Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Controls and Data Entry Devices Chap 11. Controls and Data Entry Devices ► Functions of Controls   ► Factors in Control Design   ► Design of Specific.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Controls and Data Entry Devices Chap 11. Controls and Data Entry Devices ► Functions of Controls   ► Factors in Control Design   ► Design of Specific."— Presentation transcript:

1 Controls and Data Entry Devices Chap 11

2 Controls and Data Entry Devices ► Functions of Controls   ► Factors in Control Design   ► Design of Specific Hand-Operated Controls   ► Foot Controls ► Data Entry Devices   ► Special Control Devices  

3  Functions of Controls ► Type of Information  Discrete  Continuous: Traditional, Cursor positioning ► Force Required  Electric: small force  Hydraulic: small force  Direct mechanical linkage systems: large force Tab 11-1Tab 11-1 Fig 11-1 Fig 11-1 Tab 11-1Fig 11-1 - End

4  Factors in Control Design ► Identification of Controls   ► Control-Response Ratio   ► Resistance in Controls   ► Deadspace   ► Backlash  

5  Factors in Control Design ► Identification of Controls  Shape Coding of Controls  Texture Coding of Controls  Size Coding of Controls  Location Coding of Controls  Operational Method of Coding Controls  Color Coding of Controls  Label Coding of Controls  Discussion of Coding Method 

6  Factors in Control Design  Identification of Controls 1/5 ► Shape Coding of Controls  Jenkins (1947): two sets of 8 knob shapes Fig 6-14 Fig 6-14 Fig 6-14  U. S. Air Force: 15 knob designs Fig 11-2 Fig 11-2 Fig 11-2 − Class A: Multiple rotation − Class B: Fractional rotation − Class C: Detent positioning  Lift-truck Fig 11-3 Fig 11-3 Fig 11-3  Aircraft cockpits: shape + meaning Fig 11-4 Fig 11-4 Fig 11-4 

7  Factors in Control Design  Identification of Controls 2/5 ► Texture Coding of Controls  Bradley (1967) Fig 11-5 Fig 11-5 Fig 11-5 Smooth, Fluted, Knurled ► Size Coding of Controls  Diameter, Thickness Fig 11-6 Fig 11-6 Fig 11-6 ► Location Coding of Controls  Far enough apart  Vertical > Horizontal Fig 11-7 Fig 11-7 Fig 11-7 

8  Factors in Control Design  Identification of Controls 3/5 ► Operational Method of Coding Controls  Moussa-Hamouda & Mourant (1981) − 方向盤+雨刷開關 Fig 11-8 Fig 11-8 Fig 11-8  此類儘可能避免  Compatibility, Standardization ** 

9  Factors in Control Design  Identification of Controls 4/5 ► Color Coding of Controls  缺點 − 須看,照明不足時不適用 − Dirty  Combine other coding ► Label Coding of Controls  應在 Control 上方  不應只靠 label (例:核能電廠) 

10  Factors in Control Design  Identification of Controls 5/5 ► Discussion of Coding Method  Multidimensional Coding  Maintenance  Speed, Accuracy, Comfort  - End

11  Factors in Control Design  Control-Response Ratio ► C/R Ratios and Control Operation  Gross-adjustment movement: travel time  Fine-adjustment movement: adjust time ► Optimum C/R Ratios  Low C/R ratio: high gain (sensitivity) High C/R ratio: low gain Fig 11-9 Fig 11-9 Fig 11-9  Optimum Fig Fig Fig  Joystick: adjust time only  Not just ratio, Physical width of target also  - End

12  Factors in Control Design  Resistance in Controls  Displacement: Free-position (isotonic) control  Force: Pure force (isometric) control ► Types of Resistance  Elastic Resistance  Static & Coulomb Friction  Viscous Damping  Inertia ► Combining Resistances Tab 11-2 Tab 11-2 Tab 11-2  - End

13  Factors in Control Design  Deadspace ( 無效間隙 ) ► Definition Amount of control movement around the null position that results in no movement of the device being controlled ► Effect  Deadspace   performance   Sensitivity of the control system   deterioration   Detrimental effect : compensatory tracking > pursuit  - End

14  Factors in Control Design  Backlash ( 背隙 ) ► Definition Deadspace at any control position ► Effect  Sensitivity of the control system   deterioration   - End

15  Design of Specific Hand-Operated Controls ► Cranks and Handwheels   ► Knobs for Producing Torque   ► Stick-Type Controls   ► Multifunction Hand Controls  

16  Design of Specific Hand-Operated Controls  Cranks and Handwheels  Katchmer (1957) Fig Fig Fig − 3 sizes (radius) × 5 levels of resistance (torque) − Total work: medium torque − Time to quit: low torque  Which aspect to maximize?  - End

17  Design of Specific Hand-Operated Controls  Knobs for Producing Torque  Kohl (1983) Fig Fig Fig − Shape: 5 − Greased hand vs. Nonslip  Bullinger & Muntzinger (1984) Fig Fig Fig − Unsoiled vs. Soiled − Torque: “1”, but discomfort − Best: “4”  Need to consider “multiple criteria”  - End

18  Design of Specific Hand-Operated Controls  Stick-Type Controls ► Length of Joystick: unimportant ► Types of Joystick  Mehr (1973) Fig Fig Fig − Displacement Joystick (zero-order control) − Spring-Return Joystick (1st-order) − Isometric Thumb Operated Joystick (1st-order) − Isometric Finger Operated Joystick (1st-order)  - End

19  Design of Specific Hand-Operated Controls  Multifunction Hand Controls  F-18 Aircraft (e.g.) Fig Fig Fig  Principles − Not have to observe the control − Hand remain in contact with the primary controls − Auxiliary controls: without loss of physical contact with the primary controls  - End

20  Data Entry Devices ► Chord vs. Sequential Keyboards ► Keyboard Arrangement   ► Keyboard Feel ► Membrane Keypads   ► Split and Tilt Keyboards Fig Fig Fig ► Handwritten and Gestural Data Entry ► Cursor Positioning Devices

21  Data Entry Devices  Keyboard Arrangement ► Alphabetic Keyboards  The QWERTY Keyboard Fig Fig Fig  The Simplified Keyboard (Dvorak) ► Numeric Keyboards  Calculator, Telephone Tab 11-3 Tab 11-3 Tab 11-3  TEL > Calculator >> Switch-hitters  Standardize?  - End

22  Data Entry Devices  Membrane Keypads  Feedback Auditory tone > Snap domes >Embossing  - End

23  Special Control Devices ► Teleoperators Fig Fig Fig ► Speech-Activated Control  Applications for Speech Recognition − Data entry + other activities (e.g.) move around to collect data − Handicapped  Types of Speech Recognition Systems − Speaker-dependent vs. Speaker-independent − Isolated-word, Connected-word, Continuous speech ► Eye-Activated Control - End


Download ppt "Controls and Data Entry Devices Chap 11. Controls and Data Entry Devices ► Functions of Controls   ► Factors in Control Design   ► Design of Specific."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google