Presentation on theme: "Judy Willis, M.D., M.Ed Washington StateWashington State LASER Strategic Planning Institute Richland, Washington."— Presentation transcript:
Judy Willis, M.D., M.Ed Washington StateWashington State LASER Strategic Planning Institute Richland, Washington June 24, 2009 Research Based Teaching Strategies with R.A.D. and Inquiry-Centered Science Instruction With sincere appreciation to Sonia Siegel Vexler, Washington State LASER Program Director/ Pacific Science Center Peggy Harris Willcuts, Senior Science Education Specialist Ginny Vacchiery, Administrative Specialist
Goals of this presentation Using Advances in Neuroscience Research and Inquiry-Centered Curriculum to Help Students: Maximize and maintain attention, focus, and motivation Increase memory storage & retrieval Construct transferable knowledge from information Mentally manipulate information to build thinking skills for learning and life
You Will Leave Here Knowing More about Neuro and Cognitive Science Research Implications of -How Students Learn -Implications for Effective Science Programs and Practices for now and into the 21st Century
21 st Century Skill Sets Needed Critical analysis and creative problem solving Technology experience and awareness of potential Innovative thinking Collaboration and communications skills Prediction Skills (extended impact of science:, financial, social, environmental, and ethical)
Creativity and Imagination with Strong Grounding in Foundational Knowledge
- The brain’s intake filters and conductors - Release of neurotransmitters. R.A.D.
RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM (RAS) All information enters the brain through the senses. All sensory input must pass through the RAS filter to enter the higher brain RAS directs attention RAS determine where input goes: reactive or reflective brain
If survival needs are met and stress is down the RAS conducts information into the Reflective brain Survival First - React with Fight/Flight/Freeze
RAS Interventions stability anD familiarity THEN stimulate RAS ATTENTION WITH curiosity, SURPRISE, change, HIGH PERSONAL INTEREST!
Create a non-threatening climate with low stress, then captivate the RAS with brain-research based strategies such as a
Suspenseful Pause To build curiosity and captivate RAS attention
Strategies that influence RAS information intake and flow
Discrepant Events or IDEAS Stimulate curiosity Students want explanations when something doesn’t appear as expected
“The nature of the world, truth, is learned as the result of uncertain or problematic situations.” John Dewey
Curiosity for RAS Cognitive Dissonance Things that challenge students’ assumptions or prior beliefs.
Discrepant Event Would you rather be a heart donor or recipient?
Would you rather be a brain donor or recipient?
Novelty and Curiosity for RAS Attention.
HERE ME NOW
For students to pay attention the information needs to be personally meaningful.
How could you use the following picture to ADVERTISE your challenge unit or lesson?
Stimulate prior knowledge interests personal goals so the RAS CARES!!
alerts to information that connects with personally valued GOALS RAS
Attentive Focus Students are most focused when they know they will have to do something with the information. (PET scan and reading study)
Inquiry-Centered Learning and RAS Uncertainty and Curiosity engage the attention of the RAS Less one-way lecture reduces the behavior problems of passive whole class lessons
AMYGDALA the A in R. A.D. AMYGDALA the A in R. A.D.
The Emotional Filter and Conductor Stressed state: input directed to reactive brain = fight/flight freeze Relaxed, alert state input goes to Reflective brain AMYGDALA
Students’ emotional states (happiness or stress) determines pathway through amygdala Reflective or Reactive brain
Images of threatening faces or friendly faces viewed before memory task
Causes of Stress in School fear of being wrong embarrassed to read aloud test-taking anxiety physical and language differences cliques and bullying frustration with difficult material boredom from lack of stimulation
WHAT DO YOU THINK IS THE GREATEST FEAR REPORTED BY STUDENTS?
MAKING A MISTAKE IN WHOLE CLASS SETTING
“ The person who does not make any mistakes does not usually make anything." William Connor Magee
MOST ENGAGING ACTIVITIES 83% Learning with peers in discussion, debate and group projects 70% Active participantATION, such as presentations and experiments 67% Incorporating art, computer, movement, drama activities
PARTICIPANT ACTIVITY Think of an amygdala strategy (such as a destressing intervention) that could be applied to the challenging lesson you or your group selected. Select a “volunteer” to share with us.
