

50 Foreign Policy Threat of Terrorism
Reagan would not negotiate with terrorists Bombed two cities in Libya when though leader Muammar Gaddafi supported terrorist activities that caused explosion in Berlin Libya admitted was responsible for blowing up Pan Am flight over Scotland in 1988

51 Foreign Policy Iran-Contra Affair
Secret foreign policy operation by officials in Reagan White House 1986 – Reagan Administration acted against policy of negotiating with terrorists by selling arms to Iran as part of exchange deal for release of American hostages in Lebanon Profits diverted to support anti-Communist “Contra” rebels fighting in Nicaragua Done even after Congress prohibited any US aid to Contras

52 Foreign Policy Iran-Contra Affair
Shocked nation since Reagan had denounced Iran as supporter of global terrorism Investigation cleared President He failed to monitor actions of his top officials Some officials convicted of lying to Congress and sent to prison Greatly tarnished America’s credibility with the world Led many citizens to seriously question trust in govt officials Reagan continued to enjoy strong support among most of American public

53 Triumph of Democracy Philippines and Latin American, dictatorships and military govts suddenly replaced by democratically-elected govts End of Reagan Presidency saw beginnings of end of Cold War Reagan called Soviet Union “Evil Empire” Mikhail Gorbachev became leader of Soviet Communist Party in 1985 Failure of Soviet economic and political system forced Gorbachev to introduce reforms in Soviet Union

54 Triumph of Democracy Gorbachev withdrew troops from Afghanistan
Allowed peaceful changes to take place in E. Europe Reagan and Gorbachev held series of conferences Signed agreement to dismantle thousands of nuclear warheads

55 Triumph of Democracy Historians conflict over Reagan’s role over winding down Cold War Critics says accidental beneficiary of Gorbachev’s reforms Supporters believed he played essential roll in process Reagan’s defense of freedom and democracy, “roll-back” policy, and threat of Star Wars

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