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© Boardworks Ltd 2001 How did William secure control of England?

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1 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 How did William secure control of England?

2 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 William’s early reign saw constant rebellions, especially in the North. The worst years of crisis being in 1068-9. It all started when William tried to raise taxes there (this area was the most independent). William crushed the rebellion in 1068 and left troops stationed in two new castles built at York. In 1069 there was further trouble as the rebels enlisted the support of the Danes. This time William dealt with them with immense cruelty, and afterwards the rebellions gradually died out.

3 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 “...Prince Edgar and the rebels came to York and the people of the city joined them. William came from the South and surprised them, ravaging York and killing hundreds. Then the Danes came with 240 ships into the Humber and joined the English leaders. With huge and joyful army they stormed York, killed hundreds of Normans, burned the castle…” from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle “William came to York only to learn that the Danes had fled. The King ordered his men to repair the castles. He set out to search the forests…stopping at nothing to hunt down the rebels…He cut down many, destroyed the lairs of others and burned homes. Nowhere else had William shown such cruelty…He ordered that all crops, herds and food be burned, so that the whole region north of the Humber had nothing to live on” by Orderic Vitalis 1130 What do these sources tell you about how William felt about the English by this point?

4 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 King Barons & Bishops Knights Peasants Domesday Book Castle Building The Feudal System Maintaining Control

5 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 The Feudal System In order to maintain control and keep the loyalty of those who had fought for him, William gave large estates to many of the men who had helped him conquer England. In return, these Barons had to send William Knights for his army for 40 days a year. They would also help William control England by collecting taxes and controlling the local people. These Barons usually granted some of their land to the Knights in return for their services. Under the Knights were the Peasants, they worked the land and had to pay taxes. Imagine you are an English Earl, how would you feel about this? Barons King Church English Earls

6 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 The Feudal System The King owned all the land, but split it up amongst his followers. Some he kept Some for the Church The Barons kept some, and shared out the rest with... Each Knight had one or more manors and divided land among... …the serfs and the freemen, each of whom had between 2 - 12 hectares

7 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 Power and Wealth Think back the the Feudal System and match the text to the people below. The King gave me some land so I must be loyal to him. I must be ready to fight and train Knights for him. I have given some of my land to my Knights. I own all the land but I have given some of it to the Barons. The Knight gave me some land so I have to work on his land. I must also pay him taxes. Explain why land gave people power and wealth I am a Baron. I am the King I am a Villein.

8 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 The Domesday Survey By 1085, William was short of money and so decided to make a listing of property and goods in England to ensure that everyone was taxed fairly. Large numbers of men were sent out throughout the land. Counties were measured, and the amount of livestock was recorded. The operation was efficiently undertaken and nearly the whole country was surveyed. The information collected was taken to Winchester where it was put together to form the Domesday Book. No later King or Queen has achieved anything like it. The survey was done by people walking round the country and recording answers by hand. How might it be done differently today?

9 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 How much ploughed land is there? What is the manor called? Is there a priest and a church? How many smallholders are there? How many cows, goats, oxen, horses, pigs, beehives? How much meadow? How had it changed since the time of King Edward (1066) ? What did the Domesday Survey Ask?

10 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 Extract from the Domesday Book Entry for Marks Tey, Essex Geoffrey holds Marks Tey in demesne [lordship], which Wulfric held in the time of King Edward as a manor, for 1 1/2 hides and 20 acres. Then 11 bordars [unfree peasants], now 15. Always 4 slaves and 2 ploughs in demesne. Then among the men 4 ploughs, now 2 1/2. Then Geoffrey acquired 250 sheep, 8 cattle, 6 calves, 2 cobs, 28 pigs, 2 beehives. Now [there are] 67 sheep, 4 cattle, 6 calves, 2 cobs and 21 pigs. In the same place 20 sokemen [free in person but with ties to the land] held 1 1/2 hides and 20 acres. Now 30 sokemen hold that land... How had things changed in the village since the Normans took over? Do you think life was better or worse? Why?

11 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 William’s final method of control was to build castles around the country, especially in areas where his hold was weakest. Initially these were made of wood, but in time they were strengthened using stone. One of William’s first stone castles - The White Tower at the Tower of London

12 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 1. Which region of the country was the most difficult for William to control? A) the north B) the south C) the east D) the west

13 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 2. How did William secure the loyalty of the Barons? A) he gave them money B) he gave them land C) he gave them knights D) he gave them peasants

14 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 3. Why did William have the Domesday book compiled (put together)? A) to make sure he could raise taxes properly B) to compile information of possible enemies C) to make sure enough food and goods were being produced for the country D) to reduce the power of the Church

15 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 4. Which link is not correct? A) William destroyed food and crops…. resistance from rebels was broken B) the Domesday book was a record of life across the country….the king needed money for his battles C) William built castles of stone….in some areas William’s hold over the people was weak D) the Barons had knights to fight for them….William sent an army to defeat the rebels

16 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 5. What was the purpose of the feudal system? A) knowing what the King had in his kingdom B) controlling power in the country C) farming the land D) giving everyone a fair share in the kingdom

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