Moving Playing Enjoying music Being read to Feeling self-appreciation
Acting kindly Interacting well with friends Expressing gratitude Experiencing humor Optimism Choice
Humor increases dopamine in four ways. See if you can find four ways it works.
CHOICE Two groups of students were given a battery of tests to take. Experimental group: option to select which tests to take in what order. That group reported less anxiety and scores were higher. STOTLAND E, BLUMENTHAL A. THE REDUCTION OF ANXIETY AS A RESULT OF THE EXPECTATION OF MAKING A CHOICE. Canadian Journal of Psychology.
CHOICE = Ownership on the part of the learner What brings more joy (dopamine)—taking traditional science lecture or inquiry?
Spell It Out To get the body moving, students spell out key words with different parts of their bodies. YOUR TURN Spell out “dopamine” in the air using your elbows or your ear. This extremely entertaining to watch - dopamine effect!
Dopamine-Reward System & Anticipatory Pleasure Anticipation-reward network: Looking forward to something good. Watch for future developments about the nucleus accumbens (reward center)
Dopamine and Inquiry -Intrinsic reward (dopamine-pleasure) of finding a solution - Achieving a long-term, challenging goal as the result of effort. - Collaborating with classmate - Movement
Syn-naps Brain breaks are needed after about ten minutes of intense concentration Amygdala has a chance to “cool down” Neurotransmitters are replenished
A Ball-toss to review with movement and positive peer- interactions Topic: Something you want to remember about dopamine Scaffolding
PARTICIPANT ACTIVITIES Add dopamine boosting strategy to your challenging lesson so you have a complete R.A.D. plan. Groups will share with us all - just as you can back at school with your Community of Learners. When finished, please follow the instructions for the postcard to yourself
What’s neuro-logical inquiry-centered learning and memory?
Working memory (short-term memory) The mind looks for patterns and related prior memories.
Working memory (short-term memory) Unless something is done with new working memory, it is lost in less than a minute
THEORY Perceptual distortions are neural patterns (templates) that evolved to overestimate vertical distances... to increase survival-avoid dangerous routes.
Patterns allow our brains to make decisions based on prior experiences and learned knowledge. Patterning and Prediction
Piaget’s “Schema” are mental maps or categories of knowledge that grow through pattern association.
The brain recognizes patterns or reacts to novelty When sensory input fits an existing pattern, memory builds as categories of information are expanded or revised.
Students learn by connecting new, related information to their stored patterns of knowledge.
WHEN PATTERNING IS SUCCESSFUL TO A PREVIOUSLY STORED MEMORY, THE HIPPOCAMPUS ENCODES THE NEW SENSORY INPUT INTO RELATIONAL MEMORY
Knowledge grows by adding new connections to existing neural networks
Mental Manipulation Strengthens Neural Pathways (more myelin, dendrites, and synapses) Memories are more durable and stored information is more efficiently retrieved. Practice Makes Permanent
Repeated exposure strengthens neural networks of patterns Neuroplasticity: Patterns (neural templates) increase in size, number, accuracy Greater accuracy of recognizing new input and predicting successful response
Theory of Patterning-Prediction- Intelligence Intelligence is the superior use of prior knowledge to predict the future Better Pattern Recognition Skills and Quantity of Stored Categories (prior knowledge) More Accurate Predicting (answers/ solutions hypotheses)= Increased Intelligence
ACTIVATE PRIOR KNOWLEDGE TO BUILD MEMORY BRIDGES KWL Graphic Organizers Prediction Personal Experience Real World Connections Cross-Curricular
PREDICTION ACTIVITIES IN CLASS STIMULATE INTEREST (RAS) IN LEARNING THE ANSWER PREVIEW ESTIMATION PRETEST SOLUTION PREDICTION HYPOTHESIS
MENTAL MANIPULATION in the PREFRONTAL CORTEX to turn RELATIONAL MEMORIES into LONG-TERM MEMORIES
The person who does the work (thinks) LEARNS Mental Manipulation Turns Working into Long-Term Memory Literally changes the brain
Mental manipulation is an active personal use of new information
These skill sets and experiences are neuro-logical outcomes of effective science instruction using INQUIRY
The Reason for Reason
Benefit of In-Depth Study 8000 students in introductory biology, chemistry, or physics in four-year colleges Those who spent one month or more studying one major topic in- depth in high school earned higher grades in college science than their peers who studied more topics in the same period of time. Schwartz et al. Depth versus breadth: How content coverage in high school science courses relates to later success in college science coursework. Science Education, 2008
Communicate high expectations while insuring that students have the appropriate tools to reach these goals. The tools and scaffolding are differentiated, but the goals remain high. THE BARRIERS ARE LOWERED, NOT THE BAR!
Inquiry is based on the construction of knowledge- using most pattern-consistent form of learning.
Analogies are simple patterns that construct relational memories of new facts.
FAMILIAR PATTERNS ARE TO THE BRAIN AS FAMILIAR SCENTS ARE TO A DOG
When learning is constructed in a context, such as an inquiry the brain perceives and generates patterns successfully in the process of experiential learning..
Inquiry-centered learning builds the executive functions associated with the prefrontal cortex that including: judgment prioritizing analyzing information decision making goal planning organizing
Students need to develop cognitive skills of thinking, learning, and reasoning because only then will they be able to use the knowledge they acquire beyond its original context. TRANSFER IS SUCCESSFUL USE OF MEMORY THAT HAS BECOME KNOWLEDGE
Inquiry-centered learning engages students as they make higher-level prefrontal cortex connections and stimulate executive processing through: Discovering relationships Making predictions and supporting their ideas Making judgments using prior knowledge to evaluate new information Evaluating information source accuracy Scientific communication with open-ended, student- centered discussions and questioning.
Mental Manipulation Strengthens Neural Pathways (more myelin, dendrites, and synapses) Memories are more durable and stored information is more efficiently retrieved. Practice Makes Permanent Neuroplasticity
In neurosurgery, I changed people’s brains with a scalpel. When you teach successfully, the sensory input you provide changes your students’ brains through neuroplasticity. Through inquiry, students perform neurosurgery on their own brains. When they construct knowledge, they change their neural networks and construct long-term memories.
What Builds Memory? 1.Teach others 2.Visualize 3.Positive Emotion 4.Strength supported learning 5.Discovery 6.Figure out a puzzle 7.Talk about the experience
“Gaining knowledge is the process of making determinate the indeterminate experiences...the scientific method.” John Dewey
THE RAD TEACHING OF INQUIRY HELPS STUDENTS: Build focus Increase goal-directed experience (marshmallows) Improve frustration tolerance Gain confidence in abilities to achieve challenges Practice executive functions: planning, prioritizing, time management Build study skills such as time management, self-monitoring and self assessment RAS - Amygdala- Dopamine Work Together for Success
Does Inquiry Decrease Content Knowledge? In 2004, Houston Independent School District spent $4 million for science labs on all of its 189 elementary school campuses, and fifth-graders beat the statewide average in recent standardized testing
Metacognition “We don’t learn from experience, we learn by reflecting on it.” John Dewey
RELATIONAL MEMORIES: Inquiry based learning helps students develop concepts and big ideas, that connect and give value to foundational facts. NEUROPLASTICITY: (Practice makes PERMANENT ). Facts and procedures do not need to be rememorized over and over because they are patterned into concepts in neural circuits that become stronger with repeated use. TRANSFER: When students apply their new learning in engaging, real-world oriented problems solving and discoveries, the LINKED foundational facts and concepts become TRANSFERABLE knowledge
The Best Inquiry Programs HIGH INTEREST, ACHIEVABLE CHALLENGE: Developmental, personalized, student-centered, hands-on Structured with logic Incorporate foundational knowledge into valued concepts Guide teacher organization Provide opportunities for students to interact with materials, content, and each other to make connections, find relationships, analyze, and apply their own learning
JUDY’S WEBSITE FOR ACCESS TO ARTICLES I’VE WRITTEN, BOOK CHAPTERS, AND TO MY FREE download from ascd.org is study guides for Ignite and my 2 other ASCD books, Brain Research Based Strategies for the Inclusion Class (about differentiation) and T eaching the Brain to Read (good for middle school and some high school reading comprehension and vocabulary strategies)
IF SOMETHING IS MOVING IT IS TIME FOR A SYN- NAPS